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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 17 January 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Though puzzling for many, Gandhi’s strategy to keep the issue of salt issue as a core aspect of civil disobedience movement was well thought, carefully calibrated and its appeal was universal. Substantiate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 as mentioned in Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To reason behind Gandhi’s strategy to choose salt as a core aspect of civil disobedience movement.

Directive word: 

Substantiate – When you are asked to Substantiate, you must pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving introduction to the events that led to the rise of the civil disobedience movement.

Body:

Mention the intent of Gandhi’s strategy behind choosing salt as an issue to launch a movement against the British and link it with Gandhi’s method of Constructive work, the economic aspect, emotional aspect, Civil Disobedience aspect and stress on the factor of mass appeal.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning the impact of salt satyagraha setting the foundation for a non-violent mass struggle.

Introduction

Gandhiji had presented 11 demands in front of British based on mandate of Lahore congress session and gave an ultimatum of Jan 31st 1930 to accept them. With no positive response forthcoming from the Government on these demands, the Congress Working Committee invested Gandhi with full powers to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) at a time and place of his choice. By February-end, Gandhi had decided to make, salt, the central formula for the CDM.

Body 

Salt issue as focus of protest:

  • In every Indian household, salt was indispensable, yet people were forbidden from making salt even for domestic use, compelling them to buy it from shops at a high price.
  • As Gandhi said, “There is no other article like salt, outside water, by taxing which the Government can reach the starving millions, the sick, the maimed and the utterly helpless”.
  • It is the most inhuman poll tax the ingenuity of man can devise.
  • Salt in a flash linked the ideal of swaraj with a most concrete and universal grievance of the rural poor and with no socially divisive implications like a no-rent campaign.
  • Salt afforded a paltry but psychologically important income, like khadi, for the poor through self-help.
  • Salt also offered to the urban adherents the opportunity of a symbolic identification with mass suffering.
  • The British used to destroy salt collected from the villagers from the sea which led to an increase in national expenditure.
  • The state monopoly over salt was deeply unpopular; by making it his target, Gandhiji hoped to mobilise a wider discontent against British rule.
  • Salt had no divisive elements in terms of caste, religion or class thus was a silent ingredient of “Unity in Diversity”.
  • Salt was chosen to symbolize the start of civil disobedience movement because salt was deemed as something on which every Indian had the basic right.
  • Gandhiji declared resistance to British salt policies to be the unifying theme for the civil disobedience movement and thus started Dandi March.

Conclusion

The Salt March got national and international recognition and shook the Britishers with its non-violent nature. It got massive press coverage and drew the world’s attention towards the Indian Independence Movement. Even today, non-violent peaceful protest is a potent tool against oppressive practices of the government.

Value addition:

Significance of Dandi March in Indian National Movement

  • The historic march, marking, the launch of the Civil Disobedience Movement, began on March 12, and Gandhi broke the salt law by picking up a handful of salt at Dandi on April 6.
  • The violation of the law was seen as a symbol of the Indian people’s resolve not to live under British- made laws and therefore under British rule.
  • The march, its progress and its impact on the people was well covered by newspapers. In Gujarat, 300 village officials resigned in answer to Gandhi’s appeal.
  • Participation of women: For Indian women, the movement was the most liberating experience and can truly be said to have marked their entry into the public sphere.
  • Reduced British Authority: The hegemony of the Government was eroded, as they faced the classic dilemma of ‘damned if you do, damned if you don’t—if force was applied, the Congress cried ‘repression’, and if little was done, the Congress cried ‘victory’.
  • Mass involvement: Massive participation of peasants and business groups compensated for decline of other features. The number of those imprisoned was about three times more this time. The Congress was organisationally stronger.

 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

2. Explain the spread of the civil disobedience movement in terms of popular response and regional patterns across India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 as mentioned in Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the spread of the civil disobedience movement in India along with its regional patterns.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin your answer by giving context of Civil disobedience movement (CDM) and its beginnings.

Body:

Draw a small map showing various regional manifestations of the CDM.

Mention about the various leaders across India such as Kelappan, C Rajagopalachari and others leading each of the regional areas across India.

Mention Civil disobedience movement against Chowkidari tax, the people of Balasore boycotting all forms of tax, defying the forest laws etc and the areas in which it was active.

Also new forms of boycott such as formation of volunteer corps, involving children and women, secretly spreading the messages of Congress in rural areas for demand of swarajya through underground channels may be highlighted to show emergence of new patterns of activism against the British Raj.

Conclusion:

Comment on the impact of the movement.

Introduction

Gandhi addressed an ultimatum to Viceroy Lord Irwin on 31 January 1930, asking him to remove the evils of the British rule and also informed of his decision to undertake Civil Disobedience Movement. The aim of this movement was a complete disobedience of the orders of the British Government. There was agitation against land revenue, abolition of salt tax, cutting down military expenditure, levying duty on foreign cloth, among others, throughout India. A very important movement was that of Salt Satyagraha where Gandhi undertook the Dandi march as a protest against the Salt tax.

Body

Spread of the civil disobedience movement:

In terms of Popular Response:

  • With Gandhi’s symbolic breaking of salt laws at Dandi, defiance of salt laws started all over the country.
  • Every section of society as Students, Women, Tribals, Merchants and Petty Traders, Workers & Peasants took active part in CDM.
  • The defiance of salt laws took place in different provinces too under leadership of various leaders.
  • In Tamil Nadu, C Rajagopalachari led the Salt Satyagraha; K Kelappan headed in Malabar and in Dharasana Salt Works (Gujarat) by Sarojini Naidu and Manilal Gandhi.
  • Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan raised the band of non-violent revolutionaries, the Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly knowns as the Red Shirts in the Peshawar region in the North West Frontier Province which played a crucial role in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Women, young mothers, widowed and unmarried girls, played an important role in the picketing of liquor shops and opium dens and stores selling foreign cloth. They used non-violent and persuasive means to convince the buyers and sellers to change their ways.
  • They were ably supported by the students and youth in the boycott of foreign cloth and liquor.
  • Significantly, for Indian women, the movement was the most liberating experience to date and the can be said to have marked their entry into public space.
  • The CDM was launched and the farmers were asked to not pay rent or only pay 50% of it. The government repression was harsh on them.

In terms of regional patterns across India:

  • In Biharanti-Chowkidara tax campaign was initiated where villages refused to pay protection money to the local guards (chowkidars) who supplemented the meagre police forces in the rural areas. Rajendra Prasad took part in the anti-Chowkidara tax campaigns in Bihar.
  • In Gujarat, a no-tax movement took place against payment of land revenue. This was most visible in Kheda, Surat and Broach districts. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel led the no-tax campaign in the Kheda district.
  • Defiance of forest laws took place on a large scale in Maharashtra, Karnataka and the Central Provinces, especially in areas with large tribal populations.
  • In Assam, a powerful agitation led by students was launched against the ‘Cunningham circular‘ which forced students and their guardians to furnish assurances of good behaviour.
  • In United Provinces, a no-revenue, no-rent campaign was organized against the government which soon turned into a no-rent campaign against the zamindars. Jawaharlal Nehru played an important role in organizing the no-revenue, no-rent campaign and the districts of Agra and Rae Bareli were the important centers of this campaign.
  • The movement also popularized a variety of forms of mobilization like Prabhat Pheris, Patrikas, and Magic Lanterns.
  • In Manipur and Nagaland, at the young age of thirteen, Rani Gaidinliu of Nagaland raised the banner of revolt against foreign rule. She was captured in 1932 and sentenced to life imprisonment
  • In Chittagong, Surya Sen’s Chittagong Revolt Group carried out a raid on two armouries. It declared the establishment of a provisional government.
  • Provisional Governments were established in Ballia in UP by Chittu PandeySatara in Maharashtra.

Conclusion

The civil disobedience movement of 1930-31, then marked a critically important stage in the progress of the anti-imperialist struggle. The impact of the civil disobedience movement reverberated far and wide. It created distrust towards the British government and laid the foundation for the freedom struggle.

 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

3. In detail, explain the mechanism behind formation of fog. What are the various factors that aid the formation of smog and its impact? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express ,  Insights on India

Why the question:

For two consecutive mornings, dense fog has enveloped north-western India, including Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, parts of Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Rajasthan.

Key Demand of the question: To write about the mechanism of formation of fog, factors aiding formation of smog and its impact.

Introduction: 

Begin by defining fog as a type of condensation.

Body:

First, write about the mechanism that leads to the formation of fog in the atmosphere.

Next, write about smog and the factors that result in the formation of smog.

Next, mention the adverse impact of smog on – weather, health, transportation, buildings, plants etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning steps to overcome the adverse effects of smog.

Introduction

Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of tiny water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth’s surface. Fog can be considered a type of low-lying cloud usually resembling stratus, and is heavily influenced by nearby bodies of water, topography, and wind.  Delhi is seeing ‘radiation fog’, or localised ‘ground’ fog.

Smog is a harmful mixture of fog, dust and air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, etc. which combine with sunlight to form a dense layer of ground-level ozone. It is a specific type of air pollution. It is a combination of harmful pollutants that are introduced into the atmosphere by both natural and human induced processes.

For two consecutive mornings, dense fog has enveloped north-western India, including Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, parts of Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Rajasthan.

Body

mechanism behind formation of fog

  • Fog forms like clouds do — when water vapour condenses.
  • The presence of moisture and a fall in the temperature are key factors for the formation of fog.
  • With the land surface cooling down at night, the air close to the surface also cools down.
  • Since cooler air cannot hold as much moisture as warm air, the water vapour in the air condenses to form fog.
  • Fog begins to form in the early hours of the morning, when the temperature is at its lowest.
  • On Monday, for instance, fog in Delhi began to form around 1.30 am.
  • Fog can have “high spatial variability”, and its intensity can depend on factors like humidity, wind, and temperature.
  • Areas near water bodies, for instance, may see denser fog because of the higher humidity.

various factors that aid the formation of smog

  • Nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, ozone, smoke, and other particles make up this type of visual air pollution.
  • Seasonal changes – As the winter months approach, airborne dust and contaminants become immobile.
  • Smog develops as a result of these pollutants becoming trapped in the atmosphere by ineffective winds, which also impact weather patterns.
  • Stubble burning, Coal combustion emissions, automotive emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires, and photochemical reactions of these emissions all contribute to man-made events.
  • The reaction of pollutants from automobiles, factories, and industries with sunlight and the environment cause smog.

Impact of smog

  • Inhaling smog over a long span of time can inflame your breathing passage, much like cigarette smoking.
  • Smog causes inflamed lungs, and inflamed lungs, in turn, secrete interleukin-6 which can cause blood clots in people, cardiac and respiratory disorders, leading to heart attacks or strokes.
  • Smog can dry out the protective membranes of your nose and throat.
  • It can jeopardize your body’s ability to resist infection, hence, increasing your susceptibility to illness.
  • It can greatly decrease the UV radiation, leading to low production of important elements like Vitamin D.
  • Plants and animal life are negatively impacted by the collection of chemicals contained in photochemical haze.

Conclusion

A coordinated effort by the Center, the National Green Tribunal, the judiciary, expert agencies, and most crucially the general public is required to develop a long-term and sustainable solution to air pollution and smog.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighbourhood – International relations

4.  India and Bangladesh have made strides in enhancing their overall relationship, yet certain challenges persist. Ongoing efforts in diplomatic dialogues and negotiations will likely play a crucial role in addressing these issues and fostering further cooperation between the two countries. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tricky

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Bangladesh held its national elections on January 7, 2024 amidst violence and protests as the polls became embroiled in controversy.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various issues in Indo-Bangladesh relations and ways to overcome them.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context of the Question.

Body:

First, give a brief snapshot of India- Bangladesh relation. How it has progressed over the years. Use diagram to show it.

Next, write about the issues still holding the relationship. Cite examples to support your points.

Next, suggest how those issues can be addressed.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a futuristic view of the relationship.

Introduction

On 16 December 1971, Pakistani forces surrendered to Indian forces and Bangladesh was liberated. This week, Indian and Bangladeshi diplomats have jointly celebrated the 50th anniversary, and Indian leaders have praised Bangladesh’s development record.

India and Bangladesh share bonds of history, language, culture, and multitude of other commonalities. The excellent bilateral ties reflect an all-encompassing partnership based on sovereignty, equality, trust, and understanding that goes far beyond a strategic partnership.

Bangladesh held its national elections on January 7, 2024 amidst violence and protests as the polls became embroiled in controversy.

Body

Indo-Bangla relations

  • Liberation war: Bangladeshis aregrateful for Indian support and sacrifices in 1971.
  • Cultural ties: Triveni of events of epochal significance — the goldenjubilee of the Liberation War of Bangladesh, the birth centenary of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the 50th anniversary of our diplomatic ties. India and Bangladesh are celebrating it jointly.
  • Development partner: Bangladesh is the biggest development partner of India today. India has extended 3 Lines of Credits (LOC) to Bangladesh in the last 8 yearsamounting to US$ 8 billion for development of infrastructure in various sectors including roads, railways, shipping and ports.
  • Amicable relations:The year 2020, despite onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, witnessed intense high level engagements at political and official levels beginning with the exchange of New Year greetings between Prime Minister Modi and Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina on 01 January 2020.
  • Connectivity: Both the governments are undertaking various measures to restore the pre-1965 rail links and other connectivity linksthat existed between India and Bangladesh.
    • The two Prime Ministers jointly inaugurated the newly restored railway link between Chilahati (Bangladesh) and Haldibari (India)on 17 December 2020.
    • To enhance people to people contacts, the frequency of twopassenger trains, i.e., Maitree Express and Bandhan Express was increased from 4 days a week to 5 days a week and from one day a week to two days a week respectively from February 2020.
  • Trade: Bangladesh is India’s biggest trade partner in South Asia and India is the second biggest trade partner of Bangladesh.
    • Bilateral trade between India and Bangladesh has grown steadily over the last decade and the exports of Bangladesh have tripled over the last decade to cross $1 bn in 2018-19.

Significance of relations today

  • Security of North East: A friendly Bangladesh can ensure that its soil is not used for anti-India activities.Bangladesh’s action resulted in the arrest of many top leaders of the NE insurgent groups like United Liberation Front of Assam & National Democratic Front of Bodoland.
  • Connectivity of North East: The north eastern states are land-locked & have shorter route to sea through Bangladesh.Transit agreement with Bangladesh will spur socio-economic development and integration of North-East India.
  • Bridge to Southeast Asia: Bangladesh is a natural pillar ofAct East policy. It can act as a ‘bridge’ to economic and political linkages with South East Asia and beyond. Bangladesh is important component of BIMSTEC and BBIN initiatives.
  • Strengthening South Asia as a regional power: Bangladesh is important for strengthening of SAARC, for promoting cooperation among its member nations to economic growth and securing strategic interests.
  • Securing sea lines of communication: Bangladesh is strategically placed nearby important sea lanes. It can play significant role in containing piracy in the Indian Ocean.
  • Fighting terrorism and deradicalization: Stable, open and tolerant Bangladesh helps India in stopping extremists from flourishing there and also in cooperation in deradicalization efforts, sharing intelligence, and other counter-terrorism efforts.
  • Balancing China: A neutral Bangladesh would ensure containment of an assertive China in this region, and help in countering it’s string of pearls policy.

Challenges in bilateral relations

  • River disputes:India shares 54 trans-boundary rivers with Bangladesh. Some of the major disputes include: Teesta River water sharing issue, Tipaimukh Hydro-Electric Power Project on the Barak River, Ganga river dispute etc.
  • Illegal immigrants: The National Register of Citizens (NRC) has left out 1.9 million Assamese from the list with a group labelled as“illegal immigrants from Bangladesh” living in Assam post-1971.
    • Bangladesh remains firm in its stance that no migrants travelled to Assam illegally during the 1971 war of independence and that the controversial NRC risks hurting relations.
  • Border Management: The Indo-Bangladesh border is of porous nature which provides pathway for smuggling, trafficking in arms, drugs and people and cattle.
  • Delay in project execution: As of 2017, India had extended three lines of credit worth approximately $7.4 billion.However, less than 10% of the cumulative commitments have been disbursed so far.
  • China factor: China sees Bangladesh as strategic focal point to make inroads into South Asia as an alternative to India.
  • Increasing radicalisation: Presence of groups like Harkat-alJihad-al-Islami (HUJI), Jamaat-e-Islami, and HUJI-B fuel Anti-India sentiments in Bangladesh. Their propaganda could spill across border.

Conclusion

Deepening relationship with Bangladesh has become a necessity in the face of shifting geo-economics. Bangladesh, with its growing economic success, and with its 8 percent growth rate provides a vital partnership in the region. There is scope for India-Bangladesh ties to move to the next level, based on cooperation, coordination and consolidation as Prime Minister has termed the present period of relationship between the two countries as ‘Sonali Adhyay’.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

5. The gene-editing technology has opened up a vast window of opportunities in the recent years. Explain briefly what gene editing technology is with its potential applications in various fields. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

In a paper published this week in Nature, part of a series of insights about ancient peoples, researchers compared thousands of ancient and modern genomes to unearth new information about multiple sclerosis (MS).

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the gene editing technology is with its potential applications in various fields.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start with what you understand by Gene editing technology.

Body:

In the first part, write about the process of gene editing technology with a brief diagram.

Next, write about the possible advantages of Gene editing and cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write about the limitations of the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Gene Editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism. Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly insert genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.

CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are sections of DNA, while CAS-9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) is an enzyme. Often described as “a pair of molecular scissors,” CRISPR is widely considered the most precise, most cost-effective and quickest way to edit genes.

Body

Working

Applications

  • Most uses of genome editing have been in scientific research – for example to investigate models of human disease.
  • Genome editing has the potential to alter any DNA sequence, whether in a bacterium, plant, animal or human being.
  • It is a powerful tool that can reshape the way society deals many issues of healthcare, food scarcity and the environment.
  • Crops and livestock (e.g. increasing yield, introducing resistance to disease and pests, tolerance of different environmental conditions).
  • Industrial biotechnology (e.g. developing ‘third generation’ biofuels and producing chemicals, materials and pharmaceuticals).
  • Biomedicine (e.g. pharmaceutical development, xenotransplantation, gene and cell-based therapies, control of insect-borne diseases).
  • Reproduction (e.g. preventing the inheritance of a disease trait).
  • Engineering mosquitoes to control malaria and dengue.
  • It can help fight against blood-related disorders such as haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia, and BetaThalassemia.
  • All such applications together can drive India’s economic growth over the next decade to new heights.

Pros:

  • Most uses of genome editing have been in scientific research –for example to investigate models of human disease.
  • Genome editing has the potential to alter any DNA sequence, whether in a bacterium, plant, animal or human being.
  • It is a powerful tool that can reshape the way society deals many issues of healthcare, food scarcity and the environment.
  • Crops and livestock (e.g. increasing yield, introducing resistance to disease and pests, tolerance of different environmental conditions).
  • Industrial biotechnology (e.g. developing ‘third generation’ biofuels and producing chemicals, materials and pharmaceuticals).
  • Biomedicine (e.g. pharmaceutical development, xenotransplantation, gene and cell-based therapies, control of insect-borne diseases).
  • Reproduction (e.g. preventing the inheritance of a disease trait).
  • Engineering mosquitoes to control malaria and dengue.
  • It can help fight against blood-related disorders such as haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia, and Beta-Thalassemia.
  • All such applications together can drive India’s economic growth over the next decade to new heights.

Cons:

  • Study by Stanford University, U.S., found that the CRISPR-Cas9 system introduces unexpected off-target (outside of the intended editing sites) effects in mice. The fear that the CRISPR system is being prematurely rushed for clinical use lingers. Three recent reports have exacerbated this fear even further.
  • Studies highlighted that CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells might trigger cancer.
  • P53 protein:
    • CRISPR-Cas9 system induced activation of a protein called P53. This P53 protein acts like a gatekeeper or guardian in the cells to keep them healthy and prevents them (the cells) from turning cancerous. In many cancers, cells lose their ability to repair deleterious genetic changes due to an impaired P53 function.
    • In cells where editing is adequate, the cell’s P53 protein may be dysfunctional. Therefore, a functional pP53 protein is good for the cells to be healthy but makes the Cas9-mediated editing process less effective.
  • The impending danger of mosaicism, in which some cells inherit the target mutation, while others don’t.
  • Scientists are far from understanding how exactly individual genes influence phenotypes, or the visible traits of people.
  • Every gene likely influences multiple traits, depending on the environment it interacts This makes it hard to predict the ultimate outcome of an embryo-editing exercise without decades of follow-up.
  • Every gene influences trade-offs, which scientists barely understand today. Example: while protecting against HIV, a deactivated CCR5 gene can also make people more susceptible to West-Nile Fever.
  • Editing human embryos to repair disease-causing genes is far more controversial.
  • Issue of Designer babies: The eyes of the mother, the hair of the father, the complexion from the maternal side and a cute little dimple from the paternal is what makes the kid loved by one and all. Designing the babies to look like celebrities might get the kids to thank you later in life but might loosen the bond that is supposed to be the significant part of the relationship.
  • There are prospects of irreversible harms to the health of future children and generations, to concerns about opening the door to new forms of social inequality, discrimination, and conflict.
  • Such living experiments are done in secret, outside of any formal institution, and apparently without any independent scrutiny or review by the scientific fraternity.
  • Bioethicists fear abuse of gene editing, not just by misguided governments hoping to create a ‘superior’ race.

The debate about gene editing has been going on for a long time now. Gene editing should be encouraged to enhance the advancements in field of science and improve the standard of living of people E.g.: CRISPR technology is targeting to treat the rare disease caused by mutation of one gene. At the same time a common guidelines need to be developed by international community’s which set the guidelines of what risks are acceptable and what are not.

Way Forward:

  • India’s current regulatory architecture for approving novel treatments is ambiguous and assigns overlapping functions to different governmental bodies. This framework needs to be restructured to optimize trial approval time while addressing safety requirements.
  • two-step model wherein the government works with industry and research groups to accelerate clinical research is recommended. This model consists of a national apex committee working in collaboration with existing institutional ethics committees and independent accreditation agencies.
  • It is envisaged that, India will emerge as a significant contributor to the world bioinformatics market and position itself as a global hub for bioinformatics.
  • Indian bioinformatics sector has numerous strengths and competitive advantages to make bioinformatics sector a sunrise industry of India.
  • With the improvements in the IPR regime, increasing support from the government and continuing efforts of the private sector companies, it is very much likely that India could repeat its IT success story in bioinformatics too.
  • Much research on animal models and isolated human cells should be conducted before any full-scale routine application in humans.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

We see morality in speeches and writings. We do not find it in practice.” ― Periyar E.V. Ramasamy

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about difference between preaching morality and practising it. Write about the impact of the same. Write ways how one can practice what is preached. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Mahatma Gandhi always stated “Practice what you preach”. During the freedom struggle, Gandhi stressed on a national participation for freedom struggle which would involve suffering. He himself underwent fasting and taking the British oppression with full force which motivated people for the cause of freedom. His message had a ‘backbone’ to it. So, the closer you are to mirroring whatever the message is that your communicating, the more powerful the message will come across.

Body

Ethics is difficult to practice because it’s not always white and black, there’s always a lot of grey. Sometimes its easy to choose the shorter path or the easy path rather than the difficult path. For instance, being honest is a virtue we preach. But when it comes to us admitting a wrong doing we shy away from it instantly.

Reasons why we preach but not practice ethics

  • Upholding high moral principles is not easy
  • Strength of Character is tested
  • Avoiding Temptations diverting towards an easy solution
  • Stick to Integrity, Self-control. Discipline etc.

In a society, everyone knows corruption is bad and affects society as a whole but when it comes to their own situation people defend being corrupt saying it is part of the society. Similarly, untouchability is a crime. People say one should respect anyone irrespective of ascriptive criteria however when their own child wants to marry a scheduled caste person, relatives and parents oppose.

Likewise In the digital world there are thousands of blogs out there that teach personal development, yet only a select few that actually give sound advice. The reason behind that is that it’s simple to read information and rewrite it but putting oneself in one’s shoes is difficult.

Even in international relations, same is the case. USA always take a moral high ground of doing the right things. The way it left Afghan people to scramble for their lives after making a deal with Taliban will always be a black mark in history.

Conclusion

Walk the talk, practice what you preach is the philosophy when it comes to ethics. However, in real life in real situations people tend to take the easy way out. It is widely believed that we ought not to criticize others for wrongs that we ourselves have committed.  This is the message of the quote.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“A person’s ethics and character are not tested in good times. It is only in bad times that a person shows how steadfast he is to his dharma.” ― Amish Tripathi

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about how it is easy to be display good character in easy time and in the times adversity, the real character of the person is shown. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Many people bend their moral values depending on the situation. There is no principle that you can always say should never be violated because you’ll always come up with the messy reality of being in the dilemma or situation where you have to make a tough choice. These messy realities can sometimes lead us toward moral tradeoffs. Hence the ethics of a person gets tested in the most difficult times.

Body

Dharma is what should be done, and adharma is what should not be done. Each of us has what is called svadharma- that is what we should do. It is in the most difficult of the situations, a man is tested. Whether adhering to dharma when no one is watching is the biggest test in life.

Once, a sage doing penance on the banks of the Ganges, saw a scorpion struggling in the water, and taking pity on it, he pulled it out of the water and set it on land. The scorpion immediately stung him. It also slipped back into the water, and again the sage rescued it, and again it stung him. The sage’s sishya asked him why he continued to save it, when it so ungratefully caused him so much pain. The sage replied: “Saving it is my dharma. To bite is its dharma.” The sage didn’t let go of his duty to save himself from the pain of the scorpion’s bite.

Gandhi also interpreted dharma as ethics. Ethics of non-violence was the primal principle of Gandhi’s life, which he followed incessantly through his actions, speeches, and writings. In the face of British brutality, violence and cruelty he stood steadfast in his principles and sacrificed his whole life for India and its freedom. He was true to Ahimsa and truth, through and through.

In times of financial and cultural stress, pressures to cut corners and make other adjustments in business and personal practices can increase significantly. The result may end up also cutting ethical corners or making less ethically sound decisions.  This in in real practical life today.

Conclusion

True character is revealed in the choices a human being makes under pressure – the greater the pressure, the deeper the revelation, the truer the choice to the character’s essential nature. This is the human reality.


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