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G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Multilateral Institutions


Source: G20

 Context: The 18th G20 Summit was hosted by India in New Delhi on September 9-10, 2023. The theme, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam,” highlighted global unity.

The G20 Leaders’ New Delhi Declaration achieved unanimous consensus, addressing issues like Russia-Ukraine tensions, sustainable development, and food security.


Key highlights of the G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration:

Key AreasHighlights
Ukraine WarAll states must act in line with the UN Charter. Refrain from threats or use of force.
Grain/Food/Energy SecurityCall for unimpeded deliveries of grain, food, and fertilizers/inputs from Russia and Ukraine.
Gender EqualityCreation of a working group on women’s empowerment to prioritize gender equality, women empowerment, and leadership.
Food SecurityG20 leaders aim to eliminate hunger and malnutrition, address rising commodity prices, and promote transparent and fair trade in agriculture.
Economies & MarketsCommit to protecting the vulnerable through equitable growth. A Financial Inclusion Action Plan aimed at advancing financial inclusion for individuals and MSMEs.
Global Value Chains: A generic framework for mapping global value chains to identify risks and build resilience.
Reaffirmation of commitment to the twin pillars of the international tax package, including profit allocation and nexus and global minimum taxation.
A roadmap for implementing the recommendations of the G20 Independent Review of MDBs’ Capital Adequacy Frameworks.
Technology Crypto-Assets: A joint roadmap to support a coordinated policy and regulatory framework for crypto-assets.
Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI): Establishment of a Global DPI Repository to share best practices and experiences in DPI development and deployment.
Climate ChangeAccelerate efforts to phase down unabated coal power
Aim to triple renewable energy capacity by 2030
Call for ambitious, transparent, and trackable climate finance goals from 2024
Recognition of the need for about USD 6 trillion in the pre-2030 period for developing countries to implement their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for climate action.
Global Debt VulnerabilitiesCommit to addressing debt vulnerabilities in developing countries. Call for swift conclusion of debt treatment for Ethiopia.
HealthCommit to strengthening global health architecture.
 Emphasis on building a climate-resilient healthcare systems, integrating traditional medicine, and adopting a one-health approach.
Agricultural TransparencyStrengthening Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) to enhance transparency and avoid food price volatility.
 AMIS, launched in 2011, enhances food market transparency and policy responses for food security, while GEOGLAM, with roots in the French G20 Presidency in 2011, offers global agricultural information for market transparency and food security.
Biofuels InitiativesThe Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA) is an India-led initiative promoting biofuels’ adoption globally. It will support India’s existing biofuels programs, including PM-JIVAN Yojna, SATAT, and GOBAR-Dhan scheme.
UNSC ReformsAgreement on UNGA 75/1 (UNSC reforms) for the first time in G20.


Other major outcomes of the G20 Summit:

Admittance of the African Union (G20 now G21)The African Union became a permanent member of the G20, increasing the representation of developing countries.
Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA)India-led initiative promoting biofuels globally, contributing to India’s existing biofuels programs.
India – Middle East – Europe Economic Corridor (IMEE-EC)A significant infrastructure project connecting India, the Middle East, and Europe, aiming to provide an alternative to China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
India-Mercosur Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA)Collaboration to expand economic ties through the India-Mercosur PTA.
Handover of G20 chairmanship from India to Brazil.


India’s Cultural Highlights: 

Cultural HighlightsDescription
Bharat MandapamAn exhibition or showcase inspired by Anubhav Mandapam, a cultural platform in India.
Bronze statue of Lord NatarajaA bronze sculpture of Lord Nataraja in the Chola artistic style, representing Lord Shiva’s cosmic dance.
Konark Chakra and Image of Nalanda UniversityDisplays of the Konark Chakra, a significant symbol from Odisha’s Sun Temple, and images related to Nalanda University.
Thanjavur Paintings and Dhokra artExhibition of traditional Thanjavur paintings, known for intricate details and rich colours, and Dhokra art, a form of tribal metal casting.
A brass statue of Lord Buddha sitting under Bodhi treeA brass sculpture of Lord Buddha in a meditative posture beneath the Bodhi tree, symbolises his enlightenment.


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

India’s Presidency of the G20, SCO and UNSC is a historic opportunity for reinventing the United Nations. Discuss.


Prelims Links:

Consider the following statements:

  1. G20 is a major international grouping with its members accounting for more than 80% of global GDP.
  2. Till now India has never hosted the G20 Leaders’ Summit.
  3. India was not a member of the G20 during its inception but joined later.



Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1, 3
  2. b) 1, 2
  3. c) 1 only
  4. d) 1, 2, 3


Solution: b