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The Kharsawan massacre of 1948

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: IE

 Context: On January 1, 1948, Kharsawan in present-day Jharkhand witnessed a massacre similar to the Jallianwala Bagh incident.

  • During a protest against the merger of Kharsawan with Orissa, police opened fire on a gathering of Adivasis, killing hundreds or possibly thousands.



  • The demand for a separate tribal state had been ongoing since 1912, gaining momentum over the years.
  • Kharsawan’s merger with Orissa triggered the protest, with over 50,000 tribals assembling, expecting leader Jaipal Munda.
  • However, his absence led to unrest, and police fired on the crowd, resulting in numerous casualties.


A memorial now stands at Kharsawan, and the day is observed as a day of mourning and remembrance in the Kolhan region of Jharkhand.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, occurred on April 13, 1919. British troops opened fire on a peaceful crowd of unarmed Indians who had gathered to protest the Rowlatt Act and the arrest of pro-independence activists.