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El Niño weather phenomenon has become a significant economic and political risk for India. Examine.

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1. El Niño weather phenomenon has become a significant economic and political risk for India. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

The article underscores the connection between El Niño and political unrest due to food inflation, emphasizing the need for effective disaster management strategies and climate-resilient policies to mitigate its adverse impacts on India’s economy and society.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes/ factors which lead to El-Nino and also write in detail about its effects on the world climate and geography.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing a few introductory lines describing the El-Nino.

Body:

First, write about the mechanism of El-Nino – The role trade winds pushing warm water, difference in temperature across the equatorial pacific, circulation between east and west in the Pacific etc.

Next, write about the impact of El-Nino on Indian economy – has far-reaching effects on Indian agriculture, water resources, and economy. Its potential to cause droughts, reduced crop yields, and increased food prices, thereby impacting farmers’ livelihoods and consumer costs

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the need to adapt to adverse effects of El-Nino.