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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 August 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Western-educated Indians began to question the legitimacy of British rule and were inspired by concepts like democracy, nationalism, and self-governance, which fuelled the growth of Indian nationalism. Examine. (250 word)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable (revision).

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Key Demand of the question: To write about nationalism, factors for its rise and different views regarding it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining nationalism.

Body:

First, write about the various factors that led to rise of nationalism in India – the Despotic nature of the rule, the racial discrimination, indiscriminate taxation, ruining of Industries, Introduction of modern education, the influx of ideas of liberalism and constitutionalism, the rise of an educated middle class, the impact of the press, the impact of socio-religious reform movements etc.

Next, write about the role of Western-educated Indians in the rise of Indian nationalism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating a balanced opinion.

Introduction

Nationalism is an ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. Nationalism typically makes certain political claims based upon this belief: above all, the claim that the nation is the only fully legitimate basis for a state, that each nation is entitled to its own state, and that the borders of the state should be congruent with the borders of the nation. Nationalism refers to both a political doctrine and any collective action by political and social movements on behalf of specific nations.

Body

Factors that led to the rise of Indian nationalism

  • Western Thought and Education: The introduction of a modern system of education afforded opportunities for assimilation of modern western ideas. This, in turn, gave a new direction to Indian political thinking, although the English system of education had been conceived by the rulers in the interest of efficient administration.
    • The liberal and radical thought of European writers like Milton, Shelley, John Stuart Mill, Rousseau, Paine, Spencer and Voltairehelped many Indians imbibe modern rational, secular, democratic and nationalist ideas.
  • The English languagehelped nationalist leaders from different linguistic regions to communicate with each other. Those among the educated who took up liberal professions (lawyers, doctors, etc.) often visited England for higher education.
    • There they saw theworking of modern political institutions in a free country and compared that system with the Indian situation where even basic rights were denied to the citizens.
    • This ever-expanding English educated class formed the middle-class intelligentsia who constituted the nucleus for the newly arising political unrest.It was this section which provided leadership to the Indian political associations.
  • Press: The second half of the nineteenth century saw an unprecedented growth of Indian owned English and vernacular newspapers, despite numerous restrictions imposed on the press by the colonial rulers from time to time.
    • The press while criticising official policies, on the one hand, urged the people to unite, on the other.It also helped spread modern ideas of self-government, democracy, civil rights and industrialization.
    • The newspapers, journals, pamphlets and nationalist literature helped in the exchange of ,political ideas among nationalist leaders from different regions.
  • Socio-religious reforms:These reform movements sought to remove social evils which divided the Indian society; this had the effect of bringing different sections together and proved to be an important factor in the growth of Indian nationalism.
  • Rise of middle-class intelligentsia: This class, prominent because of its education, new position and its close ties with the ruling class, came to the forefront. The leadership to the Indian National Congress in all its stages of growth was provided by this class.
  • Impact of Contemporary Movements Worldwide:Rise of a number of nations on the ruins of Spanish and Portuguese empires in South America, and the national liberation movements of Greece and Italy in general and of Ireland deeply influenced the nationalist ranks.
  • Reactionary Policies and Racial Arrogance of Rulers:  Racial myths of white superiority were sought to be perpetuated by adeliberate policy of discrimination and segregation. Indians felt deeply hurt by this. Lytton’s reactionary policies such as reduction of maximum age limit for the I.C.S. examination ‘from 21 years to 19 years (1876), the grand Delhi Durbar of 1877 when the country was in the severe grip of famine, the Vernacular Press Act (1878) and the Arms Act (1878) provoked a storm of opposition in the country.
    • It became clear, to the nationalists that justice and fair play could not be expected where interests of the European community were involved.

Various views of Indian nationalists on nationalism

  • The early nationalist leaders, such as Dadabhai Navroji, S N Banerjee, Pherozeshah Mehta, Gokhale and Ranade, were uncritical admirers of western political values of equality before law, freedom of speech & press, principle of representative government etc.
    • Being staunch believers in liberalism they adopted ‘moderate’ politics based on constitutionalism and peaceful methods as most appropriate to avoid direct friction with the ruler.
    • Their ‘moderate’ politics and loyalty to the British rule in India was based on the idea that the British rule was a providential mission capable of protecting India’s future.
    • They considered its continuity as ‘sine qua non’ of India’s progress as a civilized nation. They considered the disciplining & lawful rule of British to be superior than the division & disorder of the 18th century.
    • However, to mould the British rule in India’s peculiar conditions, they favored reforms in administration to meet the interests of the Indians.
  • Extremist nationalism:The Extremists gave the idea of India’s independence the central place in India’s politics. The goal of independence was to be achieved through self-sacrifice. Its leaders were Aurobindo, Tilak, B.C. Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai—had different perceptions of their goal.
    • For Tilak, swaraj meant some sort of self-government, while for Aurobindo, it meant complete independence from foreign rule.
    • But at the politico-ideological level, their emphasis on mass participation and on the need to broaden the social base of the movement was a progressive improvement upon the Moderate politics.
    • They raised patriotism from alevel of ‘academic pastime’ to one of ‘service and sacrifice for the country’.
  • Revolutionary nationalism:The idea was to strike terror in the hearts of the rulers, arouse people and remove the fear of authority from their minds. The revolutionaries intended to inspire the people by appealing to their patriotism, especially the idealist youth who would finally drive the British out. Bhagat singh, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Jatindranath Banerjee were leaders of this trend.
  • Gandhian nationalism:Unlike the pre- Gandhian nationalists conception of ‘swaraj’ as political freedom, Gandhi defined ‘Swaraj’ in its widest possible connotation as not merely political liberation but also human emancipation based on social, spiritual and moral foundations.
    • Gandhi introduced the technique of‘non-violent satyagraha’ as the only technique capable of meeting the nationalist aims and aspirations. He used this technique in envisaging the most ‘spectacular mass movement’ based on the strategy of ‘struggle-Truce-struggle’.

Conclusion

Thus, the nationalist response in India was articulated differently in different phases of India’s freedom struggle. Each phase ultimately culminated in the freedom of India from British imperialism leading to independence and constitution of a sovereign nation.

 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

2. While the Home Rule Movement had its limitations, including a limited scope and the inability to achieve immediate self-rule, its impact on the national movement cannot be undermined. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable (revision).

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the limitations of the Home Rule Movement, especially with regards to Home Rule leagues. Also, to explain the legacy of the movement.

Directive word: 

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about Home Rule Movement, its leaders, inspiration and aims and objectives.

Body:

Elaborate further upon the Home Rule movement and its nature of functioning and spread.

Bring out the limitations of Home Rule, lack of cohesiveness between Tilak’s and Besant’s leagues, Skepticism of Congress, Lack of leadership post-1917 etc.

In the next part write in detail about the legacy of the movement. Giving impetus to national movement during the war period, facilitating the re-entry of extremists in Congress, Lucknow, creating a platform for upcoming leaders, and preparing India for the arrival of Gandhi and mass movements.

Conclusion:

Summarize the overall importance and the legacy of the Home rule movement.

Introduction

The home rule movement was the Indian response to the First World War in a less charged but in a more effective way. With people already feeling the burden of war time miseries caused by high taxation and a rise in prices, Tilak and Annie Besant ready to assume the leadership the movement started with great vigour. Two Indian Home Rule Leagues were organised on the lines of the Irish Home Rule Leagues and they represented the emergence of a new trend of aggressive politics. The League campaign aimed to convey to the common man the message of home rule as self-government.

Objectives of Home Rule Movement:

  • To achieve self-government in India.
  • To promote political education and discussion to set up agitation for self-government.
  • To build confidence among Indians to speak against the government’s suppression.
  • To demand a larger political representation for Indians from the British government.
  • To revive political activity in India while maintaining the principles of the Congress Party.

Major contributions of Home Rule Movement to the freedom struggle of India:

  1. The leagues organised demonstrations and agitations.
  2. There were public meetings in which the leaders gave fiery speeches.
  3. They were able to create a stir within the country and alarm the British to such an extent that Annie Besant was arrested in June 1917.
  4. This move by the British created a nation-wide protest and now even moderate leaders joined the league. Besant was released in September 1917.
  5. The Home Rule League functioned throughout the year as opposed to the Congress Party whose activities were confined to once a year.
  6. The movement was able to garner huge support from a lot of educated Indians. In 1917, the two leagues combined had around 40,000 members.
  7. Many members of the Congress and the Muslim League joined the league. Many prominent leaders like Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Joseph Baptista, G S Kharpade and Sir S Subramanya Iyer were among its members.
  8. The moderates, extremists and the Muslim League were briefly united through this movement.
  9. The movement was able to spread political consciousness to more regions in the country.
  • This movement led to the Montague Declaration of 1917 in which it was declared that there would be more Indians in the government leading to the development of self-governing institutions ultimately realising responsible governments in India.

This Declaration, also known as August Declaration, implied that the demand for home rule would no longer be considered seditious. This was the biggest significance of the movement.

Reasons for movement to fade out:

  1. The movement was not a mass movement. It was restricted to educated people and college students.
  2. The leagues did not find a lot of support among Muslims, Anglo-Indians and non-Brahmins from Southern India as they thought home rule would mean a rule of the upper caste Hindu majority.
  3. Many of the moderates were satisfied with the government’s assurance of reforms (as preluded in the Montague Declaration). They did not take the movement further.
  4. Annie Besant kept oscillating between being satisfied with the government talk of reforms and pushing the home rule movement forward. She was not able to provide firm leadership to her followers. Although ultimately she did call the reforms ‘unworthy of Indian acceptance’.
  5. In September 1918, Tilak went to England to pursue a libel case against Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol, British journalist and author of the book ‘Indian Unrest’. The book contained deprecatory comments and had called Tilak the ‘Father of Indian Unrest.’
  6. The Government made use of Defence of India Act, 1915 to curb the activities of the agitators.
  7. Students were prohibited from attending Home Rule meetings.
  8. Tilak was prosecuted and his entry in Punjab and Delhi was banned.
  9. Indian Press Act of 1910 was imposed on the press and restrictions were enforced.
  • Tilak’s absence and Besant’s inability to lead the people led to the movement’s fizzing out.
  • The movement was left leaderless with Tilak going abroad and Besant unable to give a positive lead.
  • After the war, Mahatma Gandhi gained prominence as a leader of the masses and the Home Rule Leagues merged with the Congress Party in 1920.

Conclusion: 

The home rule movement lent a new dimension and a sense of urgency to the national movement. Although its role in the Indian independence movement had been modest, it did succeed in helping to sustain the movement’s impetus during the war years—as manifested in the signing of the Lucknow Pact in December 1916.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. A comprehensive review and strategic adjustments are needed to ensure that UDAN (Ude Deshka Aam Nagrik) achieves its intended goals in promoting balanced regional development and accessible air travel. Evaluate.

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The article discusses the UDAN (Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik) scheme’s challenges and suggests the need for a reevaluation.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the achievements and limitations of UDAN scheme five years after its inception.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by mentioning the aims and objectives of UDAN scheme.

Body:

First, give a brief about the major features of the UDAN scheme.

Next, write about the various achievements of UDAN scheme in promotion regional connectivity and making air travel affordable. Substantiate with examples and facts,

Next, write about the shortcomings of UDAN scheme and any other improvements needed to make it more successful.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to overcome the shortcomings.

Introduction

Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) was launched as a Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) under the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 2016. The scheme envisages providing connectivity to un-served and underserved airports of the country through the revival of existing air-strips and airports.

The Ministry of Civil Aviation launched UDAN 5.1, a new version of the Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) specifically designed for helicopter routes.

Body

Performance of UDAN scheme

  • A recent report by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) says 2.5 million passengers took these UDAN routes in 2022-23.
  • Till date,387 routes and 60 airports have been operationalised out of which 100 routes are awarded in the North East alone.
  • Under the KRISHI UDAN Scheme, 16 airports have been identified to enhance the export opportunities of the North East region establishing dual benefits of enhancement of cargo movements and exports.
  • The Scheme has been selected forPrime Minister’s Award for Excellence in Public Administration 2020 under the category “Innovation (General) – Central”.
  • Economic Growth:UDAN has a positive impact on the economy of the country and has witnessed an excellent response from industry stakeholders especially airlines operators and state governments.
  • Balanced Regional Growth:More than 350 new city pairs are now scheduled to be connected under the scheme, with 200 already connected and are widely spread geographically providing connectivity across the length and breadth of the country as well as ensuring balanced regional growth resulting in economic growth and employment to the local population.
    • The scheme led to development of new GreenField Airportssuch as Pakyong near Gangtok in Sikkim, Tezu in Arunachal Pradesh and Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Increased Passenger Share:The scheme led to 5% incremental growth in domestic passenger share of non-metro airports.

Shortcomings

  • The Domestic air traffic placed at 136 million fliers that year, shows a distinct big-city skew.

 

  • Only 260 UDAN flights are in operation today, a fraction of those cleared for take-off, going by government data.

 

  • Of the 774 routes awarded in its first three phases, more than half could not make a start; of those that did get off the ground, less than a third lasted all three years of the deal’s period; and of these, less than half kept going.

 

  • Weak demand for flights to reach remote places with wobbly facilities for air services is seen as a key force that pushed carriers off profit paths.
  • Poor financial health of many smaller regional carriers has hampered the scheme.
  • Many players only have one or two planes, which should be addressed more frequently. New planes need to be within reach for these smaller players.
  • The failure of UDAN is largely because it is a market-driven scheme, which requires the government to make the routes far more profitable for airline operators.
  • Bids under UDAN are submitted based on the airline operator’s demand assessment for that specific route or route.
  • New planes need to be within reach for these smaller players. Smaller airlines must compete with larger airlines for pilots and other personnel, who must be paid on par with major carriers in the market, even though our slice of the pie is much smaller.
  • As unsold seats go waste, it is a market of perishables, one marked by such supply rigidities that prices—which vary by demand—tend to be volatile. This effect is amplified on sparsely travelled routes, whose ticket sales swing too wildly for seats to be aptly committed.

 

Conclusion

Airlines have leveraged the scheme strategically towards gaining additional slots at congested tier-1 airports, monopoly status on routes and lower operational costs. Thus, stakeholders should work towards making the UDAN scheme sustainable on its own and improve its efficiency.

Airlines should undertake marketing initiatives so that more and more people can take advantage of the UDAN scheme. More infrastructure is required for the successful implementation of the scheme across the country.

 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

4. What are the various issues pertaining to Section 8(3) of the Representation of People Act? Do you think that the restoration of Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act 1951 can serve as a sort of fix for the aforementioned issues? Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The article argues restoring the original intent of the Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act 1951, could prevent unnecessary disqualifications and provide clarity to both lawmakers and the public

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of section 8(3) of RP act and issues in it and restoration of Section 8(4)

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the giving the objective behind Section 8(3) of the Representation of the People (RP) Act.

Body:

First, write about the various features of Section 8(3) of the Representation of the People (RP) Act and its impact.

Next, write about the major issues surrounding Section 8(3) of the Representation of the People (RP) Act – ambiguity in language, discretionary power of the Election Commission, lack of clarity on exceptions and conditions, timing of disqualification, and concerns about the criminalization of politics etc.

Next, write about the steps that are needed to overcome the above and role of Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act 1951 in doing so.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Representation of People Act, 1951 lays down certain rules for disqualification of MPs and MLAs. Section 8 (3) of the Act states that if an MP or MLA is convicted for any other crime and is sent to jail for 2 years or more, he/ she will be disqualified for 6 years from the time of release. Even if a person is on bail after the conviction and his appeal is pending for disposal, he is disqualified from contesting an election.

Section 8(4) allowed convicted MPs, MLAs and MLCs to continue in their posts, provided they appealed against their conviction/sentence in higher courts within 3 months of the date of judgment by the trial court. The Supreme Court in July 2013 struck down section 8(4) of the RPA, 1951 and declared it ultra vires and held that the disqualification takes place from the date of conviction.

Body

Background

Rahul Gandhi of the Congress party was disqualified on being convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment in a 2019 defamation case. The disqualification was instant because of the Supreme Court of India’s judgment in Lily Thomas vs Union of India (2013). Through this judgment, the Court invalidated Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act 1951, which had allowed a three-month period within which to appeal. Disqualification was not to take effect during this period; when the appeal is admitted, disqualification would depend on the final outcome of the appeal.

Body

Various issues pertaining to Section 8(3) of the Representation of People Act

  • This section simply says that a person who is convicted of an offence and sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years shall be disqualified from the date of conviction.
  • It does not say that such a person stands disqualified from the date of conviction.
  • So, there is no ground indeed to conclude that the disqualification takes place the moment the court pronounces a person guilty.
  • The only condition is that such a person shall be disqualified from the date of conviction.
  • So, it appears that the act of the instant disqualification of Mr. Gandhi did not have a sound legal basis; particularly so when we consider the words “He shall be disqualified”, which could only mean that some authority has to officially declare him disqualified.
  • The scheme of Section 8(3) seems to be that when a sitting member is convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for two years or more, he shall be disqualified with effect from the date of conviction.
  • Further, it is the President who shall disqualify him under Article 103.
  • The Secretariat of the House to which the member belongs has no recognisable authority to declare that a member stands disqualified as soon as he is convicted by a court of law.

Will restoration of Section 8(4) of the Representation of People Act 1951 can serve as a sort of fix for the aforementioned issues?

  • The Supreme Court struck down Section 8(4) on the ground that Parliament has no power to provide for a special dispensation for convicted legislators because Article 102(1) does not permit such differentiation between them and the candidates.
  • But so far as differentiation goes, the Constitution in fact permits it under Article 103 which provides that in the case of sitting legislators, the question of disqualification under Article 102(1) will be decided by the President.
  • Perhaps a suitable amendment can be made in Article 102 to enable Parliament to restore the invalidated Section 8(4).
  • In fact, the judgment in Lily Thomas has not resulted in any perceptible qualitative change in the criminal proclivity of politicians.
  • Politicians belonging to the powerful ruling dispensation at a particular time may be able to get a conviction stayed within a few hours, thus saving themselves from instant disqualification.

Conclusion

This and other cases show that Section 8(4) needs to be restored and protected constitutionally in order to protect the careers of India’s legislators from abrupt convulsions caused by court orders which are given, in the words of the Supreme Court, “without any application of mind”.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

5. Anti-microbial resistance (AMR) is a complex problem with far-reaching consequences for public health. The One Health approach offers a comprehensive strategy that can contribute significantly to combating AMR by addressing its underlying causes and promoting collaborative solutions. Discuss (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was part of one of the three key health-related priority areas of the meeting set under India’s G20 presidency.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about concerns surrounding AMR, its causes, measures to deal with it and role of one health approach in this regard.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define AMR and its causes.

Body:

First, write about the why there is global cause of concern – Superbug, Multi drug resistance to bacterium and viruses, Increased cost of treatment, prolonged hospitalisation, increased mortality and less effective inoculation.

Next, write about the various initiatives to tackle AMR – Global Action Plan on AMR, World Anti-microbial awareness week, Delhi Declaration on AMR, National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance etc. Evaluate its efficacy.

Next, write about the one health approach and the initiatives it offers in dealing with AMR.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The WHO defines antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a condition wherein microbes survive when exposed to the drug which would have normally caused them to die. It is the resistance acquired by any microorganism like bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite, etc. against antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarial, and anthelmintic) that are used to treat infections and is regarded as a major threat to public health across the globe. Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was part of one of the three key health-related priority areas of the meeting set under India’s G20 presidency.

Body

Challenges in controlling AMR:

  • Antibiotic consumption in humans
    • Unnecessary and injudicious use of antibiotic fixed dose combinations could lead to emergence of bacterial strains resistant to multiple antibiotics.
  • Social factors
    • Self-medication.
    • Access to antibiotics without prescription.
    • Lack of knowledge about when to use antibiotics.
  • Cultural Activities
    • Mass bathing in rivers as part of religious mass gathering occasions.
  • Antibiotic Consumption in Food Animals
    • Antibiotics which are critical to human health are commonly used for growth promotion in poultry.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry Pollution
    • The wastewater effluents from the antibiotic manufacturing units contain a substantial amount of antibiotics, leading to contamination of rivers and lakes.
  • Environmental Sanitation
    • Untreated disposal of sewage water bodies – leading to contamination of rivers with antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant organisms.
  • Infection Control Practices in Healthcare Settings
    • A report on hand-washing practices of nurses and doctors found that only 31.8% of them washed hands after contact with patients.

Efforts to control AMR in India:

  • Burden of infectious disease (Bacterial infections) is high and healthcare spending is low.
  • The National Health Policy 2017 highlights the problem of antimicrobial resistance and calls for effective action to address it.
  • The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW) identified AMR as one of the top 10 priorities for the ministry’s collaborative work with WHO.
  • In 2012, India’s medical societies adopted the Chennai Declaration, a set of national recommendations to promote antibiotic stewardship.
  • India’s Red Line campaign demands that prescription-only antibiotics be marked with a red line, to discourage the over-the-counter sale of antibiotics.
  • National Policy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance 2011.
  • National Action Plan on AMR resistance 2017-2021.
  • India has instituted surveillance of the emergence of drug resistance in disease causing microbes in programmes on Tuberculosis, Vector Borne diseases, AIDS, etc.
  • Since March 2014 a separate Schedule H-1 has been incorporated in Drug and Cosmetic rules to regulate the sale of antimicrobials in the country.
  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) banned the use of antibiotics and several pharmacologically active substances in fisheries.
  • The government has also capped the maximum levels of drugs that can be used for growth promotion in meat and meat products.

“One Health” approach to tackle AMR

  • Scientists have observed that there are more than 1.7 million viruses circulating in wildlife, and many of them are likely to be zoonotic, which implies that unless there is timely detection, India risks facing many more pandemics in times to come.
  • To achieve targets under the ‘One Health’ vision, efforts are ongoing to address challenges pertaining to veterinary manpower shortages, the lack of information sharing between human and animal health institutions, and inadequate coordination on food safety at slaughter, distribution, and retail facilities.
  • These issues can be remedied by consolidating existing animal health and disease surveillance systems — e.g., the Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health, and the National Animal Disease Reporting System — developing best-practice guidelines for informal market and slaughterhouse operation (e.g., inspections, disease prevalence assessments), and creating mechanisms to operationalise ‘One Health’ at every stage down to the village level.
  • Now, as we battle yet another wave of a deadly zoonotic disease (COVID-19), awareness generation, and increased investments toward meeting ‘One Health’ targets is the need of the hour.

 

Way forward

  • In addition to developing new antimicrobials, infection-control measures can reduce antibiotic use.
  • It is critical to ensure that all those who need an antimicrobial have access to it.
  • To track the spread of resistance in microbes, surveillance measures to identify these organisms need to encompass livestock, wastewater and farm run-offs.
  • We need sustained investments and global coordination to detect and combat new resistant strains on an ongoing basis.
  • International alignment and coordination are paramount in both policymaking and its implementation.
  • Solutions in clinical medicine must be integrated with improved surveillance of AMR in agriculture, animal health and the environment

Conclusion

Anti-Microbial Resistance is not a country specific issue but a global concern that is jeopardizing global health security. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major public health problems. Reducing the incidence of infection through effective infection prevention and control.  As stated by WHO, making infection prevention and hand hygiene a national policy priority is need of the hour.

Value addition

International Efforts

  • A multi-sectoral $1 billion AMR Action Fund was launched in 2020 to support the development of new antibiotics.
  • Peru’s efforts on patient education to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.
  • Australian regulatory reforms to influence prescriber behaviour.
  • Denmark’s reforms to prevent the use of antibiotics in livestock have not only led to a significant reduction in the prevalence of resistant microbes in animals, but also improved the efficiency of farming.
  • India proposed laws to curb the amount of active antibiotics released in pharmaceutical waste

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Morality is not just a set of rules; it is a quality of character.” – Unknown

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2024 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about difference between preaching morality and practising it. Write about the impact of the same. Write ways how one can practice what is preached. Write about how morality determines the quality of the character. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

This quote encapsulates the essence of morality, emphasizing that it extends beyond a mere collection of rules and regulations. It suggests that morality is intricately linked to an individual’s character and the qualities they possess.

Body

Rules and codes of conduct serve as guidelines for ethical behavior, but they are incomplete without the underlying quality of character. Morality is not simply about adhering to a predetermined set of do’s and don’ts; it involves the internalization of virtues such as honesty, compassion, fairness, and integrity. These virtues shape an individual’s character and guide their actions in a consistent and principled manner.

Furthermore, the quote implies that morality is not just an external imposition but a personal attribute that manifests through one’s behavior and choices. It emphasizes the importance of cultivating virtues and developing a strong moral character as a foundation for ethical decision-making. While rules may change or vary across different contexts, the quality of character remains fundamental and transcends specific situations.

This quote highlights that morality is not static but a lifelong pursuit. It implies that developing and refining one’s character is an ongoing process, requiring self-reflection, self-awareness, and a commitment to personal growth. It underscores the idea that morality is deeply intertwined with our inner selves and influences our interactions with others and the world at large.

Conclusion

In essence, this quote reminds us that true morality goes beyond compliance with rules; it resides in the very fabric of our character and shapes our actions, enabling us to navigate ethical dilemmas with wisdom and integrity.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“In civilized life, law floats in a sea of ethics”. – Earl Warren.

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2024 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving a simple understanding of the meaning of the quote.

Body:

Mention the relationship between laws and ethics. Write that law needs a proper process and is support and supplemented by ethics. Write about law as a source of ethical guidance. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Laws refer to the set of codified norms which are enforced by the state. They act as external obligations. On the other hand, ethics refer to the set of norms which guide our internal compass and judgements. Laws and ethics both serve similar purposes of guiding human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence. They enforce a sense of right and wrong.

Body

The quote implies that there is a foundation of ethical values for the law. In performing our legal duties, we are also satisfying our ethical obligations. While in an uncivilized society, enactments of tyranny or barbarism may motivate an obligation to obey the law. But in a civilized society, the obligation to act ethically is not a result of supposed obligation to obey alone, but a result of the binding ethical values that have informed the content of the law.

It is well known that those nations of the world, which are deemed civilized and well-constrained by the rule of law, may be governed by laws that are not ethically sound. For instance, Slavery, apartheid, and torture, have been perpetuated pursuant to the laws of many civilized countries.

Western liberal regimes of property, contract and tort law include doctrines and principles, the applications of which result in predictable hardship for the poor and the vulnerable. Laws that permit environmental degradation, capital punishment of the innocent and political corruption are hardly ethical waters for any ship of state.

However, Laws can never be so exhaustive to cover each and every scenario possible. Hence, there will always be scope for discretion. In such scenarios, ethical behaviour should come from within. There are many scenarios where laws cannot exist. E.g. we cannot have strict laws to scrutinize every small act of corruption. Even with laws, some unethical practices continue to exist. E.g. laws for violence against women have existed for ages. But that hasn’t caused such acts to end.

Conclusion

Laws and ethics have their own unique position. Both are equally important and go hand in hand.

 


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