Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 15 January 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. The rise of Indian nationalism in the mid-nineteenth century was influenced by a combination of social, economic, political, and cultural factors. Examine. (250)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Key Demand of the question: To write about nationalism, factors for its rise and different views regarding it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining nationalism.

Body:

First, write about the various factors that led to rise of nationalism in India – the Despotic nature of the rule, the racial discrimination, indiscriminate taxation, ruining of Industries, Introduction of modern education, the influx of ideas of liberalism and constitutionalism, the rise of an educated middle class, the impact of the press, the impact of socio-religious reform movements etc.

Next, write about the role of Western-educated Indians in the rise of Indian nationalism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating a balanced opinion.

Introduction

Nationalism is an ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. Nationalism typically makes certain political claims based upon this belief: above all, the claim that the nation is the only fully legitimate basis for a state, that each nation is entitled to its own state, and that the borders of the state should be congruent with the borders of the nation. Nationalism refers to both a political doctrine and any collective action by political and social movements on behalf of specific nations.

Body

Factors that led to the rise of Indian nationalism

  • Western Thought and Education: The introduction of a modern system of education afforded opportunities for assimilation of modern western ideas. This, in turn, gave a new direction to Indian political thinking, although the English system of education had been conceived by the rulers in the interest of efficient administration.
    • The liberal and radical thought of European writers like Milton, Shelley, John Stuart Mill, Rousseau, Paine, Spencer and Voltairehelped many Indians imbibe modern rational, secular, democratic and nationalist ideas.
  • The English languagehelped nationalist leaders from different linguistic regions to communicate with each other. Those among the educated who took up liberal professions (lawyers, doctors, etc.) often visited England for higher education.
    • There they saw theworking of modern political institutions in a free country and compared that system with the Indian situation where even basic rights were denied to the citizens.
    • This ever-expanding English educated class formed the middle-class intelligentsia who constituted the nucleus for the newly arising political unrest.It was this section which provided leadership to the Indian political associations.
  • Press: The second half of the nineteenth century saw an unprecedented growth of Indian owned English and vernacular newspapers, despite numerous restrictions imposed on the press by the colonial rulers from time to time.
    • The press while criticising official policies, on the one hand, urged the people to unite, on the other.It also helped spread modern ideas of self-government, democracy, civil rights and industrialization.
    • The newspapers, journals, pamphlets and nationalist literature helped in the exchange of ,political ideas among nationalist leaders from different regions.
  • Socio-religious reforms:These reform movements sought to remove social evils which divided the Indian society; this had the effect of bringing different sections together and proved to be an important factor in the growth of Indian nationalism.
  • Rise of middle-class intelligentsia: This class, prominent because of its education, new position and its close ties with the ruling class, came to the forefront. The leadership to the Indian National Congress in all its stages of growth was provided by this class.
  • Impact of Contemporary Movements Worldwide:Rise of a number of nations on the ruins of Spanish and Portuguese empires in South America, and the national liberation movements of Greece and Italy in general and of Ireland deeply influenced the nationalist ranks.
  • Reactionary Policies and Racial Arrogance of Rulers:  Racial myths of white superiority were sought to be perpetuated by adeliberate policy of discrimination and segregation. Indians felt deeply hurt by this. Lytton’s reactionary policies such as reduction of maximum age limit for the I.C.S. examination ‘from 21 years to 19 years (1876), the grand Delhi Durbar of 1877 when the country was in the severe grip of famine, the Vernacular Press Act (1878) and the Arms Act (1878) provoked a storm of opposition in the country.
    • It became clear, to the nationalists that justice and fair play could not be expected where interests of the European community were involved.

 

Indian Nationalism succeeded and is unique because of its various peculiarities

  • A Cosmic Vision:The framework of Indian culture places human beings in the centre of the universe, as a divine creation-which celebrates Individuality and differences of opinion in the society.
  • Sense of Harmony:Indian philosophy and culture tries to achieve an innate harmony and order in the society.
  • Tolerance:In India, tolerance and liberalism is found for all religions, castes, communities, etc. Indian society accepted and respected Shaka, Huna, Scythians, Muslim, Christian, Jews and Zoroastrians. Rulers like Ashoka, Akbar have patronized various religions and ensured that there is peaceful co-existence of religions.
  • Continuity and Stability: The light of ancient Indian culture life is yet glowing. Many invasions occurred, many rulers changed, many laws were passed but even today, the traditional institutions, religion, epics, literature, philosophy, traditions, etc. are alive.
  • Adaptability:Adaptability is the process of changing according to time, place and period. Indian society has shown fluidity and has adjusted itself with changing times.
  • Caste System and Hierarchy:Indian Society has evolved systems of social stratification, which in the past helped in accommodating outsiders, but concomitantly it has also been the reason for discrimination and prejudice.
  • Unity in diversity:Despite inherent difference Indian society celebrates unity in diversity which reflects in modern India’s founding principles and constitutional ideals.

Conclusion

British rule was largely responsible for a new awakening among the Indians. The collective impact of British rule and enlightenment of Indians led to increased nationalist feeling.

 

Topic:  The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

2. The Moderate phase in Indian nationalism was characterized by the advocacy of a gradual and constitutional approach towards achieving political reforms and greater Indian representation within the British colonial framework. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question: 

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about contributions of Moderates and the role played by them in India’s struggle for independence.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Write about how Moderate phase marked the beginning organised struggle in freedom movement.

Body:

Elaborate upon their contributions of economic critique of nationalism, explain in detail the role of moderate in laying foundations for India’s struggle for Independence, spreading nationalism to far and wide and protecting the nascent Indian National Congress from any serious repercussions of the British.

Conclusion:

Summarise the legacy of moderates.

Introduction

The moderates contributed significantly in Indian freedom struggle. The main objective of the Moderates was to achieve self-government within the British Empire. They followed a middle path and not an extreme path against British Empire.

Body

Nature of the Moderate Phase

Political demands of the moderates were moderate:

  • From 1885 to 1892, their main demand continued to be expansion and reform of the Legislative Councils, the membership of the Councils for elected representatives of the people and also an increase in the powers of these Councils.
  • Holding the ICS exam in India along with England to allow more Indians the opportunity to take part in the administration.
  • the separation of the Judiciary from the executive
  • Freedom of speech and expression.
  • Freedom to form associations.
  • Repealing the Arms Act of 1878.
  • Increasing spending on education of Indians.

However, Economic demands of moderates were radical:

  • The most notable part of Moderates political work was their systematic and factual criticism of the economic policy of British rule through press and publication.
  • The focal point of the nationalist critique of colonialism was the drain theory. For instance, Dadabhai Naoroji put forward the idea that Britain was draining and ‘bleeding’ India.
  • Other nationalist leaders, journalists and propagandists followed in the foot-steps of Dadabhai Naoroji. R.C. Dutt, for example, made the drain the major theme of his Economic History of India.
  • They demanded Indian control over the public purse and raised the slogan that had earlier been raised by the Americans during their War of Independence, ‘No taxation without representation’.
  • Moderates strictly demanded to reduce the military expenditure and increase the allocation of money for activities such as health and education.
  • They demanded the reduction of land revenue and abolition of the salt tax and supported the imposition of income tax and import duties on products which the rich and the middle classes consumed.
  • Dadabhai Naoroji in his famous economic critique ‘Poverty and un-British rule in India’ popularly put it, foreign capital represented the ‘despoilation’ and ‘exploitation’ of Indian resources.
    • Similarly, the editor of the Hindustan Review and Kayastha Samachar described the use of foreign capital as ‘a system of international depradation’.
  • They demanded for the development and protection of Indian Industries through increased tariffs on imports and government aid for these industries.
  • After seeing the failure of the Government in this regard the nationalists popularised the idea of Swadeshi or use of Indian goods and boycott of British goods as a means of promoting Indian industries.
  • An enquiry into India’s growing poverty and famines.
  • They organized powerful intellectual agitations against nearly all the important official economic policies. They used these agitations to both understand and to explain to others the basis of these policies in the colonial structure.

Limitations of Moderate phase: 

  • However British rule, to most of them seemed to be an act of providence destined to bring in modernization.
  • The moderate politicians could not or did not organize an agitation against British rule because of them still shred an intrinsic faith in the English democratic liberal political tradition.
  • Their politics was very limited in terms of goals and methods. They were secular in their attitudes, though not always forthright enough to rise above their sectarian interests. They were conscious of the exploitative nature of British rule, but wanted its reforms and not expulsion.
  • They equated liberty with class privilege and wanted gradual or piecemeal reforms.
  • Early Congressman had an implicit faith in the efficacy of peaceful and constitutional agitation as opposed to popular mean of agitation.
  • The movement was confined to the educated classes only. Did not try to employ the masses.
  • Believed in Petition, Prayer and Protest. They did not go for mass mobilisation. The basic weakness of the early national movement lay in its narrow social base. It did not penetrate down to the masses. In fact, the leaders lacked faith in the masses.
  • Their immediate demand was not for full self-government or democracy. They demanded democratic rights only for the educated members of the Indian society, who would substitute for the masses.

However, Moderate phase was not a complete failure

  • The moderates led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others, analysed the political economy of British rule in India, and put forward the “drain theory” to explain British exploitation of India.
  • Moderates were able to create an all-India public opinion that British rule in India was the major cause of India’s poverty and economic backwardness. The moderates demanded reduction in land revenue, abolition of salt tax, improvement in working conditions of plantation labour, etc.
  • They helped in expansion of council’s i.e. greater participation of Indians in councils and helped in reform of councils i.e. more powers to councils, especially greater control over finances.
  • The early nationalists worked with the long-term objective of a democratic self-government.
  • They campaigned for General Administrative Reforms. They demanded and put pressure on British Empire on Indianisation of government service on the economic grounds.
  • They asked and contributed in Separation of judicial from executive functions.
  • They criticised:
    • Oppressive and tyrannical bureaucracy and an expensive and time-consuming judicial system.
    • Aggressive foreign policy which resulted in annexation of Burma, attack on Afghanistan and suppression of tribals in the North-West.
    • Increase in expenditure on welfare, education, especially elementary and technical, irrigation works and improvement of agriculture, agricultural banks for cultivators etc.
  • They fought for civil rights including the right to speech, thought, association and a free press. Through campaigns, the nationalists were able to spread modern democratic ideas, and soon the defence of civil rights became an integral part of the freedom struggle.

Conclusion

The nationalists were, thus, able to build a national movement while undermining the political and moral influence of imperialist rule. This helped in generating anti-imperialist sentiments among the public. But, at the same time, the nationalists failed to widen the democratic base of the movement by not including the masses, especially women, and not demanding the right to vote for all.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

3. Morality goes beyond mere adherence to a set of prescribed rules and involves the development of a virtuous and principled character. Elaborate.

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining morality.

Body:

Write about difference between preaching morality and practising it. Write about the impact of the same. Write ways how one can practice what is preached. Write about how morality determines the quality of the character. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The essence of morality, emphasizes that it extends beyond a mere collection of rules and regulations. It suggests that morality is intricately linked to an individual’s character and the qualities they possess.

Body

Rules and codes of conduct serve as guidelines for ethical behavior, but they are incomplete without the underlying quality of character. Morality is not simply about adhering to a predetermined set of do’s and don’ts; it involves the internalization of virtues such as honesty, compassion, fairness, and integrity. These virtues shape an individual’s character and guide their actions in a consistent and principled manner.

Furthermore, morality is not just an external imposition but a personal attribute that manifests through one’s behavior and choices. It emphasizes the importance of cultivating virtues and developing a strong moral character as a foundation for ethical decision-making. While rules may change or vary across different contexts, the quality of character remains fundamental and transcends specific situations.

Morality is not static but a lifelong pursuit. It implies that developing and refining one’s character is an ongoing process, requiring self-reflection, self-awareness, and a commitment to personal growth. It underscores the idea that morality is deeply intertwined with our inner selves and influences our interactions with others and the world at large.

Conclusion

In essence, true morality goes beyond compliance with rules; it resides in the very fabric of our character and shapes our actions, enabling us to navigate ethical dilemmas with wisdom and integrity.

 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

4.  When faced with adversity, individuals reveal their true nature, displaying qualities such as resilience, integrity, empathy, and courage. Examine.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

Write about how it is easy to be display good character in easy time and in the times adversity, the real character of the person is shown. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Adversity can be defined as an unfavourable fortune, incident or fate; a condition marked by misfortune, calamity or distress. It is inevitable that in our lifetime, we will undergo adverse situations and circumstances, and learning to embrace these situations with grace and dignity can be beneficial for our personal journeys. Rich roots of character can be developed when learning to embrace adverse situations life throws, when one learns to ask which lessons can be derived from their misfortunes and every adversity has a distinct and unique lesson that can only be learned when the adversity is embraced.

Body

One is able to see people’s true colours-real friend’s surface. Although adverse situations can be painful and daunting, they can be viewed and deemed as blessings in disguise, no matter how independent one is, you’ll need people and its often in the most adverse of times will one’s true friends be revealed.

When faced with adverse situations, one is aware that sitting and crying about it will not bring much solutions, the seeking of a remedy to the situations is how one becomes creative.

Adversity is a Better Teacher Than Good Fortune. Under the greatest adversity, there exists the greatest potential for doing good – both for oneself and others. Adversities often push us into new direction. The greatest advantage of adversity is that it shakes us out of our complacency. It brings before us greater challenges and teaches how to deal with them. It gives a ‘wake-up call’. So, every adversity is an opportunity and not a curse or punishment. Adversity is like a strong wind. It tears away from us all, but the things that cannot be torn, that we see ourselves as we really are.

Great people see adversity as an opportunity, and they know there is something they can learn. They pursue the difficulty and work endlessly to fix it. They do not give up and they generate the greatest potential in tough times for their self and others.

During India’s freedom struggle, Gandhiji lead by example. He braved arrest and went on hunger fast several times, just to ensure that morale of people does not come down and they are kept motivated even when British were ruthlessly suppressing the dissent and protesting people. This was the key to success of Salt Satyagraha and Quit India Movement. He not only faced the adversity, but his actions in this time were defining moments of India’s struggle. The freedom we enjoy today can be attributed to his actions in the face of adversity.

Great people see adversity as an opportunity, and they know there is something they can learn. They pursue the difficulty and work endlessly to fix it. They do not give up and they generate the greatest potential in tough times for their self and others.

 

Conclusion

No one goes through life without facing adversity; it is an integral part of life. Let the adversity be a teacher to us. It will build the character and will test our determination. But, in the end, it will make one stronger.  We must ensure to take time to learn from the difficulties that life is sure to send our way. Otherwise, the failure will define us instead of us moving forward and using it to propel us to higher dimensions. Seize it as an opportunity rather than cause for fear and self-doubt.


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube ChannelHERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE

Follow us on LinkedIn : HERE