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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 November 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Tourism in India is a powerful force for economic development while simultaneously preserving and showcasing the rich cultural and natural heritage of the country. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Union Tourism Ministry on Wednesday said that it has formulated a model law on adventure tourism which covers the obligations, institutional framework, penalties, registration and the provisions of insurance cover needed for the sector.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential of tourism sector in India and the steps that India needs to take to boost tourism in the country.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistic related to tourism in India.

Body:

First, write about the status of tourism in India. Give facts and figures related to revenue and forex earnings, tourist footfalls. Also highlight the diverse nature of tourist circuits in the country.
Highlight the areas where work is needed – security, infrastructure, connectivity and so on. give
details of these three aspects

Next, Mention the steps taken by the government in improving the aforementioned areas through
schemes and programmes like PRASAD, e tourist visa etc. Discuss the steps that need to be taken still to fill in the gaps.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Every region in India is identified with its handicraft, fairs, folk dances, music and its people. Hence, India is a country with a great potential for tourism. The tourism industry employs a large number of people, both skilled and unskilled. It promotes national integration and international brotherhood. There is no other country in the world which offers such a wide choice of destinations like India.

The Union Tourism Ministry on Wednesday said that it has formulated a model law on adventure tourism which covers the obligations, institutional framework, penalties, registration and the provisions of insurance cover needed for the sector.

Body

Tourism Status in India

  • In the Pre- pandemic times, tourism sector contributed ~US$ 250 billion in 2018 to India’s GDP.
  • It crumbled down to US$ 122 billion in 2020 due to pandemic.
  • The share of Tourism to GDP has hovered around ~5-6%. With post-pandemic recovery, the tourism industry is  expected to reach US$ 512 billion by 2028.
  • In 2020, the Indian tourism sector accounted for 39 million jobs, which was 8% of the total employment in the country. By 2029, it is expected to account for about 53 million jobs.
  • India ranked 34th in the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019 published by the World Economic Forum.
  • Data show that domestic tourism has recovered to pre-pandemic levels, even exceeding it in some cases. This is evident in a record 1.84 crore domestic tourists visiting Jammu and Kashmir in 2022

Positive effects of Tourism in India

  • Employment generation: Tourism sector provides diverse opportunities for jobs like in hospitality/hotels/accommodation, transportation, tour guides, travel operations etc.
  • Revenue Generation: Tourism contributes 6.23% to the national GDP and 9.3% of the total employment in India. More than 20 million people are now working in the India’s tourism industry.
  • Source of Foreign Exchange Earnings:Tourism Sector was the third-largest foreign exchange earner for the country in 2019. Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in India. This has favorable impact on the balance of payment of the country. By 2028, Indian tourism and hospitality is expected to earn US$ 50.9 billion as visitor exports compared with US$ 28.9 billion in 2018.
  • Preservation of National Heritage and Environment:Tourism helps preserve several places which are of historical importance by declaring them as heritage sites. For instance, the Taj Mahal, the Qutab Minar, Ajanta and Ellora temples, etc. would have been decayed and destroyed, if the efforts had not been taken by Tourism Department to preserve them. Likewise, tourism also helps in conserving the natural habitats of many endangered species.
  • Developing Infrastructure:Tourism tends to encourage the development of multiple-use infrastructure that benefits the host community, including various means of transports, health care facilities and sports centers, in addition to the hotels and high-end restaurants that cater to foreign visitors. The development of infrastructure has in turn induced the development of other directly productive activities.
  • Promoting Peace and Stability:The tourism industry can also help promote peace and stability in developing country like India by providing jobs, generating income, diversifying the economy, protecting the environment and promoting cross-cultural awareness. However, key challenges like adoption of regulatory frameworks, mechanisms to reduce crime and corruption, etc, must be addressed if peace-enhancing benefits from this industry are to be realized.

Measures needed to boost Tourism sector

  • Infrastructure: The Government has been increasing investments in strengthening of the country’s road and rail networks and promoting port development is a significant driver for the growth of the Tourism sector. The Adarsh Station Schemeis helping modernize railway stations, while the Regional Connectivity Scheme – UDAN (Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik), is helping make air travel more economical and widespread to hitherto unserved routes. The Swadesh Darshan and PRASHAD schemes aim to stimulate growth in niche tourism segments such as religious, heritage, wellness, medical, adventure, MICE, wildlife etc. Under the Swadesh Darshan Scheme, the Government has launched several theme based circuits like Buddhist circuit which covers destinations associated with the life of Lord Buddha.
  • Promotional Campaign: Promotional activities such as the Incredible India 2.0campaign focuses on niche tourism products including yoga, wellness, luxury, cuisine wildlife among others. “Find the Incredible You” Campaign focuses on the promotion of niche tourism products of the Country on digital and social media.
  • Information Helpline: The government has introduced the concept of e-tourist and e-medical visaswhich has helped increase inbound tourists to the country. Additional initiatives such as Atithi Devo Bhava, a 24×7 multi-lingual Tourist Helpline, among others have helped improve the safety and security of tourists. On a pilot basis, an ‘Incredible India Helpline’ has been set up to guide the tourists.
  • Safety: The Ministry of Tourism has adopted a code of conduct for safe tourism, which contains a set of guidelines to encourage tourism activities to be undertaken with respect to basic rights like dignity, and  safety of both tourists and local residents, in particular women and children.
  • Investment: The government allows 100% Foreign Direct Investment in the Travel and Tourism sector through the automatic route to increase investments across the sector. More recently, the GST rate cut on hotel room tariffs across the board has been a positive move for the industry and is expected to boost the sector’s competitiveness globally.
  • Cleanliness and Hygiene: Major cleanliness campaign has been launched under the Swachh Bharatmovement for protecting and preserving the sanctity of monuments of national heritage. The Ministry of Tourism has also launched awareness campaign to ensure cleanliness of surroundings and help create a Swachh Bharat, Swachh Smarak.
  • Assistance to States: Financial assistance to states, including places of religious importance, for various tourism projects in consultation with them subject to availability of funds, inter-se priority, liquidation of pending utilisation certificates and adherence to the scheme guidelines.
  • Digital Database: In September 2021, the Government launched NIDHI 2.0(National Integrated Database of Hospitality Industry), a scheme which will maintain a hospitality database comprising accommodation units, travel agents, tour operators and others. NIDHI 2.0 will facilitate digitalisation of the tourism sector by encouraging hotels to register themselves on the platform.
  • Skilling: The Ministry of Tourism has introduced the Incredible India Tourist Facilitator(IITF) and Incredible India Tourist Guide (IITG) Certification Programme to create an online learning platform of well-trained tourist facilitators and guides across the country.

Way forward

  • The government should continue to promote India’s diversity and rich heritage to re-establish its position as a tourist paradise.
  • The promotional campaigns should target both domestic and foreign tourists. Similarly, the extent of theme-based tourist circuits can be expanded.
  • Tourism sector has a potential to provide lot of livelihood opportunities in smaller cities/towns. Upskilling and Reskilling can help address the issue of jobless growth.
  • The government should also promote green and sustainable tourismto tackle issues relating to water crisis, pollution, waste management, etc.
  • There is need to balance the promotion of tourism with safeguarding the physical, social, and cultural environment in the destination areas.
  • The Government should further reform the tourist visa norms and processes to facilitate tourism. The Government should also explore the possibility of expanding the visa-on-arrival facility.
  • The focus should also be on supporting and promoting the emerging segments of tourism.

Conclusion

If the goal of positioning of India as one of the world’s best tourism destinations by 2047, there is need to integrate various schemes of different ministries. Need to involve various stakeholders, and local communities; necessary interventions at urban and rural level should be a priority.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) is significantly positioned to address money laundering activities. Its efficacy depends on the resolution of challenges in implementation, timely prosecution, and prevention of misuse. Critically examine (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Critics argue that amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) stripped a person of his right under Article 20(3) (fundamental right against self-incrimination) of the Constitution.

Key Demand of the question:

To write successes and limitations of PMLA in achieving its stated objectives.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the aims and objectives of PMLA.

Body:

First, write about the various features of PMLA – its successes and limitations when it comes to holding the launderers accountable.

Next, write about the steps that have been taken to improve the conviction rate in the PMLA. Write about its impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to holistically address the issue of money laundering in the country.

Introduction

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) was enacted in 2002 and it came into force in 2005. The chief objective of this legislation is to fight money laundering, that is, the process of converting black money into white. The act aims at Preventing money laundering, Combating the channelising of money into illegal activities and economic crimes, Providing for the confiscation of property derived from or involved in money laundering and Providing for any other matters connected with or incidental to the act of money laundering.

Critics argue that amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) stripped a person of his right under Article 20(3) (fundamental right against self-incrimination) of the Constitution.

Body

About PMLA

  • It is a criminal law enacted to prevent money laundering and to provide for confiscation of property derived from, or involved in, money-laundering and related matters.
  • It forms the core of the legal framework put in place by India to combat Money Laundering.
  • The provisions of this act are applicable to all financial institutions, banks (Including RBI), mutual fundsinsurance companies, and their financial intermediaries.
  • PMLA (Amendment) Act, 2012:
    • Adds the concept of ‘reporting entity’ which would include a banking company, financial institution, intermediary etc.
    • PMLA, 2002 levied a fine up to Rs 5 lakh, but the amendment act has removed this upper limit.
    • It has provided for provisional attachment and confiscation of property of any person involved in such activities.

Efficacy of PMLA

  • Indian banks were reluctant to depart from their strict bank secrecy policies, and this further allowed individuals in India to launder money. The problem of money laundering in India is complicated further by Hawala’s ancient underground banking system.
  • ED has been given the responsibility to enforce the provisions of the PMLA by conducting investigation to trace the assets derived from proceeds of crime, to provisionally attach the property and to ensure prosecution of the offenders and confiscation of the property by the Special court.
  • ED has been given the responsibility to conduct investigation into suspected contraventions of foreign exchange laws and regulations, to adjudicate and impose penalties on those adjudged to have contravened the law.

Issues with PMLA

  • PMLA is pulled into the investigation of even “ordinary” crimes and assets of genuine victims have been attached.
  • PMLA was enacted in response to India’s global commitment (including the Vienna Convention) to combat the menace of money laundering. Instead, rights have been “cribbed, cabined and confined”.
  • PMLA was a comprehensive penal statute to counter the threat of money laundering, specifically stemming from trade in narcotics.
    • Currently, the offences in the schedule of the Act are extremely overbroad, and in several cases, have absolutely no relation to either narcotics or organised crime.
  • Even the Enforcement Case Information Report (ECIR) – an equivalent of the FIR – is considered an “internal document” and not given to the accused.
    • The ED treats itself as an exception to these principles and practises [of criminal procedure law] and chooses to register an ECIR on its own whims and fancies on its own file.
  • There is also a lack of clarity about ED’s selection of cases to investigate. The initiation of an investigation by the ED has consequences which have the potential of curtailing the liberty of an individual.

Conclusion

The evolving threats of money laundering supported by the emerging technologies need to be addressed with the equally advanced Anti-Money Laundering mechanisms like big data and artificial intelligence. Both international and domestic stakeholders need to come together by strengthening data sharing mechanisms amongst them to effectively eliminate the problem of money laundering.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

3. Discuss the recent occurrence of the ozone hole over Antarctica, its consequences, and strategies to alleviate it. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

The ozone hole over the Antarctic has not only grown larger but also thinner throughout most of the spring, according to a new study.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about ozone hole phenomenon, its consequences, and the possible interactions with climate change.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

Frist, write about the natural phenomenon of the ozone hole, its causes, and its implications for the environment and human health.

Next, write about the concerns of scientists about climate change potentially influencing the reopening of ozone holes. Explain the mechanisms or factors that connect these two phenomena.

Next, write about the measures or policies that can help mitigate the impact of climate change on the ozone layer.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The ozone layer is a trace gas in the stratosphere, one of the four layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. It functions as a protective gas shield that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, protecting humans and ecosystems from dangerous amounts of UV. Most skin cancers are caused by exposure to high amounts of UV radiation, so anything that shields us from UV rays helps reduce cancer rates.

The size of the ozone hole over Antarctica fluctuates each year, opening each year in August and closing again in November or December. The hole, which scientists call an “ozone-depleted area” was 26 million square kilometers (10 million square miles) in size, roughly three times the size of Brazil. The ozone hole over the Antarctic has not only grown larger but also thinner throughout most of the spring, according to a new study.

Body

 

Formation of ozone hole in Antartica

In the Southern Hemisphere, the South Pole is part of a very large land mass (Antarctica) that is completely surrounded by ocean. This symmetry is reflected in the meteorological conditions that allow the formation in winter of a very cold region in the stratosphere over the Antarctic continent, isolated by a band of strong winds circulating around the edge of that region.

  • The very low stratospheric temperatures lead to the formation of clouds (polar stratospheric clouds) that are responsible for chemical changes that promote production of chemically active chlorine and bromine.
  • This chlorine and bromine activation then leads to rapid ozone loss when sunlight returns to Antarctica in September and October of each year, which then results in the Antarctic ozone hole. As the figure below depicts, the magnitude of the ozone loss has generally grown through the 1980s as the amount of human-produced ozone-depleting compounds has grown in the atmosphere.

Cause of ozone hole in recent times

  • Scientists believe this year’s big ozone hole could be due to the volcanic eruptions at Hunga Tongain Tonga during December 2022 and January 2023.
  • Under normal conditions, gas released from a volcanic eruption stays below the level of the stratosphere, but this eruption sent a lot of water vapor into the stratosphere.
  • The water had an impact on the ozone layer through chemical reactions and changed its heating rate. The water vapor also contained other elements that can deplete ozone like bromine and iodine.

Consequences of Ozone hole

  • Effects on Human Health
    • Ozone layer depletion increases the amount of UV that reaches the Earth’s surface. Laboratory and epidemiological studies demonstrate that UV causes non-melanoma skin cancer and plays a major role in malignant melanoma development. In addition, UV has been linked to the development of cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens.
  • Effects on Plants
    • UV radiation affects the physiological and developmental processes of plants.
    • Despite mechanisms to reduce or repair these effects and an ability to adapt to increased levels of UV, plant growth can be directly affected by UV radiation
  • Effects on Marine Ecosystems
    • Phytoplankton productivity is limited to the euphotic zone, the upper layer of the water column in which there is sufficient sunlight to support net productivity.
    • Exposure to solar UV radiation has been shown to affect both orientation and motility in phytoplankton, resulting in reduced survival rates for these organisms
    • UV radiation has been found to cause damage to early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians, and other marine animals.
    • The most severe effects are decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development.
    • Small increases in UV exposure could result in population reductions for small marine organisms with implications for the whole marine food chain
  • Effects on Biogeochemical Cycles
    • Increases in UV radiation could affect terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical cycles, thus altering both sources and sinks of greenhouse and chemically important trace gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbonyl sulfide, ozone, and possibly other gases).
    • These potential changes would contribute to biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks that mitigate or amplify the atmospheric concentrations of these gases.

Measures to alleviate the increase in Ozone hole

  • Ensuring that existing restrictions on ozone-depleting substances are properly implemented and global use of ozone-depleting substances continue to be reduced.
  • Ensuring that banks of ozone-depleting substances (both in storage and contained in existing equipment) are dealt with in an environmentally-friendly manner and are replaced with climate-friendly alternatives.
  • Ensuring that permitted uses of ozone-depleting substances are not diverted to illegal uses.
  • Reducing use of ozone-depleting substances in applications that are not considered as consumption under the Montreal Protocol.
  • Ensuring that no new chemicals or technologies emerge that could pose new threats to the ozone layer (e.g. very short-lived substances).

Conclusion

While ozone depletion and climate change are linked in some ways, they are distinct environmental issues with different causes and effects. Ozone depletion primarily affects the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere, while climate change is driven by the buildup of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. Efforts to address ozone depletion have had positive side effects for climate change mitigation due to the overlap in some of the harmful chemicals involved.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

4. Understanding the Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) challenge in India requires political nuance, not just a security lens focused on violent incidents. Elaborate (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the complexities of LWE and write measures to tackle them.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving a brief overview of the Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) challenge in India and highlight the need for understanding it through political nuance.

Body:

First, discuss the origins and evolution of the LWE challenge in India, highlighting its political context, ideology, and grievances.

Next, explain why a security lens focused only on violent incidents is insufficient for understanding the LWE challenge and how it can lead to a misguided approach to countering it. Elaborate on the importance of political nuance in understanding the LWE challenge, emphasizing the need to address its underlying socio-economic and political issues, such as land rights, resource distribution, and governance.

Discuss the role of state and non-state actors in perpetuating the LWE challenge and how political nuance can help in engaging with them.

Highlight examples of successful approaches that have employed political nuance in addressing the LWE challenge, such as the Andhra Pradesh model and the peace talks in Jharkhand.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Left Wing Extremism (LWE) movement has its roots in the Naxalbari area West Bengal in the 1960’s.These Maoists insurgents started running a parallel system of administration in parts of central and Eastern India. They kill civilians, destroy public buildings and extract ransom from businessmen. In the recent years, however, LWE movement is showing decline, because of the shift in the approach of the successive Governments. The recent statement by Home Minister noted that the geographical influence of the Maoists has reduced from 96 districts in 10 States in 2010 to 41 now.

The Maoists have struck in Chhattisgarh after a lull of two years. Ten jawans of the District Reserve Guard, a special unit of Chhattisgarh police recruited locally, and their civilian driver were killed recently when the extremists triggered a blast using an improvised explosive device in Dantewada district. .

Body

Present state of LWE in India

  • As per Home Ministry records, Maoist violence has come down by 77 per cent since 2010, and deaths of security forces and civilians have declined by 90 per cent.
  • The number of Naxal-affected districts has come down from more than 200 in the early 2000s to 90, with violence mostly reported from 25 districts.
  • The Maoist movement is hardly a force now in states such as Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar, once its strongholds.
  • In recent years, security operations have turned the heat on the movement and impaired its ability to recruit and operate freely.
  • With the emphasis on violence, the Maoist movement has also hollowed out as a political project and seems hardly in a position to expand its cadre base.
  • At the same time, the state has not only expanded its security muscle but has also built both physical and social infrastructure in left-wing extremism-affected districts and worked on development projects.

Factors leading to Left-wing extremism

  • Political Factors
    • Nature and apathy of the political system towards tribals remained one of the most important factors that led to such uprisings.
    • Inability of political authority in India to provide avenues for structural uplift to the deprived sections of society in the affected states.
    • Lack of political participation by the tribal community
  • Economic Factors
    • Poverty and economic inequality and underdevelopment in the naxal affected regions.
    • Entry of mining companies in Tribal lands and forests, posing threat to the livelihood of the tribals.
    • Indigenous tribal population deprived of their lands, uprooted from their traditional source of livelihood.
    • The benefits of the resource exploitation are not passed on the tribals.
  • Environmental Degradation
    • Environmental degradation in the form of destruction of land and water resources due to mining and industrial activates.
  • Lack of basic facilities
    • Lack of basic facilities like education, freedom, sanitation and food.
    • The socially backward tribals form the major support base for Naxalites because of inequality, illiteracy and lack of opportunities.
  • Discrimination against tribals
    • Poor implementation of laws prohibiting transfer of tribal land to non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
    • Non-regularisation of traditional land rights under FRA, 2006.
    • Hasty rejections of land grants to tribals.
  • Displacement of people
    • Eviction from lands traditionally used by tribals.
    • Forced Displacementscaused by mining, irrigation and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
    • Large scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensationor rehabilitation

Measures needed by government to tackle the Maoist insurgency:

  • Modernizing the police force: The scheme focuses on strengthening police infrastructure by construction of secure police stations, training centers, police housing (residential) and equipping police stations with required mobility, modern weaponry, communication equipment and forensic set-up etc.
    • On the administrative side, changes include separation of investigation from law and order, specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes are initiated in several states.
    • Various technological reforms are pushed including modernization of the control room, fast tracking Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System (CCTNS), pushing for National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and pushing for incorporation of new technology into policing
  • Social Integration: State Governments have surrender and rehabilitation policy, while the Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments through the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme for LWE affected States.
    • Additional incentives are given for surrendering with weapons/ammunition.
    • The surrenderers are also imparted vocational training with a monthly stipend for a maximum period of 36 months.
    • Skill Development: Skill Development in 34 Districts affected by Left Wing Extremism” under implementation from 2011-12 aims to establish ITIs and Skill Development Centers in LWE affected districts.
  • Infrastructure Development: Road Connectivity, communication needs to be rapidly scaled up in LWE affected districts. g.: Mobile towers being set up in remote areas.
  • Community policing improves interface with citizens and makes police more sensitive. E.g. (i) Janamaithri Suraksha Padhathi, Kerala (ii) Friends of Police Movement (FOP), Tamil Nadu (iii) Suraksha Setu – Safe City Surat Project
  • Improve communication network: There should be sharing of information & knowledge to improve the functioning of police force.
  • Better Surveillance and Monitoring with standardization, deployment and integration of private security surveillance system.

Way forward

  • It is the belief of the Government of India that through a holistic approach focusing on development and security-related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.
  • States play a vital role in maintaining law and order. So, emphasis should be laid on the capacity-building and modernization of the local police forces. Local forces can efficiently and effectively neutralize the LWE organizations.
  • The Kargil Review Committee (KRC) report noted that in wake of Internal security challenges that the country faces, the role and the tasks of the paramilitary forces have to be restructured particularly with reference to command and control and leadership functions.
  • A purely security-driven approach fraught with human rights’ violations has only added to the alienation among the poor in these areas.
  • The Union government and the States must continue to learn from successes such as the expansion of welfare and rights paradigms in limiting the movement and failures that have led to the continuing spiral of violence in select districts.
  • The Maoists must be compelled to give up their armed struggle and this can only happen if the tribal people and civil society activists promoting peace are also empowered.

 

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

5. The SAMADHAN strategy against the Maoists can be an effective doctrine to tackle left wing extremism but it has to be a coordinated battle on security and development fronts. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the threats posed by the convergence of technology and terrorism and steps that should be taken to prevent it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of SAMADHAN doctrine.

Body:

First, write about the various features of the SAMADHAN strategy – S-smart leadership, A-aggressive strategy, M-motivation and training, A-actionable intelligence, D-dashboard-based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs (key result areas), H-harnessing technology, A-action plan for each theatre and N-no access to financing.

Next, write about the need to balanced approach on security and development fronts to tackle left wing extremism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The problem of LWE or Naxalism in India continues to rank high in the list of internal security challenges that the country faces. But past few years have seen a considerable improvement in the LWE scenario. The total number of violent incidents of LWE has drastically reduced from 1048 in 2016 to 908 in 2017. The related deaths have seen a 34% decline in 2017 as compared to 2013 indicating success of government efforts.

Body

About SAMADHAN Strategy

It is a strategy of MHA to frame short term and long-term policies to tackle LWE.

It includes:

  • S- Smart Leadership
  • A- Aggressive Strategy
  • M- Motivation and Training
  • A- Actionable Intelligence
  • D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas)
  • H- Harnessing Technology
  • A- Action plan for each Theatre
  • N- No access to Financing

SAMADHAN Strategy in force

  • Skill Development related Schemes: ROSHNI is a special initiative under, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana which envisages training and placement of rural poor youth from 27 LWE affected districts.
    • Skill Development in 34 Districts affected by Left Wing Extremism” under implementation from 2011-12 aims to establish ITIs and Skill Development Centres in LWE affected districts.
  • Surrender and rehabilitation policies: State Governments have their own policy, while the Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments through the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme for LWE affected States.
    • Additional incentives are given for surrendering with weapons/ammunition. The surrenderees are also imparted vocational training with a monthly stipend for a maximum period of 36 months.
  • Institutional measures:
    • Black Panther combat force – A specialised anti-Naxal combat force for Chhattisgarh on the lines of Greyhounds unit in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
    • Bastariya Batallion – A newly formed batallion of CRPF with more than 534 tribal youth from four highly naxal infested districts of Chhattisgarh along with adequate female representation in sync with the Government’s policy of 33% reservation for women making it the first composite battalion in any of paramilitary forces. o A process has also been initiated to create a separate vertical in the NIA for investigating important cases relating to Left Wing Extremism (LWE)
    • Multi-disciplinary groups to check funding of Naxalites – Union ministry of home affairs has formed multi-disciplinary groups with officers from central agencies, including from the IB, NIA, CBI, ED and DRI, and state police to choke the financial flow to Maoists.
  • Constructively engaging youth through education: Seeing the success of educational hub and a livelihood centre in Dantewada district, the government has now opened up livelihood centres, known as Livelihood Colleges, in all the districts.
  • Other measures: More bank branches have been opened to ensure financial inclusion. All India Radio stations in the three southern districts of Bastar will now broadcast regional programmes to increase entertainment options. And a new rail service in Bastar is set to throw open a new market for wooden artefacts and bell metal

Issues in handling LWE

  • Negligence of established standard operating procedures at times leads to loss of valuable lives of security personnel.
  • Certain vulnerabilities remain such as poor planning, inadequate numbers, insufficient intelligence backup etc.
  • Structural deficits and deficiencies such as putting IPS deputationists into almost every senior position in CRPF ignoring the decades of experience within the Force.
  • Sluggish Capacity building of police forces, for example – in Chattisgarh, there are about 10,000 vacancies in different ranks in state police and 23 sanctioned police stations have yet to be set up. · LWEs are well trained in guerilla warfare.
  • Inefficient technology of mine detection: Present technology is unable to detect deep planted mines under the road.
  • Delay in acquisition of technology: For example- Out of the 157 sanctioned MPVs, only 13 have been supplied by OFB to CAPFs so far.
  • Laundering of funds: Naxal leaders operating in Bihar and Jharkhand are laundering extorted money through acquiring movable and immovable assets.

 

Conclusion

The two-pronged policy of direct action by the security forces combined with development is showing results — the government has already made a dent in most of the affected districts and is determined to check the expansion of Maoists. The paradigm of proactive policing and holistic development should ensure more such significant results in the future.

Value addition

Naxalism origins

  • The Naxal insurgency in India originated in a 1967 uprising in Naxalbari, West Bengal by the Communist Party of India (Marxist). They are the group of people who believe in the political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong.
  • The Naxalites claim to represent the most oppressed people in India, those who are often left untouched by India’s development and bypassed by the electoral process.
  • The conflict is concentrated the Eastern part of the country, particularly an area known as the Red Corridor spread across the states of Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.
  • It aims to overthrow the government through people’s war.
  • It creates conditions for non-functioning of the government and actively seeks disruption of development activities as a means to achieve its objective of ‘wresting control’.
  • It spreads fear among the law-abiding citizens

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6.  The simplicity and clarity of the utilitarian approach is attractive because it provides a clear guideline for making ethical decisions. Critically examine. (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the philosophy of Utilitarianism and the way it resolves moral issues.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining the philosophy of Utilitarianism in brief.

Body:

In your own words, explain that Utilitarianism is a theory of morality that advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and oppose actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole.

Next, write a critique of utilitarianism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and opposes actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole.

 

Body

Concept of Utilitarianism

Greatest good of the greatest number, was famously given by Jeremy Bentham, the father of utilitarianism. Bentham’s fundamental axiom, which underlies utilitarianism, was that all social morals and government legislation should aim for producing the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism, therefore, emphasizes the consequences or ultimate purpose of an act rather than the character of the actor, the actor’s motivation, or the particular circumstances surrounding the act. It has these characteristics:

  • Universality, because it applies to all acts of human behaviour, even those that appear to be done from altruistic motives;
  • Objectivity, meaning it operates beyond individual thought, desire, and perspective;
  • Rationality, because it is not based in metaphysics or theology; and
  • Quantifiability in its reliance on utility.

 

Attempt to resolve moral issues on single criterion

Governments of nations can work and operate in such a way that they can gain legitimacy and consent of the majority. This is enough for a government to stay in power and uphold utilitarian principle of greatest happiness of greatest number. In such a scenario, minority needs and minority rights get shunned. For instance, in Nazi Germany Jews were ostracised and ultimately led to genocide. Most of the policies of a majoritarian governments are for the welfare of a certain community, race. This may deny the minority rights or not work towards these sections are they do not form vote banks.

Hence utilitarianism may not lead to justice and rights of minority sections. At the same time, most democracies have a Constitution that protects minorities.

Limitations

  • A limitation of utilitarianism is that it tends to create a black-and-white construct of morality. In utilitarian ethics, there are no shades of gray—either something is wrong or it is right.
  • Utilitarianism also cannot predict with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad—the results of our actions happen in the future.
  • Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values like justice and individual rights. For example, say a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. If a healthy person wanders into the hospital, his organs could be harvested to save four lives at the expense of his one life. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone an ethical one.

 

Conclusion

Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism because it rests on the idea that it is the consequences or results of actions, laws, policies, etc. that determine whether they are good or bad, right or wrong. In general, whatever is being evaluated, we ought to choose the one that will produce the best overall results. In the language of utilitarians, we should choose the option that “maximizes utility,” i.e. that action or policy that produces the largest amount of good.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Contentment can help you distinguish between wants and needs. Discuss the importance of contentment for civil servants. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of contentment.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining contentment.

Body:

Write about the importance of contentment – Contentment means to be happy with what you have, who you are, and where you are. It is respecting the reality of the present. It is appreciating what you do have and where you are in life. Contentment does not mean the absence of desire; it just means you are satisfied with your present, and you trust that the turns your life takes will be for the best.

Cite suitable examples to substantiate the above.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by summarising.

Introduction

Contentment means to be happy with what you have, who you are, and where you are. It is respecting the reality of the present. It is appreciating what you do have and where you are in life. Contentment does not mean the absence of desire; it just means you are satisfied with your present, and you trust that the turns your life takes will be for the best.

Body

Many people today think life is a race where you must be the best at everything. We might want a fancier car, a bigger house, a better-earning job, or more money. The moment we achieve one thing, the race for the next thing starts. Rarely do many individuals spare a minute to just sit back, relax, and be grateful for all they have achieved. Instead of looking back at the distance they have covered, they stretch themselves to cover the distance that remains. And in some cases, this is when ambition becomes greed.

There is often a fine line between ambition and greed. People may think that when they have achieved all they need for their dream lifestyle, they will be satisfied with what they have—but this is rarely the case. Even after you have ticked off all the achievements from your list, you still don’t feel at ease. There may remain an uneasy feeling that something is still missing.  That missing feeling is contentment.

Contentment can help us distinguish between wants and needs. When we are content, we may not desire for anything more than what we need. The abundance of the present is enough to lead a happy and healthy life. Contentment often leads to the realization that joy doesn’t come from material things. Instead, joy comes from deep within. A state of contentment leads to a state of well-being and happiness. Humanity has been in pursuit of the elusive state of happiness or bliss for centuries.

Importance of Contentment for Civil Servants

  • As a public servant, the responsibility is to serve people and not looking for personal gains.
  • Public life has major dimension of selflessness which comes when one is contended.
  • Without contentment a person in public life will be swayed away by individual desires and greed which may stand opposite in the direction of public interest.
    • For example, at the root of unhealthy social problems like corruption in public life involves the lack of contentment.
  • Thus, it helps check corruption, immorality and exploitation of public resources .
  • Contentment helps in dispassionate analysis of the situation and helps him explore what his needs, both material and mental, are and whether they can be met in legal and transparent ways. .
  • Being contended, a civil servant thinks of public welfare without any quid pro quo.

Conclusion

If we wish to feel the essence of contentment, it’s important to practice gratitude, be aware of the fact that nothing is permanent, understand that material things do not often promote long-term happiness, and realize that life is not a race or competition: it is about self-sustenance. The more thankful we are in the present, the happier we may be.


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