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India-Greece Bilateral Relationship

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: International Relations


Source: TOI

 Context: During Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Greece, the two nations elevated their bilateral relationship to a “strategic partnership,” focusing on enhancing political, defence, and security cooperation.


What is a Strategic Partnership? 

A strategic partnership is a long-term interaction between two countries based on political, economic, social and historical factors. E.g., India has strategic partnerships with the United States, Russia, China, Japan, UK, France and others


Key points of the visit:

  • This visit marked the first by an Indian Prime Minister in 40 years.
  • Greece conferred the Grand Cross of the Order of Honour (Greece’s 2nd highest civilian honour) on Modi, making him the first foreign head of government to receive this honour.
  • The two countries also aimed to double bilateral trade by 2030
  • Early finalization of the Mobility and Migration Partnership Agreement (MMPA)to facilitate skilled migration between the two countries.
  • They reaffirmed their commitment to a free and rules-based Indo-Pacific region and the Mediterranean Sea, advocating for international peace, stability, and security.


Various aspects of India-Greece Relations: 

AspectIndia-Greece Relations
Ancient Interactions·        Interaction initiated by Alexander’s campaign in the 4th century BCE

·        Diplomatic, trade, and cultural relations mentioned in Ashoka’s edicts

·        The indo-Greek period was marked by cultural exchange under Greek rulers Demetrius I and Menander I

Political Relations·        Diplomatic relations established in 1950

·        Diplomatic ties, high-level visits, and cooperation between leaders

·        Support for India’s inclusion in NSG and other groups

Commercial Relations·        Trade at 1.32 billion euros

·        Main exports: cotton, scrap, marble, etc.

·        Indian participation in Thessaloniki International Fair

·        India-Greece Framework Agreement on International Solar Alliance

Defence Bilateral cooperation, MoU on defence, joint exercises
Geostrategic Significance·        Greece’s potential as India’s gateway to Europe

·        India’s ties with Greece unsettle Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Pakistan

·        Countermeasure against China’s influence in the Mediterranean region

Geopolitical Significance·        Support from Greece on issues like Kashmir and terrorism

·        Shared approach on initiatives like UN reforms and the Cyprus issue

·        Greece’s NATO membership and Armenia’s alliance with Russia


Enhancing India-Greece relations is crucial for India to become a pivotal player in the evolving global order, uniting key seas and continents. Strengthening economic ties can establish new financial networks across Eurasia. Advancing military cooperation through comprehensive agreements will enable joint exercises, technology sharing, and intelligence collaboration.


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