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Facts for Prelims (FFP)




Context: Clean Core Thorium Energy, a Chicago-based company, has developed ANEEL (Advanced Nuclear Energy for Enriched Life), (named after India’s scientist, Dr Anil Kakodkar) –  a fuel that combines Thorium and High Assay Low Enriched Uranium (HALEU).

  • ANEEL can be used in India’s existing Pressurized Heavy-Water Reactors (PHWRs), offering a potential game-changer for the country’s nuclear energy sector.
  • India has the world’s largest reserves of Thorium, estimated at 1.07 million tonnes, and ANEEL could facilitate the efficient utilization of Thorium in nuclear reactors.


The fuel’s benefits include reduced nuclear waste volume, lower operating costs, and longer-lasting efficiency.