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BS 6 Stage II ‘Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicle’

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

 Context: Toyota Kirloskar Motor has launched the world’s first prototype of a BS 6 Stage II ‘Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicle’ in India.


This vehicle combines a flex-fuel engine with an electric powertrain, offering greater use of ethanol and improved fuel efficiency. It aligns with India’s stricter emission standards and has the potential to utilize excess ethanol resources.


What are Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) and Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicles?

Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs): It is designed to run on a flexible combination of fuels, typically gasoline and ethanol. These vehicles are equipped with engines that can adjust their fuel mixture based on the available fuel blend E.g., E20 (20% ethanol and 80% gasoline) or even higher percentages.


Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicles: They are a more advanced version of FFVs that

offer the advantage of being able to operate on both ethanol-based fuels and electricity, providing increased fuel efficiency and potentially reducing emissions compared to traditional gasoline-only vehicles.


  • These vehicles offer higher ethanol use and better fuel efficiency similar to Strong Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SHEVs)
  • Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicles use minimal advanced chemistry batteries to reduce dependence on imports.


  • Higher cost of ownership and running cost for customers, which may affect their acceptance unless retail fuel prices are competitive.
  • Developing FFVs requires significant effort and calibration with multiple fuel blends, making them less viable without widespread fuel availability.


About Ethanol Blended Petrol Programme (EBPP): 

  • The target of 10% ethanol blending for 2021-22 has already been achieved.
  • The National Policy on Biofuels – 2018 targets 20% blending of ethanol in petrol by ESY 2025-26.


About Bharat Stage VI (BS VI):

It is a set of emission standards established to regulate the level of air pollutants emitted from internal combustion and spark-ignition engine equipment.

India has made it mandatory to follow BS-VI emission (from previously BS-IV) norms starting on April 1, 2020.

  • BS-VI contains enhanced fuel quality, and reduced the permissible Sulphur content by 80%, from 50 Parts Per Million (ppm) to a maximum of 10 ppm.