Print Friendly, PDF & Email

India-UK Relationship

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Bilateral Relationship


Source: TH

 Context:The article discusses the U.K.-India relationship and the opportunities it presents across various aspects.

Various aspects of the India-UK relationship:

AspectKey Points
Political RelationshipIndia’s political system influenced by UK. – Shared democratic values. – Collaboration on global issues. – Support for UN Security Council seat and NSG membership. – Joint declaration for annual Summits and meetings.
Bilateral InstitutionsRegular Foreign Office Consultations. – Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Dialogue. – Counter Terrorism Joint Working Group. – UN Dialogue, Policy Planning Dialogue, Cyber Dialogue, etc. – Institutionalized economic mechanisms.
Defence CollaborationStrategic partnership since 2004. – Joint military exercises. – Cooperation in cyber security and maritime security. – “Make in India” campaign involvement. – Carrier Strike Group deployment in Indian Ocean.
Nuclear CooperationCivil Nuclear Cooperation Declaration (2010). – Nuclear Collaboration Agreement (2015). – Collaboration on energy and climate change.
Terrorism and ExtremismCooperation against terrorism and extremism. – Push for UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.
Economic RelationsThe Joint Economic and Trade Committee (JETCO) was established in 2005. – India-UK Free Trade Agreement talks. – Bilateral trade and investment growth.
Trade and InvestmentBilateral trade worth £36 billion in 2022. India is the U.K.’s second-largest source of investment projects, and the U.K. has invested $34 billion in India as foreign direct investment. Rupee-denominated bonds.


The U.K. is launching the ‘Alive with Opportunity’ marketing campaign to celebrate and strengthen the bond between the two countries and attract Indian investments in the UK

Education and ResearchScience and Technology Agreement (1996). – Science & Innovation Council. – India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI)
Climate and EnvironmentCooperation on climate-related issues. Green Growth Equity Fund for renewable energy and environment.
Health CollaborationHealth sector collaboration, pandemic preparedness, research, Ayurveda, and Yoga.
Cultural EngagementMemorandum of Understanding on Cultural Cooperation (2010). – Nehru Centre for Cultural Outreach. – The concept of a ‘living bridge’ is emphasized, highlighting the dynamic exchange between the two countries.
People-to-People ContactIndian diaspora’s influence in the UK. – Indian student community in the UK. – Shared interests in cricket, cuisine, yoga, and festivals.
UK’s Significance for India Support for UNSC seat, NSG membership, and development objectives. – Economic and technological partnership. – Defense and security cooperation.
India’s Significance for UKRole in “Global Britain” ambitions. – Seizing opportunities in the Indo-Pacific. – Economic ties, investments, and rejuvenation of the Commonwealth.


The current major bilateral issues between India and the UK include:

  • Extradition of Indian Economic Offenders: The issue pertains to the extradition of Indian economic offenders who have sought refuge in Britain and are utilizing the legal system to their advantage.
    • g., Vijay Mallya and Nirav Modi
  • Umbilical Link with Pakistani Deep State: This link sometimes leads to British involvement in matters related to Jammu and Kashmir, utilizing Pakistan’s support.
  • Issues with differing expectations on FTA talks
  • Taxation: Britain has raised the matter of existing tax disputes of Vodafone Group Pic. and Cairn India Ltd with the Indian government.
  • Non-Acceptance of India’s Rise: Some segments of white Britain, including the media, might not fully acknowledge India’s emergence as a global power.



With a historic foundation of culture, history, and language, there is a unique opportunity to further deepen the India-UK relationship, leveraging their strengths for mutual prosperity.


Mains Links: 

The judicial systems in India and the UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. ( UPSC 2020)


We adopted parliamentary democracy based on the British model, but how does our model differ from that model? (UPSC 2021)

  1. As regards legislation, the British Parliament is supreme or sovereign but in India, the power of the Parliament to legislate is limited.
  2. In India, matters related to the constitutionality of Amendment of an Act of the Parliament are referred to the Constitution Bench by the Supreme Court.


Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Ans: (c)