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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Parliamentary panel findings on Drug abuse in India


GS Paper 2:

  1. National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Bill, 2023
  2. National Dental Commission Bill, 2023


GS Paper 3:

  1. Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023


Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. Chennai City Partnership


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Supreme Court verdict on Rahul Gandhi’s conviction case
  2. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
  3. Air pollution linked to rise in antibiotic resistance
  4. Plant-eating dinosaur species
  5. Havana Syndrome
  6. OS Maya



  1. Omkareshwar Reservoir (Madhya Pradesh)



Parliamentary panel findings on Drug abuse in India

GS1/GS 2 Paper 

 Syllabus: Government policies and interventions/ Indian Society


Source: TOI

Context: Parliament Standing Committee on Social Justice and Empowerment in India has recommended conducting a survey to assess the impact of drug abuse on society.


In 2018, the ministry commissioned a national survey conducted by the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) AIIMS, which formed the basis of the National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction (NAPDDR) to address drug abuse in the country.


What is Drug Abuse? 

Drug abuse refers to the excessive, inappropriate, or harmful use of legal or illegal substances, leading to negative physical, mental, social, and behavioural consequences.


Findings of the Panel:

  • No comprehensive study or survey has been conducted by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment to assess the impact of drug abuse on society.
  • Around 37 crore people in the age groups of 10-17 years (children) and 18-75 years (adults) are using drugs and alcohol in states like Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Maharashtra.
  • Penetration of District De-Addiction Centers (DDAC) is inadequate.
  • Decrease in financial allocations for preventive education and awareness programs.
  • Delay in providing training to Master Trainers under the Navchetna Programme, which focuses on life skills and drug education for school children.
1. Regular meetings and reviews of the Apex Committee of Narcotics Coordination Centre (set up by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 2016).
2. Establish an impact assessment mechanism for National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction (NAPDDR).
3. Incorporate awareness chapters on drug addiction, consequences, and de-addiction measures in the education curriculum.
4. Foster inter-ministerial coordination to address both supply and demand side issues.
5. Conduct periodic surveys by National Drug Dependence Treatment Centres (NDDTC) to stay updated on drug abuse situations.
6. National Institute of Social Defence should undertake the survey to provide a clearer understanding of the issue and aid in better intervention strategies


India’s vulnerability:

India is geographically situated between major drug-producing regions, including the Golden Crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran) and Golden Triangle (Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos).


Negative impacts of drug addiction on individuals, families, and society:

AspectNegative ImpactsExamples
IndividualsPhysical health deteriorationLung damage due to smoking
Mental health disordersAnxiety, depression, psychosis
Impaired cognitive functionMemory loss, decreased concentration
Reduced productivity and job lossFrequent absenteeism from work
Financial strain and povertySpending money on drugs, neglecting bills
Criminal involvement and legal issuesArrests for drug possession
FamiliesBreakdown of family relationshipsStrained communication, conflicts
Emotional distress and traumaChildren witnessing parent’s addiction
Financial instability due to addiction-related costsDraining savings to support addiction
Neglect of responsibilities towards familyParents failing to provide for children
Increased domestic violenceArguments and fights fueled by addiction
SocietyIncreased crime rates and public safety concernsDrug-related thefts, violence
The burden on healthcare systemsIncreased hospital admissions
Reduced workforce productivityAbsenteeism and decreased output
The strain on social servicesOverburdened rehabilitation centres
Impact on education and future prospectsDropouts due to addiction-related issues
Disruption of community well-beingCommunities plagued by drug-related issues

Government measures to address drug abuse:

  • ‘Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan’ (Drugs-Free India Campaign) was launched in August 2020 in 272 vulnerable districts.
  • The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment is implementing the National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction (NAPDDR) for 2018-2025.
  • The Narco-Coordination Centre (NCORD) was established in November 2016.
  • The “National Fund for Control of Drug Abuse” was created to support efforts against illicit drug traffic, addiction rehabilitation, and public education.
  • National Drugs & Psychotropic Substance (NDPS) Act, 1985 (Narcotics Control Bureau has been set up under it)
  • National Policy on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 2012




Mains Link:

 India is vulnerable to narcotic drug trafficking. Critically examine its causes. Also, comment on the role of the Government in combating the drug problem. (15M)

National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Bill, 2023

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Government Policies and Interventions


Source: PIB

Context: The Parliament has approved the National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Bill, 2023, a significant legislative reform aimed at revolutionizing the nursing education and practice sector.



  • This bill will replace the existing Indian Nursing Council with a modern regulatory structure.
  • Repeal the existing Indian Nursing Council Act, of 1947, as the act is outdated and does not reflect the current needs and demands
  • It will aim to enhance standards, professionalism, transparency, and accountability in the nursing field.


What is Nursing and Midwifery? 

Nursing involves providing healthcare services, monitoring patients, administering treatments, and assisting doctors. Midwifery specifically focuses on providing care to pregnant women before, during, and after childbirth, as well as newborn care. Both roles are critical in healthcare systems.


Key highlights of the proposed National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Act, 2023

Establishment of CommissionsNational and State Nursing and Midwifery Commissions to regulate education, service standards, and conduct.
Tenure and AccountabilityFixed tenures for Commission members to ensure transparency and prevent reappointment for vested interests.
Uniform Admission and CompetenceImplementing standardized admission processes and maintaining competence for high-quality healthcare services.
Innovation and CollaborationEncouraging technology and industry collaboration for advanced nursing education, excellence, and research.
Soft Skills and Specialized CoursesFocusing on soft skill development and recognizing specialized courses to enhance nursing professionals’ expertise.
Global Mobility and ExpertiseFacilitating Indian nurses’ global mobility through international expert participation in Commission meetings.
Advisory Council and CoordinationForming a National Advisory Council for balanced representation and promoting collaboration with other healthcare bodies.


Insta Links:

“State of the World’s Nursing” report

National Dental Commission Bill, 2023

GS Paper 2


Source: PIB

 Context: The Parliament has passed the National Dental Commission Bill, 2023, aiming to elevate dental education and healthcare standards in India.

Aim: To improve dental care accessibility, professionalism, and global employability for Indian dental professionals.


Key provisions of the Bill:

Constitution of NDC and State Dental CouncilsEstablishes the National Dental Commission (NDC) and mandates State Dental Councils or Joint Dental Councils for decentralized regulation.
Three Autonomous BoardsEmpowers Under-Graduate and Post-Graduate Dental Education Board, Dental Assessment and Rating Board (DARB), and Ethics and Dental Registration Board (EDRB).
Fixed Tenure and Professional DevelopmentIntroduces fixed tenures for Chairperson, Members, and Secretary, emphasizing promotive and preventive dental care and soft skills development.
Industry Collaboration and Technological InnovationEncourages partnerships with industry and institutions for dental research and integrates advanced technology into education.
Online National Register and Dental Advisory CouncilEstablishes an online National Register of licensed Dentists, along with a Dental Advisory Council for comprehensive insights and guidance.
Merit-Based Selection ProcessAppoints NDC Chairman and Members through a merit-based selection process conducted by a Search-cum-Committee chaired by the Cabinet Secretary.
Collaborative ApproachesFacilitates joint sittings with relevant bodies like National Medical Commission, Pharmacy Council, Nursing Council, and more.
Fee Regulation and ConstitutionsEmpowers Commission to frame fee guidelines for private dental colleges, and requires establishment of State Dental Councils or Joint Dental Councils.


Insta Links:

Dentists to practice as general physicians

Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Agriculture


Source: TH

 Context: The Lok Sabha has passed the Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023, to decriminalize offences related to coastal aquaculture activities, promoting ease of business.


What is Aquaculture?

Aquaculture involves cultivating aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants under controlled conditions. It is a controlled environment where aquatic organisms are bred, reared, and harvested for various purposes, including food production, research, and conservation.

Fisheries refer to the activities related to catching, harvesting, and managing wild fish and other aquatic organisms from natural water bodies such as oceans, rivers, and lakes. Unlike aquaculture, fisheries rely on capturing organisms from their natural habitats rather than cultivating them in controlled environments.


Need for this bill:

The bill introduces amendments to the Coastal Aquaculture Authority (CAA) Act of 2005. The old rules said that some activities related to aquaculture didn’t need special permission. But a recent decision by a National Green Tribunal (in 2022) ruled that the CAA Act of 2005 no longer exempted coastal aquaculture from the CRZ Notifications issued in 2011 and 2019. This ruling highlighted the need for changes to the CAA Act to align with the updated CRZ regulations.


Aim of the Bill: The bill aims to expand the scope of coastal aquaculture while reducing compliance burdens and maintaining environmental protection rules.


Key provisions of the bill:

Decriminalization of OffencesThe bill removes the possibility of jail time for certain offences in coastal aquaculture and replaces it with fines. Instead of jail time, the bill imposes fines of up to ₹1 lakh for certain offences.
Expansion of ScopeThe bill widens the scope of the Coastal Aquaculture Authority’s activities and reduces regulatory gaps.
The Coastal Aquaculture Authority’s procedures will be adjusted to be more responsive to stakeholders’ needs.
Promotion of Environment-friendly AquacultureThe bill encourages newer forms of eco-friendly aquaculture, like cage culture and seaweed culture.
Quality Assurance and Safe ProductsThe bill promotes safe and high-quality aquaculture products by preventing harmful substances.
Disease-free Broodstocks and SeedsThe bill supports the creation of disease-free and improved aquatic life for coastal aquaculture.


Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying


Government Initiatives Related to Fisheries:

India is the second largest fish-producing country in the world accounting for over 7.5 % of global production. India is the 4th largest exporter of fish in the world.


About CRZ:

Coastal regulation zones are areas along the coastline of India, where development, infrastructure, construction, tourism and other activities are regulated by the government of India.

CRZ notification issued by the central government under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 for regulation of activities in the coastal area. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change is the nodal ministry for CRZ regulations.


Insta Links:

Chennai City Partnership

Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: TH

 Context: The World Bank is set to provide funding for projects aimed at creating safe and efficient streets in Chennai as part of the second phase of the Chennai City Partnership.


Its objectives include:

  • Enhancing the city’s digital infrastructure for e-mobility and smart parking solutions
  • Improving bus services, suburban rail services, and climate-resilient public infrastructure
  • Establishing parking facilities, and transport hubs across various parts of the city.
  • Creating walkable neighbourhoods with well-connected primary streets along transit routes, integrating them with schools and parks.
  • Special projects tailored to each neighbourhood, involving stakeholders, will be identified and implemented.

The first phase of the Chennai Mega Streets Programme has already identified 110 km of arterial and sub-arterial roads for development.

Supreme Court verdict on Rahul Gandhi’s conviction case

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: The quint

 Context: Recently Supreme Court put a stay order on Rahul Gandhi’s conviction in a defamation case.

Background of the Case: Rahul Gandhi was convicted of criminal defamation for comments made during an election rally. He accused individuals with the surname “Modi” of being involved in financial fraud. A Gujarat BJP leader filed a complaint, leading to his conviction and disqualification from Parliament.


What was the SC verdict?

  • The Supreme Court’s order has stayed Rahul Gandhi’s conviction, effectively nullifying his two-year sentence in a defamation case.
  • Disqualification Nullified: His disqualification from Parliament was a result of the conviction. With the stay granted, there are no grounds for his disqualification anymore.

Once the Lok Sabha secretariat formally revokes the disqualification, Rahul can return to Parliament as an MP with his perks.

About Defamation:

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Source: IE

Context: In the ongoing crisis in Niger, where a military coup ousted the president, ECOWAS has been active.
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional bloc established in 1975 with the goal of promoting economic integration among its 15 member countries in West Africa.

Members: These countries include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Togo.

Aim: ECOWAS aims to achieve a single common currency and create a large trading bloc in various sectors like industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, finance, and culture.

  • The organization is committed to democratic principles, the rule of law, and good governance.

Actions taken:

  • ECOWAS has a history of intervening in conflicts within the region, having deployed peacekeeping forces and playing roles in resolving conflicts in countries like Liberia and Sierra Leone.
  • It suspended members like Mali, Guinea, and Burkina Faso following coups in those countries, refusing to recognize their new governments.

Air pollution linked to rise in antibiotic resistance


Source: The Guardian


Context: A global study suggests that air pollution is contributing to a rise in antibiotic resistance, posing a significant threat to human health worldwide.

  • The analysis shows a consistent link between increased air pollution and rising antibiotic resistance in every country and continent.
  • Particulate matter PM2.5 in the air can contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, which might be inhaled by humans, potentially contributing to resistance.


Key findings:

  • The study, the first comprehensive global analysis of this connection, suggests that reducing air pollution could help mitigate antibiotic resistance.
  • The study acknowledges that while air pollution is recognized as a pathway for disseminating antibiotic resistance, there is limited data on specific routes that antibiotic-resistant genes travel via air pollution.
  • The research found that antibiotic resistance increases with PM2.5 air pollution, with a 10% rise in pollution associated with a 1.1% increase in resistance.
  • A modelling scenario suggests that without changes to current air pollution policies, antibiotic resistance could rise by 17% by 2050, resulting in around 840,000 annual premature deaths attributed to resistance.

Plant-eating dinosaur species


Source: TOI

 Context: Scientists from IIT-Roorkee and the Geological Survey of India (GSI) have discovered the fossil remains of a new dinosaur species in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, naming it ‘Tharosaurus indicus’.

  • This long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur belongs to the dicraeosaurid group. The name “Tharosaurus indicus” is derived from the Thar desert, where the fossils were unearthed, and “indicus” denotes its origin in India.



  • First in India: The dicraeosaurid dinosaur had previously been found in the North and South Americas, Africa, and China. This is the first instance of such fossils being discovered in India.
  • Oldest Diplodocoid Dinosaur: The fossils were found in rocks estimated to be around 167 million years old. This makes the Tharosaurus indicus not only the oldest known dicraeosaurid dinosaur but also the oldest diplodocoid dinosaur globally.

OS Maya



Source: TH

 Context: Amidst rising cyber and malware attacks on defence and critical infrastructure, India’s Defense Ministry plans to replace the Microsoft Operating System (OS) with a new open-source OS called Maya, developed locally based on Ubuntu.

  • Maya offers a similar interface and functionality as Windows, easing the transition for users.
  • A cybersecurity system called Chakravyuh is being deployed for endpoint detection and protection.

Developed by government agencies within six months, Maya is expected to mitigate the increasing malware and cyberattacks that have targeted critical infrastructure and defence systems. This initiative aligns with past efforts to replace Windows OS with an indigenous alternative in the Defense Ministry.

Havana Syndrome


Source: IE

Context: The Indian Central government has informed the Karnataka High Court that it will investigate the matter of the ‘Havana Syndrome’ in India, in response to a petition from a Bengaluru resident.

  • The petitioner had requested a writ of mandamus for an inquiry into the syndrome and the prevention of high-frequency microwave transmission in India.


About Havana Syndrome:

  • Havana Syndrome refers to a set of mental health symptoms experienced by US intelligence and embassy officials in various countries. These symptoms include hearing unusual sounds, nausea, vertigo, headaches, memory loss, and balance issues. The syndrome originated in Cuba in 2016, affecting US officials there, and has since been reported in multiple countries.

While the exact cause of Havana Syndrome is not certain, it was initially suspected to be related to a “sonic attack” due to the sudden onset of symptoms. Later research suggested that high-powered microwaves might be involved, damaging or interfering with the nervous system.



 Omkareshwar Reservoir (Madhya Pradesh)

Source: PIB

NTPC Renewable Energy Limited has successfully secured a bid for an 80 MW floating solar project at the Omkareshwar Reservoir in Khandwa, Madhya Pradesh.

The largest floating solar project in India is a 100 MW installation located at NTPC Ramagundam in Telangana.

The Omkareshwar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada River just upstream of Mandhata in Khandwa district, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is named after the Omkareshwar temple located just downstream.


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