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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 January 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. The ‘constitutional reforms’ of 1909 were nothing short of a farce. The people of India demanded a responsible government in the country, but “benevolent despotism” was introduced as Indian Council Act of 1909. Critically comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 as mentioned in Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how Morley-Minto reforms were another tool of despotism rather than being constitutional reforms.

Directive word: 

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving the context for the introduction of the Reforms of 1909 such as the dissatisfaction of the moderates of the Indian Councils Act, 1892 and the rise of the Extremists in the arena of Indian leaders.

Body:

Briefly mention the key changes brought in by the reforms of 1909 and then why it cannot be termed as “Constitutional reform”, as it brought out minor additive changes only and not met the demands of the Indian leaders genuinely such as provision for asking questions and supplementary questions but at the same time the question may be rejected, further the Indian representatives could not question on many forms of expenditure of the British etc.

Mention why the reform was termed Benevolent Despotism, as the British tried to paint a colour of benevolence to the reforms by bringing small additive changes to the existing provisions but it was still an act of despotism as there was no substantial reform meeting the needs or demands of the Indian representatives in the legislative council. The introduction of separate electorates which formalised the British policy of divide and rule.

Conclusion:

Write about the impact of the reforms and response of the nationalists to it.

Introduction

The Morley-Minto reforms named after the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs Lord John Morley and the Viceroy Lord Minto was the alternative name given to Indian Councils Act 1909. It introduced for the first time the method of election, an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians in the governance. The Act amended the Indian Councils Acts of 1861 and 1892.

Body:

Background of the Act

  • In October 1906, a group of Muslim elites called the Shimla Deputation, led by the Agha Khan, met Lord Minto and demanded separate electorates for the Muslims and representation in excess of their numerical strength in view of ‘the value of the contribution’ Muslims were making ‘to the defence of the empire’.
  • The same group quickly took over the Muslim League, initially floated by Nawab Salimullah of Dacca along with Nawabs Mohsin-ul- Mulk and Waqar-ul-Mulk in December 1906.
  • The Muslim League intended to preach loyalty to the empire and to keep the Muslim intelligentsia away from the Congress.
  • John Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State for India, and the Conservative Viceroy of India, Minto, believed that cracking down on uprising in Bengal was necessary but not sufficient for restoring stability to the British Raj after Lord Curzon’s partitioning of Bengal.
  • They believed that a dramatic step was required to put heart into loyal elements of the Indian upper classes and the growing Westernized section of the population.

Features of the Act

  • It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
  • British retained official majority in the Central Legislative Council but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority.
  • The elected members were to be indirectly elected. The local bodies were to elect an electoral college, which in turn would elect members of provincial legislatures, who in turn would elect members of the central legislature.
  • It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on.
  • It provided for the first time for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and GovernorsSatyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member. Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs.
  • It introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. Thus, the Act ‘legalized communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.
  • It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars.

Evaluation of the Reforms:

  • The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer and could afford no answer to the Indian political problem. Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress) was not suitable for India, and he was against introduction of parliamentary or responsible government in India.
  • The position of the Governor- General remained unchanged and his veto power remained undiluted and the Act was successfully maintained relentless constitutional autocracy.
  • The ‘constitutional’ reforms were, in fact, aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks by confusing the Moderates and at checking the growth of unity among Indians through the obnoxious instrument of separate electorates.
  • The Government aimed at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism.
  • The officials and the Muslim leaders often talked of the entire community when they talked of the separate electorates, but in reality, it meant the appeasement of a small section of the Muslim elite only.
  • Congress considered separate electorate to be undemocratic and hindering the development of a shared Hindu-Muslim Indian national feeling.
  • Besides, system of election was too indirect and it gave the impression of infiltration of legislators through a number of sieves.
  • And, while parliamentary forms were introduced, no responsibility was conceded, which sometimes led to thoughtless and irresponsible criticism of the Government.
  • Only some members like Gokhale put to constructive use the opportunity to debate in the councils by demanding universal primary education, attacking repressive policies and drawing attention to the plight of indentured labour and Indian workers in South Africa.
  • The reforms of 1909 gave to the people of the country a shadow rather than substance.

The Act of 1909 was important for the following reasons:

  • It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time, though previously some Indians had been appointed to legislative councils.
  • The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentary system even though this was contrary to the intent of Morley.
  • It also gave recognition to the elective principle as the basis of the composition of legislative council for the first time.
  • It gave some further avenues to Indians to ventilate their grievances. They also got opportunity to criticize the executives and make suggestions for better administration.
  • After Jinnah’s death in September 1948, Pakistan lurched towards Islamic orthodoxy and Dalits faced mounting attacks.

Conclusion:

Indian Council Act of 1909 was instituted to placate the moderates and appeasement to the disseminate Muslims from National Movement by granting them separate electorate. The people had demanded self-government but what they were given was ‘benevolent despotism’.

 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s multifaceted contributions left an indelible mark on India’s struggle for independence. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 as mentioned in Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the key role of Tilak as a leader in India’s struggle for Independence.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give a brief introduction of Tilak – the nationalist, the politician and a fearless leader of the masses.

Body:

Mention key factors that leads to term Tilak as a pragmatic leader – to realise the need to connect to the masses, the true nature of British rule etc. Further elaborate on his four  point programme such as stating of Deccan education Society, two newspapers, and New English school to promote education and awareness of the masses. Tilak’s approach to economic exploitation of the British was to Boycott and protect and promote the  indigenous industries and artisans while passive resistance was an extension of the Boycott principle, to encourage the masses to not pay taxes and prepare them for self-rule.

In the next part, mention the contributions of Tilak in detail apart from the above. His part in spreading nationalist consciousness, Home rule league, creation of mass base etc.           

Conclusion:

Stress on the timely interference of Tilak to demystify the true nature of the British and bring in a new vigour to India’s freedom struggle.

Introduction

Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an Indian social reformer and freedom activist. He was one of the prime architects of modern India and probably the strongest advocates of Swaraj or Self Rule for India. His famous declaration “Swaraj is my birth right, and I shall have it” served as an inspiration for future revolutionaries during India’s struggle for freedom. The British Government termed him as the “Father of Indian Unrest” and his followers bequeathed upon him the title of ‘Lokmanya’ meaning he who is revered by the people.

July 23 was the birth anniversary of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, whom Mahatma Gandhi called “the Maker of Modern India”, and Jawaharlal Nehru described as the “the Father of the Indian Revolution”.

Body:

Tilak’s contribution towards India’s national movement:

  • Ideology:
    • Tilak joined the Indian National Congressin 1890. He soon started vocalizing his strong opposition to the moderate views of the party on self-rule.
    • He maintained that simple constitutional agitationin itself was futile against the British. This subsequently made him stand against the prominent Congress leader, Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
    • He wanted an armed revolt to broom-away the British. Following the partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, Tilak wholeheartedly supported the Swadeshi (Indigenous) movement and Boycott of British goods.
    • Due to this fundamental difference in outlook, Tilak and his supporters came to be known as the extremist wingof INC.
    • Tilak’s endeavours were supported by fellow nationalists Bipin Chandra Palof Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab.
  • Protests and Imprisonment:
    • Under directives from Pune Commissioner W. C. Rand, the police and the army invaded private residences, violated personal sanctity of individuals, burned personal possessions and prevented individuals to move in and out of the city.
    • Tilak protested against the oppressive nature of the British efforts and wrote provocative articles on it in his newspapers on the epidemic of Plague in Pune and adjacent regions
    • His article inspired the Chapekar brothersand they carried out assassination of Commissioner Rand and Lt. Ayerst on June 22, 1897. As a result of this, Tilak was imprisoned for 18 months on Sedition charges for inciting murder.
    • During 1908-1914, Bal Gangadhar Tilak spent had to undergo six years of rigorous imprisonment in Mandalay Jail, Burma.
    • He openly supported the revolutionaries Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki’s efforts to assassinate Chief Presidency Magistrate in 1908. He continued to write during his years of imprisonment and the most prominent of which is Gita Rahasya.
  • Tilak and All India Home Rule League:
    • Tilak returned to India in 1915 when the political situation was fast changing under the shadow of the World War I.
    • He then returned to politics with a mellowed down outlook. Deciding to re-unite with his fellow nationalists, Tilak founded the All India Home Rule Leaguein 1916 with Joseph Baptista, Annie Besant and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
    • By April 1916, the league had 1400 members that increased to 32,000 by 1917.
    • He rejoined the INC but could not bring about reconciliation between the two opposite-minded factions.
  • Newspapers:
    • Towards his nationalistic goals, Bal Gangadhar Tilak published two newspapers –‘Mahratta’(English) and ‘Kesari’ (Marathi).
    • Both the newspapers stressed on making the Indians aware of the glorious pastand encouraged the masses to be self-reliant. The newspaper actively propagated the cause of national freedom.
    • Tilak fearlessly published reports about the havoc caused by famine and plague and the government’s utter irresponsibility and indifference about ‘Famine Relief fund’.
  • Social Reforms:
    • After completing his education, Tilak spurned the lucrative offers of government service and decided to devote himself to the larger cause of national awakening.
    • He was a great reformer and throughout his life he advocated the cause of women education and women empowerment.
    • Tilak proposed Grand celebrations on ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and ‘Shivaji Jayanti’. He envisioned these celebrations inciting a sense of unityand inspiring nationalist sentiment among Indians.

Conclusion:

Tilak had a long political career agitating for Indian autonomy from the British rule. Before Gandhi, he was the most widely known Indian political leader. Unlike his fellow Maharashtrian contemporary, Gokhale, Tilak was considered a radical Nationalist but a Social conservative.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. The emergence of online gaming has given rise to a plethora of worries on children and adults alike. Collective actions, including responsible gaming initiatives and measures for ensuring privacy and data security, are essential. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The emergence of online gaming has given rise to worries like addiction, mental health issues, suicides, financial fraud, and privacy risks. Collective actions, including responsible gaming initiatives and measures for ensuring privacy and data security, are essential.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the growing online gaming and need for its regulation.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context highting the growth of online gaming.

Body:

First, write about the issues with online gaming – addiction, mental health issues, suicides, financial fraud, and privacy risks etc.

Next, write about the need for effective regulation of the industry and measures needed to for it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Online gaming refers to video games/mobile games that are played over the internet through various devices. E.g., multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) games, first-person shooter (FPS) games, massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), and many others.

The emergence of online gaming has given rise to worries like addiction, mental health issues, suicides, financial fraud, and privacy risks. Collective actions, including responsible gaming initiatives and measures for ensuring privacy and data security, are essential.

Body

Types of online gaming:

  1. e-sports (well-organized electronic sports which include professional players),
  2. Fantasy sports
  3. Casual games: these can be either skill-based (mental skill) or chance based (based on a random activity like a roll of a dice) online games.

Issues with online gaming

Issues with Online GamingDescription
AddictionOnline gaming addiction can lead to physical and psychological harm, as well as interfere with daily life activities.

Gambling addiction: Online gambling games can lead to addiction and financial problems.

CyberbullyingOnline gaming can involve communication with other players through chat or voice features, which can lead to cyberbullying and harassment.
Security risksOnline gaming platforms are at risk of cyber-attacks and data breaches, which can result in compromised personal and financial information.
Inappropriate contentIt can contain violent, sexual, or other inappropriate content that is not suitable for all ages.
Ethical ConcernsIt can perpetuate negative stereotypes and biases, particularly towards marginalized groups; In-game purchases can lead to overspending or exploiting vulnerable individuals
Cheating and hackingIt can be prone to cheating and hacking, which can ruin the gameplay experience for others.
Physical and health issuesLong periods of sitting and staring at a screen can cause physical health problems such as eyestrain, back pain, and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Social isolationExcessive online gaming can lead to social isolation and a lack of face-to-face communication with others.

Measures needed

  • There is an urgent need for robust regulation in the online gaming industry. Attempts by some state governments to ban online gaming face challenges due to the cross-border nature of the internet.
  • The Online Gaming (Regulation) Bill, 2022, introduced as aPrivate Members Bill, should be reformed and adopted by the Parliament.
  • TheInformation Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, marked a commendable step towards oversight in the online gaming industry.
  • However, the delayed notification of Self-Regulatory Bodies has slowed progress, emphasising the need for strict regulation to protect the large gaming population in India.
  • Establishing a framework is urgent not only for protecting digital citizens and national interests but also for ensuring the responsible growth of the online gaming sector.
  • The focus should be on harm reduction, player protection, and the overall well-being of society.
  • The regulatory framework should be compliant with the data privacy norms as per Digital India Act, 2023and Information Technology Act, 2000.

Way forward

  • Clear and consistent regulations, responsible gaming measures, industry self-regulation, public awareness campaigns, and collaboration between industry and government can all help to create a sustainable and responsible online gaming industry in India.
  • The UK model for online gaming regulation involves a centralized government regulator that enforces strict measures to ensure player protection.
  • Quarterly reports on regulatory effects are published, imposing significant fineson operators violating player protection requirements.
  • This strict enforcement, coupled with harm reduction efforts, has led to a decline in disordered gaming and risky behaviour

Conclusion

The online gaming industry in India can continue to grow and provide entertainment and employment opportunities while also protecting players and promoting responsible gaming practices

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. Bridging the economic disparities between developed and developing countries to foster more inclusive and sustainable global trade is a major issue that World Trade Organization (WTO) must address. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Trade ministers of the World Trade Organization (WTO) countries will meet for their 13th ministerial conference (MC13) in Abu Dhabi next month at a time when the multilateral trading system is losing an existential battle.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues of India and developing with WTO, reforms that are needed in the WTO.

Directive word:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the aims and objectives of WTO.

Body:

First, Explain the factors that have led to India’s and other developing countries chequered relationship with the World Trade Organisation (WTO). – disagreements over agricultural subsidies, intellectual property, services trade, special and differential treatment for developing countries, and the functioning of the dispute settlement mechanism.

Next, suggest reforms that are needed to overcome the above – Appellate body reform, clarity on Special and differential treatment and Sustainable Development Goal-oriented trade negotiation etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

World Trade Organization (WTO) is a member-driven, consensus-based intergovernmental organisation that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. It officially began operations on January 1, 1995, in accordance with the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement.

World Trade Organization (WTO) as an organization was expected to play larger role for improved living standards, employment generation, trade expansion with increasing share for developing countries and overall sustainable development. Trade liberalization was seen as means for achieving the above-mentioned objectives.

Trade ministers of the World Trade Organization (WTO) countries will meet for their 13th ministerial conference (MC13) in Abu Dhabi next month at a time when the multilateral trading system is losing an existential battle.

Body

India and WTO: A chequered relationship

  • Stalled Doha Development Round negotiations: They focused on reducing important trade barriers in sectors, such as agriculture, industrial goods and services.
    • However, after a decade of talks, it still remains to be concluded.
  • Growing protectionism:Over the past two years, governments have introduced trade restrictions covering a substantial amount of international trade — affecting $747 billion in global imports in the past year alone.
    • WTO has been less affective in addressing them, including US China trade war.
  • New emerging issues:Groups of members are also working towards new rules on a range of issues — electronic commerce, investment facilitation, domestic regulation in services — that aim to make trade more efficient and predictable in cutting-edge sectors of the economy.
    • However, the rising differences among developed and developing countries is delaying any early settlement.
    • India has made it clear that no discussion can go on without settling the question of Peace clause and Doha rounds.
  • Side stepping WTO: Since the launch of the Doha Round, countries have turned to free trade agreements (FTAs) in order to gain significant trade access in new markets and to explore new trade-related issues that are currently not addressed within the WTO.
    • As more FTAs have been concluded, the central role of the WTO in liberalizing trade has been called into question.
  • Limited success in major issues:WTO has played a very limited role in helping address other global issues related to trade, such as food security, climate change and global trade imbalances.

Way forward

  • A vibrant WTO cannot accommodate conflicting economic models of market versus state. All WTO members will have to accept the operative assumption of a rules-based order steered by a market economy, the private sector, and competition.
  • Launch negotiations to address the intertwined issues of agricultural subsidies and market access, while recognising that food security concerns will not disappear.
  • A credible trading system requires a dispute settlement system that is accepted by all.
  • Launch serious negotiations to restore the balance, and we must do so in an open-ended plurilateral manner that cannot be blocked by those who do not want to move ahead.
  • GATT/WTO rules in a number of areas are outdated. New rules are required to keep pace with changes in the market and technology. Rules and disciplines on topics ranging from trade-distorting industrial subsidies to digital trade require updates.

Conclusion

The World Trade Organization remains an indispensable organisation but it requires urgent modernisation. Members have to face the reality that the organisation requires non-cosmetic, serious root-and-branch reform for a WTO adapted to 21st century economic and political realities.

Value addition

Organizational Structure of WTO

  • Ministerial Conference – It Includes all members, meets once in 2 year and the 11th Ministerial Conference was held in Argentina)
  • General Council – It acts a Dispute Settlement Body and Trade Policy Review Body.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. What is trade deficit? Examine its implications on the Indian economy and measures needed to keep deficit within acceptable limits. 250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Driven by a rise in global demand for engineering and electronic products, India’s goods exports in December rose 1 per cent while the trade deficit narrowed to a three-month low.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the trade deficit and its impact on the Indian economy.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining current trade deficit.

Body:

Frist, write about the impact of trade deficit will have on the Indian economy. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Next, write about the measures that are needed to keep the trade deficit in acceptable limits.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

A trade deficit occurs when a country’s imports exceed its exports during a given time period. It is also referred to as a negative balance of trade (BOT). A trade deficit or net amount can be calculated on different categories within an international transaction account. These include goods, services, goods and services, current account, and the sum of balances on the current and capital accounts.

Driven by a rise in global demand for engineering and electronic products, India’s goods exports in December rose 1 per cent while the trade deficit narrowed to a three-month low.

Body

implications on the Indian economy

  • Currency Depreciation:
    • Persistent trade deficits can put pressure on the country’s currency.
    • If India consistently imports more than it exports, there will be higher demand for foreign currencies, leading to a depreciation of the Indian rupee.
    • While a weaker currency can boost exports by making them more competitive, it can also lead to higher import costs and contribute to inflation.
  • Impact on Current Account Balance:
    • The trade balance is a significant component of the current account balance.
    • A sustained trade deficit contributes to a negative current account balance.
    • This means that India is borrowing or using its foreign exchange reserves to finance the gap, which may not be sustainable in the long run.
  • Foreign Exchange Reserves:
    • To finance the trade deficit, India may need to dip into its foreign exchange reserves.
    • Overreliance on reserves can deplete these reserves, affecting the country’s ability to manage external shocks and meet international obligations.
  • Interest Rates and Inflation:
    • A large trade deficit may lead to higher inflation if the country relies on external financing.
    • The central bank may need to increase interest rates to attract foreign capital, which can impact domestic borrowing costs and economic activity.
  • Industrial and Employment Impact:
    • A trade deficit can affect domestic industries, especially those that face intense competition from cheaper imports.
    • This may lead to job losses in certain sectors.
    • On the other hand, a trade deficit might indicate consumer preferences for imported goods, benefiting certain industries.
  • Dependency on External Factors:
    • A trade deficit makes a country more dependent on external factors such as global economic conditions, commodity prices, and currency exchange rates.
    • Changes in these factors can have a direct impact on the trade balance.
  • Investment Flows:
    • A trade deficit may attract foreign direct investment (FDI) or foreign portfolio investment (FPI) to offset the imbalance.
    • However, reliance on foreign investment to cover the deficit makes the economy susceptible to changes in investor sentiment and global economic conditions.
  • Policy Responses:
    • Persistent trade deficits may prompt policymakers to implement measures to correct the imbalance, such as trade policy adjustments, currency interventions, or structural reforms aimed at enhancing export competitiveness.

Measures needed to tackle trade deficit

  • Export Promotion: Implement policies to boost exports, such as incentives, subsidies, and trade facilitation.
  • Import Substitution: Encourage domestic production to replace imports, fostering self-sufficiency.
  • Currency Management: Monitor and manage the exchange rate to enhance export competitiveness.
  • Trade Agreements: Pursue strategic trade agreements to open new markets and reduce trade barriers.
  • Infrastructure Development: Invest in infrastructure to reduce logistics costs and improve supply chain efficiency.
  • Research and Development: Promote innovation to create high-value exports and enhance competitiveness.
  • Fiscal and Monetary Policies: Implement balanced fiscal and monetary measures to maintain economic stability.
  • Skill Development: Enhance workforce skills to support high-tech industries and improve productivity.
  • Regulatory Reforms: Streamline regulations to facilitate business growth and attract foreign investment.
  • Diversification: Encourage diversification of export products and markets to reduce dependency on specific sectors or regions.

Conclusion

A small trade deficit is necessary for the development of the country as it increases demand, consumption and in turn, causes economic growth. However, an unchecked trade deficit can lead to overdependence of the economy on imports, and any small disturbances in the geopolitical scenario and supply chain will create a ripple effect and causes widespread inflation which is unsustainable.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: dimensions of ethics;

7. For most of human history, ethics has concentrated on “human rights”. However, ethics now include the rights of environment. In this context, explain environmental ethics. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: A Practical Approach to Ethics Integrity and Aptitude by D.K Balaji.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain environmental ethics and how it has become an important dimension of ethics in the twenty first century.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

 Start by describing the anthropocentric nature of the discourse of ethics. Only recently the focus has shifted to environmental ethics.

Body:

Mention the implications of neglect of the environment, varied cultural beliefs surrounding it, the western ideology that environment is for human disposal without regard to the future generations, concept of sustainable development, associating rights of environment to preservation etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by saying that environmental ethics is more relevant now than ever in the context of climate change.

Introduction

Environmental ethics is a branch of ethics that studies the relation of human beings and the environment and how ethics play a role in this. Environmental ethics believe that humans are a part of society as well as other living creatures, which includes plants and animals. These items are a very important part of the world and are considered to be a functional part of human life. Thus, it is essential that every human being respect and honour this and use morals and ethics when dealing with these creatures.

Body

Importance of environmental ethics in current times

  • The main focus of Ethics has been human rights since time immemorial. However, with industrial revolution and increased globalization and burgeoning population, the negative externalities of growth and development are seen on the environment.
  • Present human interference with the non-human world is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening.
  • The recently released Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)reveals how human-caused emissions are altering our planet and what that means for our collective future.
  • Global warming, global climate change, deforestation, pollution, resource degradation, threat of extinction of species are few of the issues from which our planet is suffering.
  • New dynamic issues like Environmental Refugees and climate migrants has been on the rise across the planet.
  • Thus, now it’s time to focus on the rights of the environment and its constituent beings other than humans.
  • Environmental ethics, concerned with the issue of responsible personal conduct with respect to natural landscapes, resources, species, and non-human organisms. It is a cluster of beliefs, values and norms regarding how humans should interact with the environment.

How Environmental ethics helps in today’s times

  • Strengthens Human-environment relationship:
    • Environmental ethics focuses on questions concerning how we ought to inhabit the world; what constitutes a good life or a good society; and who, where, or what merits moral standing.
    • Thus, it brings us closer and the help us understand the relationship and strengthens the relationship.
  • Environmental Justice to all:
    • People living in the economically-advanced sections/ parts use greater amount of resources and energy per individual and also waste more resources. This is at the cost of poor people who are resource-deprived.
    • Likewise, there is a need for balance sharing of impacts of environmental degradation among different regions. For instance, island countries of tropical region share the most impacts of Climate Change while contributing least to it.
  • Focuses on vulnerable sections:
    • Consequences of environmental pollution do not respect national boundaries.
    • Moreover, the poor and weaker sections of society are disproportionately affected by negative effects of climate change.
  • Sustainable living and development:
    • Environmental ethics helps provide better quality living to current generation
    • It will help spread awareness among people and thus protect the environment and reminds us of the moral obligation to preserve environment for the future generations to come through regulated use of environment
  • Focus on Biocentrism:
    • Every entity that share the Earth with us have a right to live with dignity and share the Earth’s resources and living space. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
    • Animal welfare is relevant to environmental ethics because animals exist within the natural environment and thus form part of environmentalists’ concerns.
    • It sustains other species as well which is moral responsibility of one species i.e. humankind towards all others.
  • Helps overcome Anthropocentric approach of development:
    • Anthropocentrism refers to an ethical framework that grants “moral standing” solely to human beings.
    • Thus, an anthropocentric ethic claims that only human beings are morally considerable in their own right, meaning that all the direct moral obligations we possess, including those we have with regard to the environment, are owed to our fellow human beings.
  • To tackle global issues:
    • Pandemics like Ebola, Zika, MERS, SARS etc. had alerted human species about the imbalance in relation between humans and Environment.
    • Ignorance causing Covid-19 pandemic has almost stopped the world for human species and has nudged humans to introspect on their relationship with environment.

Human values needed for better environmental ethics:

Human actions and decision-making choice depend on human values. Strong values always help reduce the confusion. If these are coherent with the surrounding environment nature and wildlife, then it will certainly be helpful for sustainable development.

  • Empathy: without empathy for all lives, there will always be selectiveness and selfishness among humans towards different lives. Value of Nurturing and protecting biodiversity. Making way for flora and fauna to co-exist with us.
  • Love: love transcends only human-human interaction. It’s also between other lives and nature’s beauty.
  • Sustainable development: Saving resources for future generation .That is to stop over exploitation of resources specially exhaustible and non-renewable resources.
  • Control over mining, deforestation in the name of “development”
  • Minimalistic living: Sacrificing certain comforts for protecting environment. Example- reduction in use of polluting vehicles for good of all, carpooling, using public transport.

Conclusion

We must realize the biggest value that Earth belongs not only to humans but to other biodiversity too. Further, protecting this environment for future generation becomes our responsibility as part of environmental ethics.


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