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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 3: 

  1. Climate Finance: ‘Loss and damage’ fund


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1.  “Abundance in Millets” Song


Facts for Prelims (FFP) 

  1. Leather puppetry
  2. Underwater Volcano Eruption
  3. Chief Commissioner of Persons with Disabilities
  4. Criminal Cases against MPs and MLAs
  5. Pusa-2090
  6. Alliance for Transformative Action on Climate and Health (ATACH)



  1. Tuvalu



Climate Finance: ‘Loss and damage’ fund

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment Conservation


Source: TH

 Context: In the face of the intensifying climate crisis, the focus has shifted towards the prominence of adaptation” and “loss and damage” (L&D) in the climate crisis. Despite acceptance at COP 27, efforts to operationalize the L&D fund have faced significant challenges.


What is Climate finance?

It refers to financing, from public, private, and alternative sources, that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions to address climate change. Mitigation tackles the causes of climate change, whereas adaptation tackles the effects of climate change. E.g., Constructing elevated homes in flood-prone areas to mitigate the impact of rising sea levels.

Adaptation finance continues to lag (compared to mitigation), with 98% coming from the public sector

For the 2023 Adaptation Gap Report: Click Here

What is a “loss and damage” (L&D) fund?

 The “Loss and Damage” (L&D) fund is meant for the irreversible consequences of climate change that cannot be avoided or mitigated through adaptation efforts.


Origin of L&D fund:

Historic Pollution AccountabilityFor over 30 years, there has been a call for affluent nations to acknowledge their historical pollution accountability.
COP 19 Agreement (2013)At COP 19 in Warsaw, Poland, in 2013, member countries formalized the creation of the L&D fund. It aimed to provide financial and technical support to economically developing nations grappling with L&D due to climate change.
Subsequent DevelopmentsCOP 25 introduced the Santiago Network for L&D, and COP 26 established the Glasgow Dialogue on finance for L&D. COP 27 in November 2022 saw the creation of the L&D fund and a Transitional Committee (TC) tasked with operationalizing the fund.


Challenges in Creating the L&D Fund

  • Contentious Issues: Transitional Committee (TC) meetings faced challenges over hosting at the World Bank, CBDR principle, climate reparations, and eligibility for developing nations. No consensus on operationalizing the L&D fund, reflecting divisions
  • Developed vs. Developing Nations: Disagreements deepened the divide, hindering progress. Outcome of TC4 and TC5 Meetings
  • Lack of Clarity: There is a lack of clarity on specifics on the fund size of the L&D fund due to pressure from certain developed nations.



Impact of the non-operationalization of the L&D fund:

Impact AreasConsequences
Humanitarian ConsequencesPotential for crises, food shortages, displacement, conflict, and increased suffering.
Economic and Environmental ImpactRisks financial crises, environmental degradation, and global economic instability.
Security ImplicationsClimate-induced instability may lead to security concerns, with conflicts spilling across borders.
Erosion of TrustIt will further aggravate the trust deficit between affluent and emerging economies, widening global divisions.
Undermines global climate negotiations, cooperation, and climate justice.


Way forward:

  • Countries should maintain momentum after incremental gains at COPs, ensuring credibility and meaningful progress.
  • Sustaining political commitment to new finance, targeted emission reduction, and improved vulnerability reduction are crucial.
  • Lessons from recent experiences, especially with the Green Climate Fund, should guide ongoing efforts.
  • The imperative to strike a balance between adaptation and addressing Loss and Damage remains crucial.


Recent Other efforts to boost climate finance:



The prolonged deadlock over the Loss and Damage fund highlights a concerning lack of consensus and trust among nations, posing challenges to climate justice and collaborative efforts.


Other Global Climate Finance Mechanism:

Global Environment Facility (GEF)Established in the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the GEF is a unique partnership of 18 agencies working with 183 countries to address the world’s most challenging environmental issues.
Adaptation FundEstablished in 2001, the Adaptation Fund finances concrete adaptation projects and programs in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)Established in 2001, the SCCF finances projects related to adaptation, technology transfer, capacity building, energy, transport, etc.
Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)Established to support a work program assisting Least Developed Country Parties in preparing and implementing national adaptation programs of action (NAPAs).
Green Climate Fund (GCF)Established under the Cancún Agreements in 2010, the GCF is mandated to support developing countries in raising and realizing their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) ambitions.


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gasses which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (UPSC 2022)

“Abundance in Millets” Song

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)


Source: TH

 Context: The song “Abundance in Millets,” featuring Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and singer Falu, has been nominated for the 2022 Grammy Awards in the Best Global Music Performance category.

The song promotes the benefits of millet in the world’s food supply and advocates for their consumption as a healthy alternative. The nomination aligns with the designation of 2023 as the “International Year of Millets” by the United Nations.

About the Grammy Awards (presented by the Recording Academy of the United States): It recognizes outstanding achievements in the music industry, honouring artists across various genres. The Oscars, on the other hand, celebrate excellence in the film industry.

Leather puppetry

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: TH

 Context: Leather puppetry, an ancient art form in Andhra Pradesh, is facing extinction.


What is Leather puppetry?

It is an ancient art form that involves the use of puppets made from goat skin. Puppeteers craft puppets depicting characters from Hindu mythology, and performances often revolve around themes from epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata.


Threats faced by puppeteers:

  • The majority of the Puppeteers, who originally came from Maharashtra and settled near Kakinada, have embraced other faiths and subsequently quit puppetry which is purely based on Hindu mythological stories.
  • Low Income: The puppeteers are struggling for livelihoods, with the impact of digital media and a decline in public interest.


What is Shadow puppetry and how is it different from Leather Puppetry?

Shadow puppetry is a traditional form of puppetry where puppets made of translucent material, often leather, are used to create shadows on a screen. Here the focus is on the shadows cast on the screen, and the puppets are typically made of thin, semi-transparent material like leather or parchment. Leather puppetry, on the other hand, involves the use of more substantial, often opaque, puppets made from materials like goat skin.


Underwater Volcano Eruption

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: TOI


Context: A new island has emerged near Japan’s Ogasawara island chain following an underwater volcano eruption in late October 2023.

  • The island formed through phreatomagmatic eruptions triggered by the interaction of magma with seawater.

What are phreatomagmatic eruptions?

 Phreatomagmatic eruptions are volcanic events triggered by the interaction of magma with water, typically seawater. These interactions lead to explosive releases of ash and steam. The term “phreatomagmatic” combines “phreatic,” relating to water, and “magmatic,” referring to magma. These eruptions often occur underwater and are characterized by the explosive nature of the ash and steam release.

About Japan’s Ogasawara island chain:

The chain, also known as the Bonin Islands, consists of over 30 islands and islets created by volcanic processes, including phreatomagmatic eruptions.


Chief Commissioner of Persons with Disabilities

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

 Context: The Chief Commissioner of Persons with Disabilities delivered two impactful judgments aimed at promoting accessibility and protecting the rights of individuals with disabilities in India.


What is the Judgement about? 

  • Government Office Accessibility Mandate: Government offices in non-accessible buildings must relocate services. Services should be moved to the ground floor or an accessible location within the same facility.
  • Airline Policy: Airline policy necessitating medical clearance for certain PwD categories is inconsistent with global Civil Aviation Requirements. All airlines, whether Indian or foreign, must implement the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016, to protect the rights and dignity of individuals with disabilities




Prelims Links: 

India is home to lakhs of persons with disabilities. What are the benefits available to them under the law? (UPSC 2011)

  1. Free schooling till the age of 18 years in government-run schools.
  2. Preferential allotment of land for setting up business.
  3. Ramps in public buildings.


Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3


Ans: D

Criminal Cases against MPs and MLAs

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: ET

 Context: The Supreme Court issued directions for the speedy disposal of criminal cases against Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of Legislative Assembly (MLAs).


The SC issued guidelines during a case challenging Section 8(3) of the Representation of People Act, 1951. This section imposes a six-year ban on individuals convicted of offences with a minimum two-year sentence from contesting elections.


SC guidelines:

Registration of Suo motu casesThe chief justices from high courts (HC) can now initiate suo motu cases for speedy resolution of pending criminal cases involving lawmakers.
Special BenchSuch cases against MPs/MLAs can be heard by a Chief Justice-led special bench.
Priority in Designated CourtsDesignated courts prioritize those criminal cases against MPs/MLAs which are: 1. Punishable with death or life imprisonment 2. Cases punishable with imprisonment for 5 years or more
Trial Court AdjournmentsTrial courts are instructed not to adjourn such criminal cases against MPs/MLAs, except for rare and compelling reasons.
District judges are tasked with ensuring adequate infrastructure and technological facilities for designated special courts trying lawmakers.
Monitoring MeasuresHCs should develop effective monitoring measures using powers under Article 227 to monitor such cases
Under Article 227 (1), HC exercises superintendence over all courts and tribunals in its jurisdiction.


Status of Criminal cases against MPs/MLAs:

In India, post the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, 43% of newly-elected MPs had pending criminal cases, as reported by the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR). By December 2021, the number of pending criminal cases against current and former MLAs and MPs had reached close to 5,000.


Various Judgments Against Criminalization of Politics: 

Public Interest Foundation v. Union of India (2019)The SC mandated political parties to publish candidates’ criminal records on websites, social media, and newspapers. The Election Commission of India (ECI) was directed to create a framework for effective dissemination.
Manoj Narula v. Union of India (2014)The Delhi High Court held that a person charged with a criminal offence couldn’t be disqualified from elections. However, political parties were cautioned against fielding candidates with a criminal background.
Lily Thomas v. Union of India (2013)The SC ruled that MPs or MLAs convicted of a crime and sentenced to two years or more would be disqualified. Convicted lawmakers couldn’t contest elections or hold office pending appeal.
Association for Democratic Reforms v. Union of India (2002)The SC instructed the ECI to issue guidelines preventing political parties from giving tickets to candidates with criminal records. Candidates were required to disclose their criminal history in nomination papers.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: IE 

Context: The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has developed an improved rice variety, Pusa-2090, as an alternative to Pusa-44, associated with stubble burning.

What is Pusa-44?

It is a variety of rice, known for its high yield but longer maturity period, which contributes to post-harvest stubble burning, as farmers in Punjab and Haryana have little time left for field preparation before subsequent wheat sowing.

During the ongoing kharif season, Pusa-44 dominates paddy cultivation in Punjab, particularly in non-basmati varieties. Basmati varieties, known for producing softer straw and causing less stubble burning, have a smaller cultivation area in comparison.

Recently, the Punjab Chief Minister has announced a ban on the cultivation of the PUSA-44 paddy variety starting next year (2024).


What is Pusa-2090?

It is a cross between Pusa-44 and CB-501, and matures in 120-125 days (compared to 155-160 days for Pusa 44), offering a shorter duration with similar high yields. It aims to address the issue of stubble burning in regions like Punjab and Haryana.


About IARI:

The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) (formed 1905; HQ: Delhi), initially located in Pusa, Bihar, originated as the Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research.  After being renamed and relocated to Delhi in 1936, it is now administered by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

Alliance for Transformative Action on Climate and Health (ATACH)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: WHO

 Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced an Operational Framework for constructing climate-resilient and low-carbon health systems. Framework is important to implement the Alliance for Transformative Action on Climate and Health (ATACH) goals.


What are climate-resilient and low-carbon health systems?

Climate-resilient and low-carbon health systems are designed to withstand the impacts of climate change while minimizing their carbon footprint.


What is ATACH?

It is a WHO initiative, established in 2022, and is an informal voluntary network which works to realize the ambition set at COP26 to build climate-resilient and sustainable health systems.





Source: TOI

 Context: Australia has made a historic agreement to provide climate refuge to citizens of Tuvalu, a Pacific nation facing the severe impacts of climate change, particularly rising seas.


About the agreement:

The agreement, known as the Falepili Union, allows up to 280 Tuvalu citizens to reside, work, and study in Australia. Additionally, Australia has pledged funding, including about A$17 million, to assist Tuvalu in adapting to climate change, such as expanding its main island’s landmass by 6%.


About Tuvalu:

Tuvalu, formerly the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation in the Pacific Ocean, located between Hawaii and Australia. It is a volcanic archipelago comprising three reef islands and six true atolls. It is the fourth smallest country globally, with the highest point at 4.6 meters above sea level. It is often referred to as the first country that will be totally submerged, due to climate change.’

/ 11 November 2023, Today's Article, Tuvalu


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