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UPSC Sansad TV: Diplomatic Dispatch- India & Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence

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GPAI:

  • It is an international and multi-stakeholder initiative to guide the responsible development and use of AI, grounded in human rights, inclusion, diversity, innovation, and economic growth.
  • GPAI will be supported by a Secretariat, to be hosted by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris, as well as by two Centers of Expertise- one each in Montreal and Paris.
  • By chairing GPAI , India will actively participate in the global development of Artificial Intelligence, leveraging upon its experience around use of digital technologies for inclusive growth.

Significant advances and applications of AI:

  • It has the potential to overcome the physical limitations of capital and labour and open up new sources of value and growth.
    • It has the potential to drive growth by enabling
    • Intelligent automationability to automate complex physical world tasks.
    • Innovation diffusionpropelling innovations through the economy.
  • Heavy Industries & Space: Through AI an entire manufacturing process can be made totally automated, controlled & maintained by computer system.
    • Example: car manufacturing machine tool production, computer chip production. Etc.
    • They carry out dangerous tasks like handling hazardous radioactive materials.
  • Finance: Banks use intelligent software application to screen & analyse financial data.
    • Software that can predict trends in stock market have been created which have been known to beat humans in predictive power.
  • Aviation: Air lines use expert system in planes to monitor atmospheric condition & system status.
  • Role in social development and inclusive growth: Access to quality health facilities, addressing location barriers, providing real-time advisory to farmers and help in increasing productivity, building smart and efficient cities etc.
  • Examples of AI use in India: A Statement of Intent has been signed between NITI Aayog and IBM to develop Precision Agriculture using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Aspirational Districts.
    • National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI) launched Pai which is an AI based chatbot, to create awareness around NPCI’s products like FASTag, RuPay, UPI, AePS on a real time basis.

Lack of R&D on AI in India:

  • Both the government and companies are largely focused on AI applications, not research and development (R&D).
  • And even in applications, much of the work is at the mid and lower ends of the spectrum.
  • India is not in the top 10 nations when it comes to AI research.
  • According to experts, currently, the race is really between the US, China and the EU, with the US in a slender lead. India has not even entered the race yet.
  • We are in danger of being on the wrong side of the techno-colonialism, just as we did in the last three general purpose technology (GPT) revolutions that divided the countries around the world into the haves and the have-nots.
  • Techno-colonialism describes the situation where the country or countries that control a technology exploit other, poorer countries that depend on access to that technology.
  • In the US, the close collaboration between academia and corporations has ensured enough money for research which would pay off decades into the future.
  • The US government’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency also got into AI research early.
  • China started much later but has invested big money to play catch-up.
  • In India, neither the government nor the industry has focused much on research compared to US and China.
  • In India we need to formulate a long-term plan just as we do for other infrastructure plans.
  • It will mean squeezing expenditure elsewhere to find money for R&D and also giving incentives to attract research talent and getting the biggest corporations involved.
  • For this the government must take a long-term view.
  • Unless we start now, we will forever remain a dependent rather than a leader in the technology stakes.

Way Forward:

  • It remains our collective responsibility to ensure trust in how AI is used. Algorithm transparency is key to establishing this trust.
  • We must protect the world against weaponisation of AI by non-state actors.
  • Riding on data and AI, India can achieve the bold vision of becoming a US$5 trillion economy by 2025.
  • To achieve this, AI needs to be extensively utilized in all sectorsranging from agriculture, MSMEs, financial services, healthcare to energy and logistics to create a vibrant AI economy.