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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 24 January 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. Subhas Chandra Bose’s legacy in India’s struggle for independence, rooted in anti-imperialism and socialism, remains relevant and influential in shaping contemporary discussions on nationalism, economic justice, secularism, and global solidarity. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express.Insights on India

Why the question:

January 23 is the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, observed as ‘Parakram Divas’ (Day of Valour) in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about steps taken by Bose towards National freedom and his present-day legacy.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief intro of Subhas Chandra Bose and his way of politics.

Body:

First, in detail, mention the various approach taken by Bose towards Indian freedom after resigning from Indian Civil Service.

Next, mention the various measures towards national reconstruction and his socialistic tendencies to achieve the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about his legacy in the present day.

Introduction

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist, whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India. Bose viewed freedom not only in terms of political self-rule but also freedom from socio-economic inequalities, casteism, intolerance etc. Bose held steadfast to a vision of large scale industrialisation and a politics devoid of irrationality and religiosity. There is an element of intrigue that trails Subhas Chandra Bose’s persona, his life, disappearance and death. He was a dynamic personality of India’s freedom movement who inspired hundreds of Indians to join the struggle.

January 23 is the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, observed as ‘Parakram Divas’ (Day of Valour) in the country.

Body

Contribution to Indian National Movement:

  • Indian National Army:
    • Also known as ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ in 1943 was revived and was initially formed in 1942 by Rash Behari Bose.
    • The assault by the INA was an important factor that eventually contributed to the British leaving India.
  • The idea of Economic Planning:
    • He espoused concrete economic planning and showed the way himself.
  • Women Empowerment:
    • Bose believed that women were equals of men, and should therefore be likewise prepared to fight and sacrifice for India’s liberation.
    • Throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s he had campaigned in India to bring women more fully into the freedom struggle of the nation.
    • A women’s regiment of Azad Hind Faujwas formed, which was under the command of Captain Lakshmi. It was called the Rani Jhansi regiment.
  • Strong Leadership: 
    • The Azad Hind Fauj became the symbol of unity and heroism to the people of India. Bose motivated the troops with his fiery speeches.
    • His famous quote is, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!
  • Mass mobilisation:
    • Subhash Chandra Bose played an important role in mass mobilisation and rousing feeling of independence among them.
  • Realising that manpower was India’s greatest resource, he proclaimed that all Indians should actively participate in the fight for freedom.
  • With the formation of provincial government of Azad Hind, he appealed directly for total mobilisation to the mass of Indians.

 

  • Youth leadership:
  • Bose was also deeply committed to the youth movement. Convinced that young people were by nature idealistic, restless and open to new ideas, Bose worked with and put efforts to the new Youth Leagues that were formed in a number of provinces during the 1920’s.
  • He motivated youth to join the cause of Indian freedom struggle.
  • Bose believed that India’s liberation would be achieved only through the efforts and sacrifices of the conscious younger generation.

His legacy as message for today’s India

  • He was non-communal and deeply secular. He appointed many Muslims to senior positions in the Indian National Army (INA).
  • A much needed value for a peaceful India.
  • Despite serious political differences with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, he accorded them a lot of respect.
  • He was the first who referred to Gandhi as Father of the Nation, in a radio speech, and also named two of the four INA regiments by the name of Gandhi and Nehru.
  • A leaf can be drawn from this and inculcated with politicians in contemporary India.
  • He was attracted by the ideology of Marxism and his ambition for post-independent Indian society was strongly egalitarian.
  • He also believed in gender equalitywhich is needed to empower women – about 50% of our population.
  • He was attracted to military discipline, a much needed value for today’s youth of India.

Conclusion

Subhash Chandra Bose was a prominent figure in India’s freedom struggle. He was not only an efficient leader but played an important role in the freedom struggle. He is remembered for his active and aggressive role in Indian freedom struggle. His style of leadership was not only attractive but was a motivating factor for many to take up the cause for Indian freedom struggle.

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2. The Green Revolution had significant positive impacts on Indian agriculture, but the adoption of High Yielding Varieties faced several challenges. Examine.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the pros and cons of green revolution in India. Also, to write about the constraints on spread of HYV and disparities created by it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of introduction of HYV in India in the face of acute food crisis leading to the green revolution.

Body:

In the first part, write about the pros and cons of the green revolution. The HYV technology increased agricultural output manifold, increase in yield of crops, fast adoption, modern equipment, self-sufficiency etc. Cons like disparities, ecological impact, use of chemical fertiliser etc.

Next part, write about the constraints that limited the spread of HYV – irrigation, lack of farmer’s knowledge, unsatisfactory land tenure system etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the overall impact of the green revolution in India.

Introduction

The green revolution in India  in 1960’s and 70’s refers to a period when Indian Agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as the use of HYV seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides and fertilizers. The Economic Survey 2015-16 claimed Indian agriculture to be “a victim of its own success—especially the green revolution”, by becoming cereal-centric, regionally biased and input-intensive (land, water and fertilizers).

Norman-e-Borlaug is considered as the father of Green Revolution in World while M.S. Swaminathan is considered as the father of Green Revolution in India.

Body

Pros of Green Revolution

  • Increase in Agricultural Production and productivity: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize and bajra has substantially increased.
  • Less Dependence on Imports: After the green revolution, India was finally on its way to self-sufficiency. There was now enough production for the population and to build a stock in case of emergencies. In fact, India was able to start exporting its agricultural produce.
  • A Benefit to the Farmers: The Green Revolution has increased the income of farmers and landless labourers. It enabled them to shift to commercial farming from only sustenance farming.
  • Dispersal of Rice and Wheat cultivation to non-traditional areas: Green Revolution spread the Rice cultivation to the semi-arid areas of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, and the wheat cultivation has spread to the areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and some parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat and West Bengal.

Cons of Green Revolution

  • Focus only on Food Grains: Although all food-grains including wheat, rice, jowar, bajra and maize have gained from the revolution, other crops such as coarse cereals, pulses and oilseeds were left out of the ambit of the revolution.
    • Major commercial crops like cotton, jute, tea and sugarcane were also left almost untouched by the Green Revolution.
    • This ultimately led to the dangerous trend of Monocropping.
    • Also, neglect of oilseeds has now led to extreme dependency on nations like Malaysia and Indonesia.
  • Limited Coverage of HYVP: High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was restricted to only five crops: Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Bajra and Maize.
    • Therefore, non-food grains were excluded from the ambit of the new strategy.
  • Led to Regional Disparities: It led to growing disparities in economic development at inter and intra-regional levels. Only 40 percent of the total cropped area benefitted while the rest was left untouched by it.
    • The most benefitted areas are Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh in the north and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the south.
    • It has hardly touched the Eastern region, including Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa and arid and semi-arid areas of Western and Southern India.
    • Only those areas which were already better placed from an agricultural point of view benefitted from Green revolution leading to further aggravated regional disparities.
  • Rampant usage of Synthetic fertilizers and pesticides: The Green Revolution resulted in a large-scale use of pesticides and synthetic nitrogen fertilisers for improved irrigation projects and crop varieties.
    • However, little or no efforts were made to educate the farmers, mostly illiterate, about the high risk associated with the intensive use of pesticides.
    • This caused more harm than good to crops and also becomes a cause for environment and soil pollution.
  • Water Consumption: The crops introduced during the green revolution were water-intensive crops.
    • Most of these crops being cereals, required almost 50% of dietary water footprint.
    • Canal systems were introduced, and irrigation pumps also sucked out the groundwater to supply the water-intensive crops, such as sugarcane and rice, thus depleting the groundwater levels.
    • For instance, Punjab is a major wheat- and rice-cultivating area, and hence it is one of the highest water depleted regions in India.
  • Impacts on Soil and Crop Production: Repeated crop cycle in order to ensure increased crop production depleted the soil’s nutrients.
    • To meet the needs of new kinds of seeds, farmers increased fertilizer usage.
    • The pH level of the soil increased due to the usage of these alkaline chemicals.
    • Toxic chemicals in the soil destroyed beneficial pathogens, which further led to the decline in the yield.
  • Unemployment: Except in Punjab, and to some extent in Haryana, farm mechanization under the Green Revolution created widespread unemployment among agricultural labourers in the rural areas.
    • The worst affected were the poor and the landless labourers.
  • Health Hazards: The large-scale use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides such as Phosphamidon, Methomyl, Phorate, Triazophos and Monocrotophos resulted in resulted in a number of critical health illnesses including cancer, renal failure, stillborn babies and birth defects.

 

Conclusion

The Green Revolution, which undeniably ended the country’s “ship-to-mouth” existence and transformed it into an exporter of rice and wheat. In spite of the negative impact, the success of green revolution cannot be dwarfed. The spill over effect of green revolution led to the growth of farm mechanization industries to provide tractors, Fertilizer and pesticide, Agro-based industries etc.

However, it has also led to lopsided growth in agriculture, causing regional and other disparities. Now coupled with frequent droughtsIndian agriculture is under distress. Thus, there is a need for a second green revolution.  The second green revolution must be an Evergreen Revolution, which incorporates technology in harmony with ecology.

Value addition

Ushering second green revolution through sustainable methods

  • Micro-irrigation System: It enables optimal synergies of 3 components of Green Revolution-improved seed, water and fertilizer.
  • Organic Farming: Can restore degraded land and improve health benefits.
  • Precision Farming: It is concerned with using fewer resources and reducing the production cost, by analysing the variation in various aspects of field and environment like- weather, Soil, vegetation, water etc.
  • Green Agriculture: A system of agriculture based upon, integrated pest management, integrated nutrient management and it does not eliminate the use of minimum quantities of fertilizer and chemical pesticides.

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

3. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 was driven by deep-seated political, economic, and cultural factors. Examine. 250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes for Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 and to explain reasons for India’s victory.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of the conflict between east and west Pakistan.

Body:

In the first part, write about the reasons for the outbreak of the war. Ethnic clashes, Economic disparities, Political asymmetry, Language issue and the immediate cause etc.

Next, write about the reasons for India’s involved in the war – opportunity of the century, countering Pakistan, Bengali movement for autonomy and shared heritage, refugee crisis, security threats etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

On December 16, 1971, at precisely 1655 hours IST, Lt Gen AAK Niazi, Commander of the Pakistan Eastern Command, signed the Instrument of Surrender in the presence of Lt Gen JS Aurora, GOC-in-C of the Indian Eastern Command, in Dacca (now Dhaka).

Bangladesh War of Independence was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in East Pakistan. Bangladesh’s independence has been considered India’s most successful neighbourhood intervention.

Body

The causes that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971

  • Economic Prowess of East Pakistan:
    • Most of the foreign exchange was earned by exports from East Pakistan which was poorly defended when the big war of 1965 with India was fought.
  • Disparity of Governance:
    • Punjab and the Punjabi-dominated army ruled Pakistan soon after the birth of Pakistan.
    • The services were also dominated by Punjabis through quotas but East Pakistan dominated in literacy and high education.
    • Top seats in the civil services exams always went to East Pakistan.
  • Military Rule:
    • General Ayub Khan took over Pakistan in 1958, the East Pakistan’s needs and demands were completely suppressed.
    • Until 1962, martial law continued and Ayub purged a number of politicians and civil servants from the government and replaced them with army officers.
  • Distance factor:
    • Pakistan couldn’t tackle the strange phenomenon of being divided by a thousand miles of India.
  • Six-Point Program discarded:
    • The six point program of Mujib-Ur-Rahman in 1966 for economic and political autonomy of East Pakistan was discarded.
  • Imposition of Urdu:
    • Urdu was made the “National Language” of Pakistan. The requests from East Pakistan and option of Arabic were turned down.
  • Genocides and Refugee Problems:
    • There was a systematic ethnic slaughter which qualified as genocide. There was clear ethnic or religious targeting of the Hindu minority among the Bengalis.
    • By July-August 1971, 90% of the refugees were Hindus concentrated in the border districts of West Bengal with large Muslim populations.
    • The Response of West Pakistan to 1970 cyclone which ravaged East Pakistan was minimal and lacked compassion.
  • Immediate Cause:
    • The Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national elections in 1971 and demanded autonomy for East Pakistan.
    • This victory also gave it the right to form a government, but Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Chairman of the Pakistan People’s Party refused to let the Sheikh become the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This initiated the war.

India was compelled to intervene in the Bangladesh War of 1971 due to various strategic, domestic, economic and humanitarian factors.

  • Strategic:
    • Having a hostile West Pakistan and East Pakistan on both sides of its borders was a strategic concern for India.
    • This was compounded by the strain in Sino-Indian relations which culminated in the war of 1962.
    • Unprovoked military aggression by Pakistan on the North-West India in 1972 needed to be responded in a stringent manner.
    • Therefore, the intervention in 1971 was necessary to safeguard the long term strategic interests.
  • Domestic:
    • The constant influx of migrants from East Pakistan was creating various problems in the Border States.
    • The resources were limited and there was constant struggle between locals and refugees over the use of these resources.
    • Besides there were various other ethnic and social problems due to this inflow of migrants.
  • Economic:
    • The country was spending huge resources to absorb these refugees.
    • Being a closed economy, India was not in a position to continue spending resources for long and hence a long term solution to the problem was needed.
    • Beside, having a hostile East Pakistan was hindering the development of north-eastern part of the country due to limited connectivity.
  • Humanitarian:
    • Lastly the atrocities committed on the people of East Pakistan forced India to intervene in the conflict on humanitarian ground to prevent a large scale crisis.

 

Factors that led to India’s victory over Pakistan

  • Timing of war
    • India chose to fight against Pakistan in the winter months when the Himalayan passes were snowbound thus cutting China’s military support to Pakistan.
  • Decisive Leadership
    • Indira Gandhi had been a hawkish leader known for her firm decisions.
    • Her stand didn’t collapse even under US pressure by 7th Fleet Naval mobilization threat.
  • Astute Diplomacy
    • The then Prime minister Indira Gandhi sought international opinion to the cause of Bangladesh and made aware of India’s unbearable burden of refugees.
    • She build a consensus to force a UN resolution condemning the Pakistani atrocities in Bangladesh.
  • Military assistance
    • India not only gave sanctuary to the Bangladeshi government-in-exile but also trained and equipped the Mukti Bahini.
    • Large-scale usage of Indian Air Force compared to 1962 War against China.
    • Success of operations conducted by navy on western fronts by attacking Karachi and blockading of eastern front by naval ships.
  • Mutual cooperation
    • Mutual cooperation between Indian armies and Bangladeshi local population in the East Pakistan making it difficult for Pakistani armies to survive there.
  • Friendship treaty
    • To secure itself against a possible U.S.-China intervention in case events led to war, India signed on August 9 a 20-year Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation.

Conclusion

India played the great role in emergence of independent Bangladesh and was the first country to recognise Bangladesh as separate state. India’s humanitarian intervention in Bangladesh has shaped South Asia, made it a responsible power in the region. India’s links with Bangladesh are civilisational, cultural, social and economic. The shared colonial legacy, history and socio-cultural bonds demand that the political leadership of the two countries inject momentum into India-Bangladesh relations.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4. By addressing gender disparities in political representation, societies can tap into the full potential of their human capital, leading to more robust and inclusive economic growth. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Despite Indian women’s better balanced share of the political franchise, various institutional and structural challenges stand in their way to the electoral battlefield.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the gender disparities in political representation and ways to overcome it.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly giving context.

Body:

First, write about the need for enhancing political representation in the country – promoting gender-sensitive policies, and serving as a source of inspiration.

Next, write about the impediments for the above.

Next, write about the ways to overcome gender disparities in political representation.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Despite Indian women’s better balanced share of the political franchise, various institutional and structural challenges stand in their way to the electoral battlefield. Despite Indian women’s better balanced share of the political franchise, various institutional and structural challenges stand in their way to the electoral battlefield.

India was ranked 149 in terms of representation of women in executive government and Parliament as per UN Women in Politics 2019 report. India needs feminization of politics in a huge way to increase women representatives. It would include the involvement of women in the decision-making process, power-sharing, running political parties, holding political offices, and policymaking at all levels of governance of the state.

Body

Need for more representation of women

  • Women legislators in India raise economic performance in their constituencies by about 1.8 percentage points per year more than male legislators.
  • When average growth is 7%, this implies that the growth premium associated with female legislators is about 25%.
  • Lower Criminalization of Politics: Male legislators are about three times as likely as female legislators to have criminal charges pending against them when they stand for election. This explains the growth difference mentioned above.
  • Policy Making – Better representation of women’s and children’s concerns in policymaking. Eg: Panchayat Raj institutions serve as a good example in this front.
  • Lower Corruption: The rate at which women accumulate assets while in office is 10 percentage points lower, per year than among men. These findings line up with experimental evidence that women are more just, risk-averse and less likely to engage in criminal and other risky behaviour than men.
  • Economic growth: It was found that male and female politicians are equally likely to negotiate federal projects for road building in their constituencies. However, women are more likely to oversee completion of these projects.
    • Eg: The share of incomplete road projects is 22 percentage points lower in female-led constituencies.
  • From a feminist viewpoint politics needs to follow a road that moves women out of the traditional social and political marginalization.
  • Despite so many favorable points for women, women make up 14% of the Lok Sabha and 11% of the Rajya Sabha.

Reasons for low participation of women in political system

  • Prejudice: Ironically it exists among both men and women – against genuine equality. It is believed that male legislators have the gumption to fulfill election manifesto more than women.
  • About half the world’s population feel men make better political leaders as per UNDP Gender Social Norms Index.
  • Another major factor is familial support to pursue political career for women. In India, it is most often those women who have a political background that enter into electoral arena.
  • Role of Money power in politics makes it harder for women to enter the political forum.
  • 24% of parliamentary seats worldwide are held by women, and there are only 10 female heads of government out of a possible 193. This shows the dearth of women representation in politics.
  • The unhealthy political environment: For instance In this recent MeToo movement, a journalist Priya Ramani accused Union Minister of state of external affairs, MJ Akbar of sexual harassment.
  • On the reserved seats, at the local level, political leaders take positions in the name of their wife, and after winning elections, actual power is used by their male counterparts instead of women. (Concept of sarpanch pati raj/pati panchayat phenomenon)

Way forward

  • There is another route of reservation within parties while giving tickets, which is equally effective for women’s political representation.
  • This is a welcome step in the direction of women’s political empowerment: The patterns of ticket distribution in the recently held Assembly election do not indicate the same commitment for women’s political empowerment as was shown by the leaders of various political parties in Parliament.
  • Elections in the states: No political party has reached even the 15% mark in giving tickets to women candidates — far less than the mandated 33%.
  • Political parties are more interested in viewing women as voters than encouraging and empowering them as legislators.
  • The initiative of enacting the women reservation Act, 2023 is a commendable move by the parliamentarians of the day.
    • Due to its linkage with the new delimitation which will be done after 2026, the law looks good only on paper.
  • In spite of not having any law, regional parties such as the TMC have fielded candidates successfully and won electoral battles.

Conclusion

SDG goal 5 has a target – ‘’ Ensure women’s full and active participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in political, economic, and public life’’. It needs to be achieved with the collective efforts of the international community (SDG goal 17- Partnership for the goals). There is no one-size-fits-all solution to ensure gender equality in politics. But there is plenty that can and should be done to ensure that women’s voices are heard.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

5. The Border Security Force (BSF) is one of the primary border guarding forces in India, and plays a crucial role in preventing trans-border crimes, with a specific focus on unauthorized entry into or exit from Indian territory. Analyse.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Punjab has filed a suit against the Union government under Article 131 of the Constitution, challenging the decision to increase the operational jurisdiction of the BSF from 15 km to 50 km.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the efficacy of BSF in dealing with illegal migration and cross-border crimes.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the objectives of BSF.

Body:

First, give a profile of BSF deployment across India’s borders and their responsibilities.

Next, write about the successes and limitations of BSF in dealing with major security issues such as – illegal migration, trafficking in person and narcotics as well as smuggling in fake Indian currency notes. Cite examples and facts.

Next, write about the measures that are needed to enhance the capacity of the BSF.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Border Security Force (BSF) is India’s principal border guarding force, entrusted with securing the country’s international borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh. Until 1965, India’s borders with Pakistan were patrolled by police personnel from Indian states that bordered Pakistan. The committee of secretaries established in the aftermath of the 1965 Indo-Pak War suggested the creation of a specialised centrally controlled Border Security Force that would be equipped and trained to patrol the International Border with Pakistan. As a result, on December 1, 1965, the Border Security Force (BSF) was established.

Punjab has filed a suit challenging the central government’s decision to increase the BSF’s operational jurisdiction from 15 km to 50 km, considering it a breach of federal principles and an encroachment into state law and order powersWest Bengal shares a similar view.

Body

Background

The BSF was raised in 1965, after the India-Pakistan war. It is one of the seven Central Armed Police Forces of the Union of India under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). The 2.65-lakh force is deployed along the Pakistan and Bangladesh borders. It is deployed on Indo-Pakistan International Border, Indo-Bangladesh International Border, Line of Control (LoC) along with Indian Army and in Anti-Naxal Operations.

Role of the BSF

  • Defending the porous borders: BSF has been defending Sir Creek in the ArabianSea and Sundarbans Delta in the Bay of Bengal with its state-of-the-art fleet of Water Crafts.
  • Cooperating with local police:most of the raids and arrests that are conducted are in close coordination and cooperation with the local police.
    • Police do act against any smuggler or criminal if the BSF provides irrefutable evidence.
  • The First Line of Defence:It has been termed the First Line of Defence of Indian Territories because of the role played by it in dealing with illegal migration from the eastern border and tackling cross-border crimes.
  • Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System:has vastly improved the capability of the Border Security Force (BSF) in detecting and controlling cross-border crimes like illegal infiltration, smuggling of contraband goods, human trafficking and cross-border terrorism, etc.
  • BSF and internal security duties:While border protection has been the primary duty of BSF, it has also been deployed for counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations in troubled areas of the country like J&K, NE states and Naxal-hit areas.
  • Trans-border crimes:BSF was given powers way back in 1969 under the Indian Passport Act, Customs Act Arms Act, NPSD Act, and CrPC to arrest, search and seize a person, vessel or premises so it can effectively deal with trans-border crimes which have a bearing on national security in larger areas of the bordering states.
    • For instance, the smuggling of narcotics, arms and ammunition, fake currency and other contraband items on the western and eastern borders of the country.
  • Gathering information: The BSF does not have the responsibility only to apprehend the offenders while committing trans-border crimes at the zero line,
    • but also to gather information to neutralize the network and accomplicesoperating from their side of the area, independently as well as with the help of local police.

Challenges before BSF in dealing with illegal migration and cross-border crimes:

  • Porous border—along the India-Bangladesh border, from Sunderbans in the south to Malda in the north, and is the most porous stretch of India’s borders in the entire eastern theatre making it complex to manage.
  • Challenges on both our eastern and western bordershave grown many folds in the last four decades despite the increased presence of BSF units, the erection of a border fence and the use of modern technologies.
  • Trans-border crimes are no longer confined to petty smugglingof few eatables or locally produced consumable items; pushing in of narcotics, arms and fake currency into India and large-scale illegal migration of Bangladeshi nationals and Rohingyas pose a serious threat to our security and economy.
  • Increased connectivity and communication:As connectivity, communication and mobility have increased, trans-border criminals have the advantage of operating from deeper areas.
    • Most of the time BSF operates in close coordination with the local police, but this delays the operational functioning of BSF.
  • Wider outreach of criminals:While BSF is responsible for preventing trans-border crimes, the sphere of action of these criminals expands to the hinterlands.
    • In places like West Bengal,the trans-border criminals were cleverly operating from areas beyond the jurisdiction of BSF.

Conclusion

During the Kargil conflict in 1999, the BSF remained on the heights of the mountains and defended the integrity of the country with all the might at its command in unison with the Army. Thus, with a wide set of responsibilities and variety of roles under its belt, BSF helps in maintaining the integrity and security of India.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics.

6. The ethics of lying, even for altruistic purposes, is a topic that has been debated by philosophers, ethicists, and scholars for centuries. Analyse.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define as to what constitutes a falsehood which has good outcome with an example.

Body:

In the first part, examine the nature of white lies and analyse the concept using various ethical theories and thinkers. Give examples to substantiate your arguments.

In the next part, give situations where it would be okay to use white lies and situations where white lies would not be right.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement that usage of white lies is based on situation but all lies are a form of deception. It would not be okay to justify white lies ethically unless there exist extra-ordinary circumstances.

Introduction

Ethics provide accountability between the public and the administration especially in the government service. White Lie is a form of deception about a small or unimportant matter that someone expresses to avoid hurting another person. For E.g.:  Telling your mother that her food is delicious when you really don’t like the food.

Body

White Lies are sometimes justified:

Consequentialists state that lying to get a better harmonious and productive outcome is justified. In some situations, lying might be the ethically better choice. Many of these situations occur in daily life, and many of us resort to telling “white lies” to navigate these situations. Since they concern trivial matters and are usually well-intentioned, perhaps some white lies are justified.

  • Upholding Social Norm: our motivation for lying in one situation might differ from our motivation in another. For example, some situations involve social rituals such as answering “fine” when someone asks how you are. Even on bad days, most people elect to tell that white lie because their motivation is to uphold social norms. The decision to answer “fine” when you are not actually feeling fine might also be justified by the culturally shared understanding that asking “How are you?” functions mostly as a greeting.
  • Respecting feelings and sensitivities of others: If a mother asks a son, does she look old, even if she does, her son will oblige by saying no.
  • Protecting lives of Individuals: If Nazi soldiers asked a family hiding Jews during World War II if they were in fact hiding Jews, the right response would obviously be to lie. In such a case, lying to save a life is a higher virtue than truth-telling.
    • According to a study published by University of Massachusetts, most people cannot go 10 minutes in a conversation without lying. Yet, at the same time, most people would prefer not to be deceived themselves.

White Lies are not justified:

Deontologists base their moral thinking on general universal laws, and not on the results of particular acts. Hence regardless of outcome, lying in essence is a wrong act.

  • Moreover, Telling Trivial Lies Makes It Easier To Lie More Often: if a person gets comfortable telling small untruths she/he will eventually tell larger untruths. Integrity and ethical behaviour requires telling the truth at all times.
  • For E.g. : Gandhiji, started lying about going out with friends, then went on to lie about eating meat, then he lied about smoking, then he lied about stealing gold from his own house. After which his spirit awakens his conscience and he vows never to lie again. As per “My Experiments with Truth”.
  • Telling Trivial Lies Can Damage the Reputation of Our Business, organisation and cause Trust Deficit: Because if the lie is discovered at later point, it permanently stays as blot in memories of masses.
  • For E.g.: Volkswagen emission scandal, when they expressed white lies to protect integrity of organisation and later got penalised and lost their trust among people.

Conclusion

As Buddha had stated, telling truth is essential but telling unkind truth is uncalled for. Incentives and rewards rewires brain to tell the truth and develop conscience. Proactively generating ethical literacy among all about the challenges of lying and providing ways to deal with lying. These can help reduce the falsehood even in times of grave danger.

 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour

7. What is the difference between attitude and behaviour? Why at times human beings display behaviour that is contrary to their attitudes?

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with defining Attitude and Behaviour.

Body:

Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). The attitude object can be a person, place, thing, ideology, or an event. Attitudes can be positive or negative

While attitude involves mind’s predisposition to certain ideas, values, people, systems, institutions; behaviour relates to the actual expression of feelings, action or inaction orally or/and through body language.

Explain that Difference between attitudes and behaviours is best described by cognitive dissonance theory.

Give examples to depict divergence in behaviour from attitude.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction

Attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behaviour.

Behaviour is the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others. Hence, behaviour comprises of our actions with concern to the interactions or the relationships we maintain with the external environment.

The main difference between two is that behaviour is the reflection of one’s attitude towards something or someone.

Body:

Attitude guides an individual’s behavior

  • Attitude is one of the main factors that trigger emotions, decision-making, thinking and behavior in an individual. Following are some examples of how attitude influence the behavior:
  • A positive attitude can will lead to a positive behavior. Ex: A person who has positive attitudes towards work and co-workers (such as contentment, friendliness, etc.) can positively influence those around them.
  • Similarly, negative attitude led to negative behavior. Ex: if a person has a negative attitude towards women, he will discriminate women in all fronts of life.
  • A selfish attitude will guide individual’s action in same manner. Ex: A cricketer who put his self-interest and profit above the nation, will take money to lose the game.
  • Logic or rational attitudes develop a rational behavior. Ex: a rational person will not act superstitiously and will always try to find rational behind any act.
  • An egoistic attitude will result in a negative attitude and behavior. Ex: elder individuals control their younger siblings even if they are wrong to satisfy their ego of being elder.
  • An attitude based on values and beliefs will act according to the values. Ex: in India touching feet of elders is guided by attitude of giving respect to them.

Conflicting attitudes and behaviours: Reasons

  • Induced Compliance: If a person finds themselves in a situation where they have to do something that they don’t agree with, they’ll experience discomfort. Since they can’t escape the action, they attempt to re-establish their reasons for doing it in a way that makes the action acceptable.
  • Decision-making: When we say “yes” to a choice, whether it’s as small as what to order for lunch or as big as where to live, we have to say “no” to something else. This can be a difficult decision when the choices feel equally good or equally bad.
    • To ease the psychological pain of rejecting one choice we often start justifying our decision.
  • Effort: As human beings, we place a higher value on outcomes that took a significant amount of time, effort, or resources to achieve. That’s why we tend to associate cost with quality — we rationalize that “we get what we pay for.”
    • When the effort doesn’t seem to be “worth it,” we often make up reasons why it was better than the alternative.
  • New information: In today’s world, we’re inundated with information. One thirty-second social media video can totally shift our perspective. This is exciting, because it means we’re always learning, but it can lead to cognitive dissonance.
  • Addiction: As we mentioned earlier, many people know that smoking is harmful to their health — yet they continue to do it. Addiction is one of the most powerful causes of cognitive dissonance.

Conclusion

Becoming aware of the effect of cognitive dissonance on our decisions and understanding how we can overcome it can help us make better decisions and help us make positive behavior changes rather than continue lying to ourselves.

Value addition:

AttitudeBehaviour
Attitude refers to a person’s mental view, regarding the way he/she thinks or feels about someone or something.Behaviour implies the actions and conduct of an individual or group towards other persons.
Attitude is more personal.Behaviour is more social.
Factors like environment, experiences, and moral values mainly influence attitudes.Attitudes, character traits, biological factors like endocrine and nervous responses influence our behaviour.
It is a hypothetical construct whose direct observation is not possible.Behaviour is visible through consequences and result.
A person’s attitude is mainly based on the experiences gained by him during the course of his life and observations.The behavior of a person is based on the situation and circumstances.
Attitude is a person’s inner thoughts and feelings.Behaviour is an expression of person’s attitude.
Attitude is defined by the way we perceive things.Behaviour is ruled by social norms.
Attitude reflects one’s emotions, opinions and thoughts.Behaviour reflects one’s attitude as actions are the reflection of our thoughts.

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