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[Mission 2024] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 20 November 2023

 

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2: 

  1. HC Verdict: Local Reservation in the Private Sector

 

Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. Amazon Women of the World (WoW) programme

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP) 

  1. 2nd Voice of Global South Summit(VOGSS)
  2. Technology Development Board (TDB)
  3. National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO)
  4. Unusual Nitrogen-9 isotope
  5. Polarized emissions from an Extragalactic Black hole

 

Mapping:

  1. Myanmar

 


 

HC Verdict: Local Reservation in the Private Sector

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Government Policies and Intervention

 

Source: IE

 Context: The Punjab and Haryana High Court invalidated a 2020 Haryana government law that reserved 75% of private-sector jobs for state residents.

What is a Local Reservation?

Local reservation typically refers to a policy or law that reserves a certain percentage of jobs, opportunities, or benefits for individuals who are local residents of a specific region or state.

 

What did Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Act, 2020 say?

The law mandates that companies with 10 or more employees reserve 75% of jobs paying less than Rs. 30,000 per month for candidates from the state. Employers must register eligible employees on the Labor Department’s portal.

Similar domicile job reservation laws exist in other states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Jharkhand

 

Why did the court invalidate the law?

  • Violation of Article 16: The law violated constitutional rights by reserving 75% of private-sector jobs for Haryana residents, stating that a government cannot discriminate based on residence.
    • The Haryana government claimed authority under Article 16(4) (exceptions to Article 16) but was deemed unconstitutional by the court.
  • Violation of Article 19: The court also criticized the law for imposing excessive control on private employers, creating an “Inspector Raj,” and impairing individuals’ rights under Article 19(1)(g) of the Constitution.
    • Private jobs are skill-based and analytical, and citizens have the fundamental right to work anywhere in India

 

What does the Constitution Say? 

The Constitution of India guarantees freedom of movement and consequently employment within India through several provisions.

  • Article 14 provides for equality before the law irrespective of place of birth.
  • Article 15 guards against discrimination based on place of birth.
  • Article 16 guarantees no birthplace-based discrimination in public employment.
  • Article 19 ensures that citizens can move freely throughout the territory of India

 

 

Benefits of local reservation in the Private Sector:

ProsExplanation
Exceptions in constitution  The reservation based on domicile aligns with Article 16 of the Indian Constitution. It provides opportunities to locals, who bear negative externalities from job creation.
Equality within society Reservation in local jobs promotes equality within society, focusing on low-strata jobs, in line with the Equal Protection of Law spirit outlined in Article 14 of the Indian Constitution.
Such policies promote substantial equality, especially as public sector job opportunities are limited.
Suitable Solution for UnemploymentIn the face of unemployment and slow job creation, local job reservation is seen as a suitable solution to address these challenges.
Special Constitutional ProvisionsE.g.,  Andhra Pradesh and Telangana under Article 371 D and E. Local job reservation aligns with these constitutional provisions.
Boost Local EconomyLocal job reservation policies aim to empower local youth, discourage migration, and address agrarian crises and local unrest by reducing unemployment.
Cost Savings for CompaniesHiring local employees reduces relocation costs for companies, potentially lowering operational expenses. These cost savings may be passed on to customers through reduced prices.
Improved ProductivityLocal employees are likely more familiar with the local language, culture, and business environment, enhancing their productivity and efficiency in the workplace.
Global Practice These policies are in line with global practices where countries like the US, (The US Civil Rights Act of 1964) and Canada (The Employment Equity Act), provide reservations in private jobs.

 

Issues with the local Reservation in Private sector:

ConsExplanation
Can Trigger Exodus of InvestorsLocal job reservations may lead to an exodus of domestic and multinational investors, especially in sectors like auto and IT that rely on highly skilled manpower.
E.g., Haryana witnessed a 30% drop in investment in 2022 due to the local reservation law, impacting its ranking among states in terms of new investment projects.
Affect Existing IndustriesThe focus on the “son of the soil” and restrictions on the free movement of manpower can adversely affect existing industries in the state.
Extreme Talent CrunchImposing reservations on gig and platform companies may result in a severe talent crunch, affecting the availability of skilled individuals.
Legal IssuesIt is beyond the power of states to create domicile as a condition for employment as the constitution provides this provision for public employment and only parliament is empowered to make such laws under Article 16(3) 

 

75% reservation also goes beyond the reservation ceiling of 50%
Public Employment (Requirement as to Residence) Act, 1957 abolished Residence as a criteria for a job. Few exceptions were made for Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, and Himachal Pradesh
Promotes Regionalism Local job reservation policies pose threats to unity in diversity, potentially creating local vs. non-local divisions.
Undermines Merite system They undermine the merit system, affect economic efficiency, and may lead to a shortage of qualified workers, impacting economic development.
Promotes Vote Bank Politics among states

 

Judicial Pronouncements:

Legal CasesKey Points
Dr Pradeep Jain v Union of India, 1984Legislation for “sons of the soil” deemed unconstitutional
Sunanda Reddy v State of Andhra Pradesh, 1995Supreme Court affirmed the unconstitutionality of a state policy giving 5% extra weightage based on the medium of instruction.
2002 Rajasthan CaseSupreme Court invalidated the appointment of government teachers in Rajasthan, which favoured applicants from specific districts or rural areas.
2019 UP-Subordinate Service Selection Commission CaseAllahabad High Court struck down a UP recruitment notification that preferred women who are “original residents” of Uttar Pradesh alone.

 

Conclusion:

What is more important for states is to focus on skill training (capacity building of Youths), economic recovery and education to provide ample job opportunities, fostering competition in the free market. While local reservations may offer short-term gains, they could hinder long-term economic development and national unity.

 

Insta Links: 

Haryana private sector quota law

  

Prelims Links:

Consider the following statements : (UPSC 2023)

Statement-I : The Supreme Court of India has held in some judgements .that the reservation policies made under Article 16(4) of the Constitution of India would be limited by Article 335 for maintenance of efficiency of administration.

Statement-II : Article 335 of the Constitution of India defmes the term ‘efficiency of administration’.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

 

(a) Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I
(b) Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I
(c) Statement-I is correct but Statement-II is incorrect
(d) Statement-I is incorrect but Statement-II is correct

 

Amazon Women of the World (WoW) programme

Content for Mains Enrichment

 

Source: Amazon

Amazon WoW is a networking platform for women engineering students in India, connecting them with Amazon leaders and recruiters. It offers skill-building sessions, career insights from alumni, and information about Amazon’s culture.

 

Aim:

It aims to foster optimising resource utilisation, upskilling and promoting tech careers among women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)

Usage: The example can be cited in women-related Qn/Essay as private CSR initiatives to encourage women in science.

2nd Voice of Global South Summit(VOGSS)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: IE

 Context: The 2nd Voice of Global South Summit, hosted by India, focused on condemning the Hamas attacks of October 7 and called for restraint, dialogue, and diplomacy to resolve the Israel-Hamas conflict.

 

What is VOGSS?

Voice of Global South Summit is a platform where countries from the Global South, often described as developing or less developed, come together to share perspectives and priorities. The summit focuses on sustaining momentum toward a more inclusive, representative, and progressive world order.

The outcome of the summit:

Indian PM unveils DAKSHIN (Global South Centre of Excellence) and calls for 5 ‘Cs’ for the Global South: Consultation, Cooperation, Communication, Creativity, and Capacity building.

 

What is the global south?

The term “Global South” refers to various countries often described as “developing,” “less developed” or “underdeveloped.” The concept of the Global South can be traced to the Brandt report of 1980.

 

India’s initiatives for Global south:

India has taken several initiatives for South-South cooperation, including the induction of the African Union into the G20 Grouping, International Solar Alliance, Global Biofuel Alliance, and Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure. Initiatives such as MAHARISHI focus on global food security, while the G20 Digital Public Infrastructure Framework aim to enhance collaboration and address shared challenges among Global South

Technology Development Board (TDB)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: PIB

 Context: The Technology Development Board (TDB) and the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) have formed an alliance to support the Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise (MSME) sector.

 

About Technology Development Board (TDB)

It is a statutory body established (in 1996; under the Department of Science and Technology)  to promote the development and commercialization of indigenous and imported technology. It consists of 11 board members and provides equity capital or loans to industrial concerns and financial assistance to research and development institutions.

The TDB has supported the establishment of the Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA) ( a not–for–profit Public Private Partnership (PPP) company to encourage industrial investments in innovative technology solutions)

 

About SIDBI

National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: IE

 Context: The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) data reveals that between 1995 and 2021, four out of five organ recipients in India were men, highlighting a significant gender disparity in healthcare-seeking behavior.

 

What does the Data Show?

  • The data suggests a disproportionately low number of women undergoing transplants, raising concerns about awareness and access to treatment for women in need.
  • While studies show higher numbers of women donors, gender bias persists in both recipients and donors.

About National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation:

NOTTO operates under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, in New Delhi. It oversees organ procurement, allotment, distribution, and registry of organs and tissue donation and transplantation in India.

 

About Organ Donation in India:

Despite being the world’s second-largest in transplants in 2019, India lags behind Western nations in donation rates due to factors like low public awareness, religious beliefs, and strict laws.

The Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994 regulates organ donation in India, allowing both deceased and living donors. Brain death is recognized as a form of death. The government launched the National Organ Transplant Programme in 2019 to promote deceased organ donation. Other law regulating transplantation in India is the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA), 1994

Unusual Nitrogen-9 isotope

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 Context: Scientists have discovered “strong evidence” for the existence of the unusual nitrogen-9 isotope, challenging previous interpretations and offering a new perspective on subatomic structures.

 

What is an Isotope?

An isotope is a variant of a chemical element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in its atomic nucleus. This gives the isotope a different atomic mass.

For example, carbon-12 and carbon-14 are isotopes of carbon. Both have six protons, but carbon-12 has six neutrons, while carbon-14 has eight neutrons, resulting in different atomic masses. Isotopes can have distinct properties and may be stable or radioactive, undergoing decay over time.

 

What is Nitrogen-9?

It is characterized by seven protons and two neutrons. A normal Nitrogen atom has an atomic number of 7 and an atomic mass of 14 (7proton and 7 Neutron)

 

Other isotopes of Nitrogen are:

What is Unusual about Nitrogen-9?

Nitrogen-9 is considered unusual because it has an uncommon combination of seven protons and two neutrons in its atomic nucleus. This creates an unusually high ratio of protons to neutrons. Typically, elements have a balanced ratio for stability, but Nitrogen-9’s high proton content makes it less stable, challenging the conventional stability thresholds. This oddity raises questions about its existence in this state and how it maintains stability, introducing complexity to our understanding of atomic nuclei.

Polarized emissions from an Extragalactic Black hole

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: HT

 Context: Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati and the UR Rao Satellite Centre of ISRO have achieved a groundbreaking discovery by detecting polarized emissions from an extragalactic black hole (i.e., outside our Milky Way Galaxy) marking the first such observation beyond our Milky Way Galaxy.

 

The team utilized X-ray polarimetry to study the binary star system ‘Large Magellanic Cloud X-3 (LMC X3),‘ consisting of a black hole and a massive star. The findings observed using NASA’s Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) and other missions, provide insights into understanding the nature of astrophysical black hole sources.

 

What is Polarized emissions?

Polarized emissions refer to electromagnetic waves, such as light or X-rays, whose electric field vectors oscillate predominantly in a specific direction. In astrophysics, detecting polarized emissions from celestial objects, like black holes, provides valuable information about the object’s physical properties and surrounding environment.

 

About XpoSat

Myanmar

Mapping:

 

Source: TH

 Context: There had been an influx of Myanmar nationals into Mizoram, India, due to the ongoing civil war in Myanmar (between the Myanmar Army and pro-democracy militias in the western Chin State)

The civil war in Myanmar originated from a military coup in February 2021, overthrowing the civilian government and leading to widespread protests and resistance. Ethnic armed groups in Myanmar have varied responses to the coup, with some supporting the pro-democracy movement, while others maintain ceasefire status with the junta.

 

About Myanmar (formerly Burma):

It is a Southeast Asian nation of more than 100 ethnic groups, bordering India, Bangladesh, China, Laos and Thailand. Yangon (formerly Rangoon), the country’s largest city, is home to the gilded Shwedagon Pagoda, which contains Buddhist relics and dates to the 6th century

 

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