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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 4 January 2024

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The system of self-government in Chola villages played a crucial role in the overall governance of the dynasty, contributing to a well-organized and efficient administrative structure. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the Chola local self-governing villages. 

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context of Uttarameruru inscription.

Body:

First, write in detail, the features of Chola local self-governing villages – various qualifications, disqualifications, committees and their natures of responsibilities.

Next, write about the level of autonomy enjoyed by these Chola local self-governing villages. 

Next, write about the significance of Chola local self-governing villages. 

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

There were two types of villages at the local in the Chola empire. One type of village consisted of people from different caste and the assembly which ran this type of village was called ‘ur’. The second type of village was ‘agrahara’ types of village which were settled by Brahmins in which most of the land was rent-free.

The assembly of this agrahara type of village was a gathering of the adult men in brahmana villages called ‘Sabha’ or ‘mahasabha’. These villages enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. The affairs of the village were managed by an executive committees to which educated person owning property were elected by drawing lots or by rotation.

Uttarameruru inscription issued by Parantaka Chola gives details of election to these committees.

Body

The system of village autonomy with sabhas and their committees developed through the ages and reached its culmination during the Chola rule. Two inscriptions belonging to the period of Parantaka I found at Uttiramerur provide details of the formation and functions of village councils.

That village was divided into thirty wards and each was to nominate its members to the village council. The qualifications to become a ward member were:

  • Ownership of at least one fourth veli of land.
  • Own residence.
  • Above thirty years and below seventy years of age.
  • Knowledge of Vedas.

However, certain norms of disqualification were also mentioned in the inscriptions. They were:

  • Those who had been members of the committees for the past three years.
  • Those who had failed to submit accounts as committee members.
  • Those who had committed sins.
  • Those who had stolen the property of others.

From the persons duly nominated, one was to be chosen for each ward by kudavolai system for a year. The names of eligible persons were written on palm-leaves and put into a pot. A young boy or girl would take out thirty names each for one ward. They were divided into six variyams such as samvatsaravariyam, erivariyam, thotta variyam, pancha variyam, pon variyam and puravuvari variyam to take up six different functions of the village administration. The committee members were called variyapperumakkal. They usually met in the temple or under a tree and passed resolutions. The number of committees and ward members varied from village to village.

Conclusion

Hence Chola administration gave a lot of autonomy to village councils and committees. This local decentralization shows the acumen for good governance back in the ancient and medieval period which was indigenously developed.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. The administrative features of the Vijayanagara Empire were characterized by a well-organized structure that contributed to the stability and prosperity of the kingdom Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate.

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the features of Vijayanagar empire and its importance.

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

In the first part, write about major features of the Vijayanagara empire – centralized governance under the king, provincial administration by Nayakas, a structured taxation system, and a strong military.

Next, write about infrastructure, arts and culture, and religious tolerance of the Vijayanagara Kings.

Next, write about the significance of the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Founded in 1336 by Harihara I and Bukka Raya I, the Vijayanagara empire’s administrative structure was characterized by centralized authority, effective provincial governance, a feudal system, and a strategic approach to military, economic, and cultural affairs. This intricate administrative framework not only facilitated efficient governance but also contributed significantly to the enduring success of the Vijayanagara Empire during its zenith.

Body

Administrative features of Vijayanagara empire

  • Centralized Administration: The Vijayanagara Empire had a centralized administrative system where the king held supreme authority. The king was considered divine and held the title “Devaraya,” emphasizing the divine nature of the ruler. The monarch’s word was considered law, and his decisions were final.
  • Provincial Administration: The Empire was divided into different administrative units called Mandalams, Nadus, sthalas and finally into gramas. The governor of Mandalam was called Mandaleswara or Nayak. Vijayanagar rulers gave full powers to the local authorities in the administration
  • Feudal System: The Vijayanagara Empire adopted a feudal system where local chiefs and nobles were given land grants in exchange for military service and loyalty. These nobles, known as Nayakas, played a crucial role in both the military and administrative aspects of the empire.
  • Local Governance: Local governance was entrusted to village assemblies known as ‘Grama Sabhas’ and town assemblies called ‘Nagara Sabhas.’ These assemblies were responsible for local matters such as law and order, maintenance of local infrastructure, and dispute resolution. The participation of the local population in decision-making helped in maintaining stability.
  • Revenue System: The empire implemented a well-organized revenue system that played a vital role in economic prosperity.
    • Land revenue was generally fixed at 1/6th of the produce
    • The land revenue, known as ‘Sist’ or ‘Tax,’ was collected based on the cultivation and productivity of the land.
  • Military Administration: The Vijayanagar army was well-organized and efficient. It consisted of the cavalry, infantry, artillery and elephants. High-breed horses were procured from foreign traders. The top-grade officers of the army were known as Nayaks or Poligars. They were granted land in lieu of their services. These lands were called amaram. Soldiers were usually paid in cash
  • Trade and Commerce: The empire encouraged trade and commerce, contributing to economic prosperity. The capital city, Vijayanagara, was strategically located along major trade routes, facilitating trade with foreign countries. The rulers also maintained a diplomatic relationship with foreign powers.
  • Cultural and Religious Harmony: The empire promoted cultural and religious harmony by patronizing various art forms, including literature, music, dance, and architecture. The rulers were tolerant of different religions, fostering a diverse and inclusive society.
    • Eg: Mahanavami Dibba is also called as Dasara Dibba. It was built during the Vijayanagara period by King Krishnadevaraya to commemorate his victory over Udaygiri. It was the place where the King of Vijayanagar used to celebrate the festival of Dasara (Dussehra).

 

Conclusion

In essence, the Vijayanagara Empire’s well-organized administrative system, marked by centralized authority, decentralized governance, efficient revenue management, and strategic military control, played a pivotal role in ensuring stability and prosperity. This comprehensive approach, coupled with diplomatic acumen and cultural patronage, defined the empire’s success and enduring legacy in South Indian history.

 

Topic: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

3.  Effective regulation of NGOs is necessary to prevent misuse of resources and ensure accountability. However, it is essential to strike a balance that allows NGOs to operate effectively, respond to local needs, and contribute meaningfully to holistic development. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

False notions of sustainability, scaling up, systemic change and ulterior motives need to be tackled in NGOs.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of wetland ecosystem.

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly mention the role of NGOs in civil society.

Body:

First, elaborate upon the role of NGO’s in achieving developmental aspiration.

Next, explain the issues with respect to NGOs and the need to regulate it. Mention the rationale behind such regulation. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India’s civil society is undeniably significant, as they play a pivotal role in addressing a wide range of societal challenges. However, in order to maintain public trust and ensure effective operations, it is imperative to strike a delicate balance between holding NGOs accountable for their actions and providing them with the necessary autonomy to carry out their crucial work.

Body

Importance of NGO’s and their role

  • In a large developing country like India, there are numerous gaps left by the government in the development process. These are the gaps that civil societies try to fill in modern India.
  • Supplementing the government effort to provide health care to citizens, and by raising awareness in society about issues like child and maternal malnutrition
  • A number of NGO’s like Childline India Foundation, World Vision, Arambh India have played important role in raising awareness on child sexual abuse.
  • In the last 20 years, a very large number of NGOs in India have been active in the area of environmental protection.
  • The NGOs have often been helped by the judiciary whenever the government of the day has proved unresponsive.
  • The engagement of civil society and the media in educating citizens about the evils of corruption, raising their awareness levels and securing their participation by giving them a ‘voice’.
  • Civil society can influence policy and project formulation through membership of committees and submission of memoranda.

Issues with NGO functioning

  • Misappropriation of funds: Many NGOs don’t have sophisticated finance and legal teams, nor do they have the funds to conduct audits.
  • The issue of foreign funding: According to government data a total of 3,068 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) received foreign funding above Rs. 22,000 Cr in 2014-15. It is often said that foreign-funded NGOs tries to propagate the foreign propaganda to stall developmental projects. Example: Kudankulam Protest.
  • Non-accountable, non-transparent undemocratic functioning: CBI records filed in the Supreme Court show that only 10% of the total registered NGOs under the Societies Registration Act file annual financial statements.
  • Money Laundering: Corrupt or unscrupulous NGOs that receive foreign funds may serve as conduits for money laundering.
  • Accreditation remains a big challenge as it is very difficult to distinguish whether an organization wants to work for the cause or has been set up only for the purpose of receiving government grants.
  • Over dependence on funds from the government dilutes the willingness of NGOs to speak out against the government.
  • NGOs are often seen as encroaching on centuries-old tradition and culture of the people, and lead to mass protest at times. Ban of Jallikattu, after the PIL by PETA is one such example

 

Way forward

  • National Accreditation Council consisting of academicians, activist, retired bureaucrats should be made to ensure compliance by NGOs.
  • There should be better coordination between Ministries of Home Affairs and Finance in terms of monitoring and regulating illicit and unaccounted funds.
  • regulatory mechanism to keep a watch on the financial activities of NGOs and voluntary organizations is the need of the hour.
  • Citizens today are keen to play an active role in processes that shape their lives and it is important that their participation in democracy go beyond the ritual of voting and should include promotion of social justice, gender equity, inclusion etc.
  • The government should frame guidelines for their accreditation, the manner in which these organizations should maintain their accounts and the procedure for recovery in case they fail to submit their balance sheets.
  • Avoid tussle between Home Ministry and Finance Ministry by bringing the regulation of NGOs under one head.
  • General Financial Rules, 2005 have mandated a regulatory mechanism for the NGOs and a comprehensive law in line with these rules should be framed in no time.

Conclusion

Achieving the right balance between accountability and enabling NGOs is a nuanced endeavor. A well-designed regulatory framework that promotes transparency and efficiency while allowing flexibility for innovation and adaptability is essential for a robust civil society in India. This balance ensures that NGOs can effectively address critical societal issues while maintaining public trust and credibility.

 

Value addition

Enabling NGOs for Effective Impact:

  • Flexibility in Operations: NGOs often work in dynamic and complex environments. Excessive regulations or bureaucratic hurdles can stifle their ability to respond quickly and effectively to emerging issues or crises.
  • Encourages Innovation and Experimentation: NGOs often pioneer innovative solutions to societal challenges. Allowing them some degree of flexibility and autonomy enables them to experiment with new approaches and adapt to evolving circumstances.
  • Fosters a Diverse Civil Society: A diverse array of NGOs with various missions and strategies is essential for a vibrant civil society. Striking the right balance allows for a rich tapestry of organizations, each contributing uniquely to societal development.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. The proper construction, operation, and scientific management of landfills are critical to preventing environmental contamination. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

If the landfills are not scientifically constructed and operated, they can act as a hub of numerous kinds of contaminants including plastics.

Key Demand of the question:

To write issues with landfills and remedies for better waste management.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give context about landfills.

Body:

First, write the problems associated with rapid urbanisation and waste management in India at landfills: Leaching of chemicals, spread of diseases, release of poisonous and toxic gages, fires, serious health and environmental hazards to the people etc.

Next, suggest strategies to deal with solid waste so that it may prove a resource instead of waste.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials and is the oldest and most common form of waste disposal. The landfill sites in India are not scientifically planned. The efficiency of waste processing is only 30-40%, while India’s municipalities are collecting over 95% of the waste generated in cities.

Body

Challenges posed by landfills in India

  • The wastes arenot segregated due to which the landfill sites receive mixed wastes which include organic waste/ignitable material/plastics. (Higher temperature + flammable material = a chance for the landfill to catch fire.)
  • In India, more than 90% of the MSW generated finds its way to landfill sites, often in the most unhygienic manner possible. The landfilling process of the municipalities is the most unorganized one.
  • The landfills are meant for reducing the exposure between humans and the environment from toxic waste but it takes a toll on humans as we are exposed to the problems associated with the waste directly i.e from the soil and groundwater pollution. There are concerns regarding the flow of toxins in the food chain of birds and animals, fires and explosions, vegetation damage, unpleasant odor, landfill settlement, groundwater pollution, air pollution and global warming.
  • The disposal of these toxic chemicals leads to the exposure of rag pickers to these chemicals. The rag picker’s only means of income is by collecting waste but they are not aware of the fact that this waste will be toxic for them, their health as well as their surrounding.
  • The anaerobic decomposition(breakdown of organic waste in the absence of oxygen) generates methane gas and heat. As soon as the methane gas comes in contact with oxygen, the combustible materials at the dumping site catch fire easily.
  • The health problems related to various emissions from landfills include high PM10 exposure, breathing problems, bacterial infections, asthma, elevated cardiovascular risk, and other infections.
  • In India scenario, open dumps are highly prevailing which causes the breeding of mosquitoes, flies, rats, cockroaches, and other pests. Some diseases are very common in the population living near the landfill site such as plague, histoplasmosis, murine typhus, malaria, dengue, West Nile fever, etc. as they are caused by the pests breeding in the landfills.

Way forward

  • proper disciplinary actionshould be taken against officials who are responsible for management of municipal waste in the area. This will set a good precedent for future.
  • State governments should provide adequate funds to local bodiesso that they can take requisite measures to tackle the creation of giant landfills.
  • States must also learn from good practices of each other to tackle the menace of landfills. For instance, the Delhi Government has agreed to study a system installed in Mumbai to capture methane from the rotting waste and replicate it in the national capital to prevent fires at the landfill site.
  • India also has todevelop skilled and trained professionals to operate and maintain the entire waste management chain. Right from the collection, operation and maintenance of waste-handling plants.
  • There should beproper implementation of Solid Waste Management and Plastic Waste Management Rules so that less waste flows into landfills.
  • The idea of acircular economy should be promoted in masses. Further, the government should do greater procurement of recycled goods for itself in order to incentivise the private sector.

Conclusion

The menace of landfills is a result of decades of poor solid waste management practices adopted by the Governments and the masses. The rising number of landfill fires is a testimony to the huge magnitude of damage that a big landfill site can cause to the citizens. It is therefore imperative to take proactive measures towards their reduction and help in achievement of SDG 15 (Life on Land).

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: basics of cyber security;

5. What is ‘cyber kidnapping’? Examine the measures needed to prevent this cybercrime. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

A Chinese student who was a victim of ‘cyber kidnapping’ has been found in rural Utah, unharmed.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about cyber kidnapping and measures needed to prevent it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining cyber kidnapping.

Body:

First, mention that the modus operandi of cyber kidnapping and the threat it poses especially with rise of Artificial Intelligence and Deep Fake.

Next, write about the measures that are needed to prevent this cybercrime from taking place.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

“Cyber kidnapping” typically refers to a form of cybercrime where attackers gain unauthorised access to computer systems or data and then demand ransom in exchange for restoring access or preventing the release of sensitive information. It is a type of extortion carried out in the digital realm. Cyber kidnapping involves tricking the victim or their family online, leading them to believe the person is in danger or kidnapped, and demanding a ransom for their release.

A 17-year-old Chinese exchange student, Kai Zhuang, fell victim to a “cyber-kidnapping” scam that led to his parents being extorted for $80,000 (Rs 66 lakh approx). He was later found alive but “cold and scared” in a tent in the Utah wilderness, as reported by the police.

Body

Modus operandi

  • Like other online frauds, cyber kidnapping has become a growing digital crime.
  • In cyber kidnapping, online attackers target victims and force them into isolating themselves to demand ransom from their families.
  • They monitor the victims through video chat and use pictures captured by them in isolated conditions to extort money from their families.
  • Some scammers have also started using artificial intelligence (AI) tools to mimic the victim’s voice.

Measures needed

  • Be Skeptical of Unsolicited Messages:
    • Exercise caution when receiving unexpected or unsolicited messages, especially those demanding actions or threatening consequences.
  • Verify Identities:
    • Confirm the identity of the person sending the messages. If the person claims to be a family member or someone you know, try to verify their identity through a separate and trusted communication channel.
  • Avoid Sharing Sensitive Information:
    • Be cautious about sharing sensitive information online, including personal details and compromising pictures. Once shared, it can be challenging to control how the information is used.
  • Use Privacy Settings:
    • Adjust privacy settings on social media platforms to control who can see your personal information. Limit access to your profiles and be mindful of what you share publicly.
  • Educate Family and Friends:
    • Inform your family and friends about potential cyber threats and scams. Establish a communication protocol to verify any unusual requests or messages.
  • Report Suspicious Activity:
    • If you receive threatening or suspicious messages, report them to the relevant authorities or your local law enforcement agency.
  • Be Mindful of Social Engineering Tactics:
    • Stay vigilant against social engineering tactics, where attackers manipulate individuals into divulging sensitive information. Be skeptical of emotional appeals and requests for urgent action.
  • Secure Your Devices:
    • Keep your devices secure with strong passwords, two-factor authentication, and updated security software to prevent unauthorized access
  • Educate Yourself:
    • Stay informed about common cyber threats and scams. Awareness is a key defense against falling victim to manipulation and extortion attempts
  • Consult with Professionals
    • If you believe you’ve become a target of cyber kidnapping, consider consulting with cybersecurity professionals or law enforcement agencies experienced in dealing with such cases.

Way forward to safeguard an individual from cyber-kidnapping

  • Experts advise exercising abundant caution with calls or messages from unknown numbers appearing to be loved ones in danger.
  • Immediately contacting college authorities or law enforcement is critical before complying with any demands for money transfers.
  • Limiting personal details on public online spaces can also thwart data harvesting by operatives scoping potential targets.
  • As virtual communications continue displacing human connections, regulators require bolstering forensics, surveillance and reporting channels to curtail faceless exploitation of the vulnerable.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Good means not merely not to do wrong, but rather not to desire to do wrong.” ― Democritus

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning.

Body:

Write about goodness is not only the absence of a wrongness of action but it is absence of wrong intentions/desires. Presence of wrong desires can lead to a wrong action.

Next, write a counter argument that merely having desires may not lead to bad actions. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote.

Introduction

The statement emphasizes a higher ethical standard by suggesting that true goodness goes beyond mere abstention from wrongdoing. Instead, it suggests that genuine goodness involves the absence of wrongful desires. In this context, being morally upright isn’t just about refraining from harmful actions but also about cultivating a virtuous mindset that rejects any inclination towards wrongdoing.

Body

It reflects the idea that a truly good person not only behaves ethically but also harbors no harmful intentions or desires in their thoughts and motivations. This perspective aligns with the concept of moral integrity and highlights the importance of cultivating a positive and virtuous character.

Mahatma Gandhi, a key figure in India’s struggle for independence, exemplified the idea that true goodness extends beyond mere avoidance of wrongdoing to a state of not desiring to do wrong. Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence (ahimsa) and his commitment to Satyagraha (truth-force) provide a practical illustration of this concept.

Gandhi believed in the transformative power of nonviolence both in actions and thoughts. For him, nonviolence was not just the absence of physical harm but also the absence of any desire for harm. He emphasized the importance of purifying one’s intentions and motivations. Gandhi encouraged individuals not only to refrain from physically harming others but also to eliminate any thoughts or desires that may lead to harm.

In everyday scenarios, this principle might manifest as choosing not only to refrain from gossiping or cheating but also actively working on eliminating any desire or inclination to engage in such behaviors.

The notion of not desiring to do wrong implies a cultivation of empathy and compassion. It involves understanding the potential impact of one’s actions on others and actively choosing kindness and empathy over harmful intentions.

Conclusion

In essence, the statement reflects a deeper understanding of morality, urging individuals not only to behave ethically but also to aspire towards an inner state where the very desire to do wrong is absent. It highlights the transformative power of ethical intentions in shaping a truly virtuous and good character.

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Unnecessary laws are traps for honest people but a haven for the dishonest.” ―  Anonymous

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote and highlighting its core meaning.

Body:

Write about the futility of enacting laws that are needed and how they weaken existing laws or the laws that are actually needed. Mention the impact of enacting laws that are not needed. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote.

Introduction

The above quote describes the distinction between what is necessary and what is useless is trapped in a fog of perceived intent and perpetuation of fear. The fact is that when there are old and unrelated laws to current times, they delay the justice to the concerned citizens.

Body

In case of India, there are archaic and obsolete laws, which are seen by many as most burdensome legacy of colonial times. Among those which remain on the books are more than 300 dating from the colonial era, as well as rules to manage issues arising out of the Partition of India. There are more than a dozen laws imposing redundant taxes that yield little and cost a lot to collect, as well as outdated laws relating to former princely states and the nationalisation of industries and banks.

For Instance, The Bangalore Marriages Validating Act, 1934

Walter James McDonald Redwood, a priest in the southern city of Bangalore, solemnised many local marriages during his time, mistakenly believing that he was authorised to do so. The law was introduced to validate those marriages. However, It’s less clear what relevance it has these days.

Conclusion

Any country should be governed by a set of rules, that when broken yield severe consequences. The laws are modified and truth is twisted over the years of hearing resulting in the justice being denied. It is very important to make changes in the rule book and levy stringent punishment against the wrong doers. Otherwise, sooner or later, the common mass will lose all its faith in the Judiciary and retaliate against every wrong done without seeking justice from the third pillar of the democracy.


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