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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 3:

  • Draft National Deep Tech Startup Policy (NDTSP)
  • Draft National Tourism Policy
  • India’s chip design ecosystem


GS Paper 4:

  1. A crisis of academic ethics in India


Content for Mains Enrichment

  • Odisha Millets Mission (OMM)
  • SDCs to Promote Tribal Culture


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. GI tags in News
  2. ULLAS: Nav Bharat Saksharta Karyakram
  3. Indian companies can soon list on foreign exchanges
  4. GOBARdhan Initiative
  5. Worldcoin
  6. 46,000-year-old worms brought back to life from Siberian permafrost
  7. New blood testing technology called GEMINI
  8. Room-temperature superconductor



  1. China


Draft National Deep Tech Startup Policy (NDTSP)

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Science and Technology


Source: BS

 Context: The National Deep Tech Startup Policy (NDTSP) draft has been released for public consultation by the National Consortium.


Aim of the policy: To strengthen the Indian deep tech startup ecosystem and address its unique challenges.

What are Deep Techs?

Deep Tech refers to advanced and cutting-edge technologies that are based on significant scientific and engineering innovations.

Example: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are examples of Deep Tech. They involve the development of sophisticated algorithms and models that enable machines to learn from data and make intelligent decisions.



India currently boasts the third largest startup ecosystem in the world with more than 326 incubators and accelerators. About 14% of them are in the area of Deep Tech.


Draft NDTSP is based on the following themes:

  • Nurturing Research, Development & Innovation
  • Strengthening the Intellectual Property Regime
  • Facilitating Access to Funding
  • Enabling Shared Infrastructure and Resource Sharing
  • Creating Conducive Regulations, Standards, and Certifications
  • Attracting Human Resources & Initiating Capacity Building
  • Promoting Procurement & Adoption
  • Ensuring Policy & Program Interlinkages
  • Sustaining Deep Tech Startups


Significance: This policy complements and adds value to the existing Startup India policies, programmes and initiatives, by fostering a conducive ecosystem for deep tech startups to thrive and address their unique and complex challenges.


About National Consortium: 

The National Consortium is an apex-level body set up on the recommendation of the Prime Minister’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) to propose a comprehensive policy framework for the Indian deep tech startup ecosystem.

  • Chaired by the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India, it represents a diverse group of stakeholders, including high-level representatives from various government departments, industry associations, research institutions, and innovation centres.


 About PM-STIAC:

 It is an overarching body which assesses the status of specific S&T domains, comprehends challenges, formulates immediate, mid and long-term interventions and presents a roadmap to the Prime Minister. It has identified nine national science missions which aim to address major scientific challenges to ensure India’s sustainable development.


Insta Links:

 Indian Deep Tech and a case for a strategic fund


Mains Links: 

Deep tech present the next big opportunity for India that can drive growth and deliver sustainable solutions across the country. Discuss. (10M)

Draft National Tourism Policy

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Economic sectors: Tourism

 Source: PIB

 Context: The Indian Ministry of Tourism has drafted a National Tourism Policy with key strategic objectives to enhance tourism’s contribution to the economy.


The key strategic objectives of the Policy are:

  • To enhance the contribution of tourism to the Indian economy by increasing visitation, stay and spend and making India a year-round tourist destination
  • To create jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities in the tourism sector and ensure the supply of skilled workforce
  • To enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector and attract private-sector investment
  • To preserve and enhance the cultural and natural resources
  • To ensure sustainable, responsible and inclusive development of tourism in the country.


Key focus areas of the policy:

  • Green tourism
  • Digital tourism
  • Destination management
  • Skilling in the hospitality sector and
  • Supporting tourism-related MSMEs
Key Recommendations of the Committee
National Tourism Council (NTC)Create NTC similar to the GST council
Provide recommendations to governments on tourism issues
Tourism, Travel, and Hospitality SectorSpending Capex above Rs. 25 crores to receive subsidies on operating costs
Attract investments in the sector
Acknowledge industry status for hospitality projects in eight States
Tourism in Concurrent ListInclude Tourism in the concurrent list (Currently state subject)
Simplify pandemic-related issues in the tourism sector
Industry Status to SectorGrant industry status to promote investments
Formalize infrastructure status for hotels


Status of Tourism in India

  • India is ranked 54th place in the global travel and tourism development index 2021, down from 46th in 2019.
  • World Travel and Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated over US$170 billion or 5.8% of India’s GDP and supported over 3 crore jobs in 2021
  • As of 2022, there are 40 World Heritage Siteslocated in India. Out of these, 32 are cultural, 7 are natural, and one, the Khangchendzonga National Park, is of mixed type.
  • India has the sixth largest number of world heritage sites in the world.


Government Initiatives for Tourism in India:

Adopt a HeritageEncourages public-private partnerships to develop tourist-friendly amenities at heritage, natural, and tourist sites under CSR and other funds.
Travel for LiFEPromotes sustainable tourism through mindful actions by tourists and tourism businesses in using tourism resources.
100% FDIAllows foreign investment in the tourism and hospitality industry in India, subject to applicable regulations and laws.
Swadesh Darshan SchemeProvides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to State Governments/UT Administrations for infrastructure development of 13 theme-based circuits.
PRASAD SchemeAims at the holistic development of identified pilgrimage destinations.
Iconic Tourist SitesDevelop Buddhist sites at Bodhgaya, Ajanta & Ellora as Iconic Tourist Sites to enhance India’s soft power.
Buddhist ConclaveOrganizes Buddhist Conclave to promote India as a Buddhist Destination in major global markets.
Dekho Apna Desh’s InitiativeEncourages citizens to travel widely within India, promoting domestic tourism and enhancing tourist facilities and infrastructure.



The need of the hour is faster development of all types of infrastructure (physical, social, and digital) to support tourism. Ensuring the safety of tourists is a top priority, and an official guide system could be introduced to enhance their experience. India’s vast size and diverse natural, geographic, cultural, and artistic offerings present immense opportunities for the tourism industry to thrive and capitalize on its potential.


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

Tourism is considered to be important for the country’s economy. It is a multi-segment industry which brings in a lot of economic value & associated benefits. Discuss the positive economic effects of tourism. (15M)

India’s chip design ecosystem

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Changes in Industrial Policy and Their Effects on Industrial Growth


Source: TH

Context: As part of the 2nd phase of the design-linked incentive (DLI) scheme for the domestic semiconductor industry, the Indian government is considering a proposal to pick an equity stake in domestic chip design-making companies.


What is the domestic chip industry scenario?

  • India is an important destination for global semiconductor companies.
    • This is primarily because of its highly-skilled talent pool of semiconductor design engineers, who make up ~20% of the world’s workforce.
  • About 2,000 integrated circuits and chips are designed in India every year.
  • Global players operating in R&D in the country include Intel, Micron and Qualcomm, etc.
  • Over 30 semiconductor design startups have been established in India following the DLI scheme with five already having received government support.


Initiatives to promote the semiconductor industry in India:

  • India Semiconductor Mission (ISM): Launched in 2021, it aims to build a vibrant semiconductor and display ecosystem to enable India’s emergence as a global hub for electronics manufacturing and design.
  • About SemiconIndia Programme:
    • It was approved with a financial outlay of INR 76,000 crore for the development of a sustainable semiconductor and display ecosystem in 2021.
    • At the ‘Semicon India 2023’ conclave, the Indian PM made a strong pitch to global investors, saying India will emerge as a global hub of the semiconductor and chip-making industry.
  • Approval has been granted for the modernisation of the Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL) in Chandigarh to transform it into a brownfield chip manufacturing unit.
  • The government has also signed agreements with the US and Japan for cooperation on semiconductor development, manufacturing, research, design and talent development.


What is the DLI scheme?

  • The DLI scheme (launched by MeitY in 2021) aims to provide financial and infrastructural support to companies setting up fabs or semiconductor-making plants in India.
  • It will offer fiscal support of up to 50% (max ₹15 crores per application) of the total cost to eligible participants who can set up these fabs in the country, MeitY said in a statement.
  • It is expected to facilitate the growth of at least 20 such companies which can achieve a turnover of more than ₹1500 crore in the coming five years and indigenise innovations.


How will equity stake help?

  • Equity will empower design companies to sell their chip-designing services more effectively and attract a broader client base in the market.
  • It would prevent companies from selling their majority stake to large global players to scale up the business.
  • The equity infusion would be particularly encouraging for local, small and medium-sized firms that potentially face multiple hurdles to be part of the ecosystem.


Challenges faced by the semiconductor industry in India:

  • The sector is capital-intensive. Therefore, any policy directed towards the semiconductor industry requires a long-term strategy.
  • Returns from the investment are not immediate. According to the NASSCOM, it takes up to 2-3 years before the first product is out.
  • R&D becomes challenging as chipsets become smaller and functional requirements change frequently.
  • Supply chain disruptions, like what happened during the COVID-related lockdowns in China, could dampen potential investor confidence in the sector.
  • India owns a much smaller portion of the intellectual property (IP) relating to the designs, which are mostly retained by global companies.


Way ahead:

  • The government must consider how it plans to link its investments to drive more innovation and employment generation in the sector.
  • It is essential that value-added activities (with respect to chip designing) are brought into the country.
  • In other words, moving up in the value chain and enabling the ecosystem must be one of the imperatives of the government.
  • The government should put in place a robust framework for target evaluation and governance to mitigate the moral hazard posed by politically driven equity investments.

Conclusion: The above moves have the potential to create a state-of-the-art design ecosystem which will serve the national interest and also be a supplier to the rest of the world.


Insta Links:

Semiconductor manufacturing in India

A crisis of academic ethics in India

GS Paper 4

 Syllabus: Application  of Ethics


Source: TH (Print Edition)

 Context: The article discusses India’s potential in academic and scientific research while shedding light on prevalent unethical practices like data manipulation and plagiarism.


Ethical concerns regarding Indian educational institutions

  • Prevalent data manipulation and plagiarism
  • Lack of clear ethical codes
  • Misuse of authority by those in power
  • Fear of expressing opinions
  • A cultural perspective that sometimes sees cheating as “helping.”
  • Increasing politicization of college campus

These issues harm India’s academic reputation and hinder its potential as a global research leader.


Reasons for Prevalence of Unethical Practices:

Absence of Ethical CodeMany institutions lack clear guidelines to handle misconduct, leading to unchecked unethical behaviour.
Easy Data ManipulationSoftware tools make data manipulation and plagiarism simpler, making it tempting for some researchers.
Authoritarian BehaviorMisuse of authority by those in power discourages genuine complaints and fosters an environment of fear.
Defensive AcademicsInstead of investigating, some academics defend accused colleagues, hindering proper scrutiny of misconduct.
Cultural PerspectiveSome students may perceive cheating as “helping” rather than recognizing it as dishonest behaviour.
Fear of Losing ControlLeaders view their roles as power sources and fear being exposed for their own misconduct.
Mishandling OpinionsLeaders may punish faculty for expressing opinions, limiting independent thinking and open discussions.


The implications of the prevalence of unethical practices:

ImplicationsEthical IssuesExamples
Untrustworthy ResearchManipulated data undermines research credibility.Falsification of clinical trial results
Global PerceptionPerceived dishonesty affects India’s academic reputation.Plagiarism in published research papers.
Student OpportunitiesDishonest image limits students’ global competitiveness.Degree certificate forgery by students.
Leadership QualityEthical issues impact decision-making and organizational integrity.Corruption in research grant allocation.
Suppressing VoicesConsequences for expressing opinions curb open discussions.Faculty reprimanded for criticizing policies.
Emigration of TalentAn unethical environment drives researchers to seek opportunities abroad.Researchers moving to other countries due to a lack of ethical practices.
Compromised FutureLack of emphasis on ethics hinders progress and innovation.Unethical conduct leads to loss of research funding.


Way forward and Conclusion

  • Institutions should implement clear ethical codes to provide guidance on handling misconduct.
  • Ethical training modules for students and faculty can foster a culture of integrity.
  • Transparent investigations are essential to address misconduct allegations impartially.
  • Encouraging reporting mechanisms can ensure that students and faculty can report unethical behaviour without fear of reprisal.
  • Changing leadership perception by promoting leaders as responsible guides rather than power sources can foster a culture of open dialogue.
  • Institutions must prioritize ethics by communicating expected ethical standards clearly.
  • Safeguarding faculty’s rights to express opinions without retaliation is crucial to promote independent thinking and free expression of ideas.


Insta Links:

Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude


 Mains Links:

Can ethics and morals be taught in educational institutions? If yes, make a case for introducing a course on ethics right from school.

Odisha Millets Mission (OMM)

Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: DTE

 Context: The state of Odisha in India has taken a progressive step in promoting millets by involving Women Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in the millet value chain through its Odisha Millets Mission (OMM).


Odisha Millets Mission (OMM):

  • Under the OMM, Millet Shakti Cafés and Outlets have been established in various districts, showcasing a diverse range of millet-based food items.
  • OMM has facilitated training in recipe formulation, packaging, quality control, marketing, and other skills, empowering women to participate effectively in the millet industry.


Usage: The example can be used in Governance, Women and health-related questions.

SDCs to Promote Tribal Culture


Source: TH

The Odisha government has implemented the Special Development Councils (SDCs) initiative to preserve and promote tribal culture while ensuring economic development.

The SDCs focus on:

  • Identifying and promoting important cultural markers of tribal identity, such as language, sacred groves, and tribal artisans
  • Over 21 tribal proficiency centres have been established to educate about tribal culture and dialect
  • More than 4,500 sacred groves are being conserved.
  • Artisan ID cards have been issued to over 40,000 tribal artisans to preserve culture and create employment opportunities
  • Ensuring cultural context is considered in the development projects.

Usage: The example can be used in an Indian Society/ Anthropology paper.

GI tags in News

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: The Geographical Indications Registry granted the GI tag to three famous products from Tamil Nadu.

Jaderi namakatti



Clay sticks with white colour, finger-like shape, and smooth texture. Made by Jaderi Tiruman (Namakatti) Producers Society in Jaderi, Tiruvannamalai district.Village of Jaderi, Tamil Nadu
Kanniyakumari Matti banana



Traditional table banana with medicinal value, highly fragrant, sweet with a sub-acid flavour, and powdery nature.Kanniyakumari district, Tamil Nadu
Chedibutta saree



Handloom saree made from art silk and cotton mix fabric, featuring the iconic “plant and flower” motif on the border and pallu. Woven by skilled Sowrashtra weavers.Veeravanallur town, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu


In addition to these, seven other products from different regions of India also received GI tags, including

  • Agra leather footwear
  • Rajasthan’s Nathdwara Pichhwai Painting
  • Kashmir’s Mushqbudji rice
  • Bihar’s Marcha Rice
  • Jammu Kashmir’s Rajouri Chikri Wood Craft
  • Agsechi Vayingim (Agassaim Brinjal) of Goa
  • Sat Shiro Bheno (Sat Shirancho Bhendo) also known as Okra, is a vegetable crop of Goa.


ULLAS: Nav Bharat Saksharta Karyakram


Source: PIB

 Context: On the 3rd anniversary of NEP 2020, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, the Union Minister of Education and Minister of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, launched the mobile application of ULLAS: Nav Bharat Saksharta Karyakram (or ULLAS app).



  • It aims to provide widespread access to basic literacy and critical life skills by leveraging technology.
  • It serves as a digital gateway for learners to access diverse learning resources through the DIKSHA portal of NCERT.

Focus areas: The initiative focuses on promoting functional literacy, vocational skills, financial literacy, legal literacy, digital literacy, and empowerment of citizens for nation-building.



  • The initiative operates through volunteerism. It encourages volunteers to participate in DUTY or Kartavya Bodh towards nation-building.
  • Student volunteers will be incentivised with credits in school/university and appreciation through certificates, letters of appreciation, and felicitation, among other means.
  • ULLAS targets citizens aged 15 and above who missed the opportunity to attend school, bridging the gaps in education.
  • The initiative has the potential to bring these students back to learning by providing them with an open-source learning platform.

According to government data, more than 12 lakh students are out of school in the year 2022-23 with the number of boys greater than girls.

Significance: The logo and slogan of “ULLAS: Nav Bharat Saksharta Karyakram” symbolize the campaign’s enthusiasm and the light of knowledge spreading across the nation.

Indian companies can soon list on foreign exchanges


Source: ET

 Context: Indian companies will soon be allowed to directly list their securities on overseas exchanges in specified jurisdictions.


What is Listing on Stock Exchange?

Listing on a stock exchange is the process by which a company’s shares or securities are made available for public trading on the exchange. It allows investors to buy and sell the company’s stock, providing the company with access to capital and visibility in the financial markets.


Present Status:

Presently, Indian companies cannot directly list their securities abroad without getting themselves listed in domestic stock exchanges

  • In 2020, the Centre amended the Companies Act, allowing the direct listing of Indian companies on foreign stock exchanges, but a framework has not been put in place so far.
  • Currently, Indian companies can raise money abroad through American Depository Receipts (ADR) and Global Depository Receipts (GDR) ( ADRs are traded on US stock exchanges while GDRs are traded mostly on European Exchanges and used to raise funds)


How will Indian Companies get listed on foreign exchanges? 

The process will involve an initial listing on the International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) in Gandhinagar, followed by permission to list in seven or eight specified overseas jurisdictions.


It will help expand capital-access opportunities for businesses in India and attract more overseas investors, ultimately leading to better valuations for Indian companies.


About IFSC: 

The International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) is a special economic zone in Gandhinagar and caters to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. It allows Indian and foreign companies to conduct various financial activities, including offshore banking, insurance, and securities trading, in foreign currencies.


Related news:

The Corporate Debt Market Development Fund (CDMDF) was launched by SEBI to provide stability to the corporate bond market during times of stress.

  • The CDMDF will be supported with 30,000 crore in the form of a guarantee from the National Credit Guarantee Trust Company and over Rs 3,000 crore from the mutual fund industry.

GOBARdhan Initiative


Source: PIB

 Context: The GOBARdhan initiative in India, aimed at converting waste to wealth through biogas and compressed biogas (CBG), has shown promising results and attracted significant investments.


More about the News:

  • The Unified Registration Portal for GOBARdhan has received requests for over 1200 biogas plants, including 320 CBG plants in just 60 days since its launch.
  • Aim: The initiative aims to manage organic waste scientifically while benefiting rural households and involves collaboration between the government, private players, and other stakeholders.


Note: Union Minister for Jal Shakti has launched the Unified Registration Portal for GOBARdhan.


About the Scheme:

GOBARdhan Initiative
Launched in2018
Full FormGalvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan (GOBARdhan)
AimTo convert waste to wealth with the aim of promoting a circular economy.
Nodal MinistryDepartment of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti
Part ofSwachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Phase II under Solid Waste Management.
Objectives·        Safely manage cattle and agricultural waste in villages and make the villages clean.

·        Convert organic waste to biogas and organic manure for rural use

·        Promote environmental sanitation and curb vector-borne diseases in rural areas

·        Create rural employment and income generation opportunities by involving entrepreneurs, SHGs, and youth groups in setting up GOBARdhan units.

Financial incentiveThe government provides technical assistance and up to 50 lakhs of financial support per district for the safe disposal of cattle and organic waste.
Budget 2023-24 AnnouncementEstablishment of 500 new ‘waste to wealth’ plants, including 200 compressed biogas (CBG) plants, with private sector and stakeholder Ministries/Departments’ support. These will include 75 plants in urban areas and 300 community or cluster-based plants.




 Source: TH


Context: Worldcoin is an initiative to create a digital network where individuals can claim a stake and join the digital economy. The project involves scanning individuals’ irises through a device called “Orb” to collect biometric data and issue them a World ID.

  • In exchange, participants receive a cryptocurrency called Worldcoin [WLD]. The goal is to build the “world’s largest identity and financial public network” accessible globally.
  • To be a part of the Worldcoin network, individuals can become “Orb operators” and scan the irises of others, or they can get their own irises scanned to receive a World ID and WLD cryptocurrency.



  • Worldcoin uses biometric data to ensure unique participation and avoid duplications. The company claims to use zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) to maintain users’ privacy and comply with Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
  • WLD’s price fluctuates, and it was criticized, especially by NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, for using biometrics for verification.
  • Worldcoin has been introduced in India, with Orb operators scanning people’s eyes at various locations in cities like Delhi, Noida, and Bangalore.

46,000-year-old worms brought back to life from Siberian permafrost


Source: IE

 Context: Scientists made a fascinating discovery in Siberia five years ago when they found and reanimated two kinds of frozen microscopic nematodes, or roundworms.

  • A recent study reveals that these worms are 46,000 years old, frozen since the late Pleistocene era. Furthermore, one of them belongs to an entirely new species called Panagrolaimus kolymaensis.
  • Animals like nematodes and tardigrades can survive extreme conditions through a dormant state known as “cryptobiosis.” The researchers tested the hardiness of the ancient worms and found that they can survive the absence of water and oxygen, extreme temperatures, and even drying.


What is cryptobiosis?

 Cryptobiosis is a state in which an organism exhibits no visible signs of life and its metabolic activity becomes nearly undetectable or temporarily stops. During this state, organisms can survive without water, oxygen, or under extreme conditions. As metabolism is a key feature of life, cryptobiosis can be seen as a temporary “death” of the organism.



  • This discovery increases the longest documented cryptobiosis period in nematodes by tens of thousands of years.
  • Understanding how these worms adapted to extreme conditions can provide insights into habitat change caused by climate change and how species can survive despite changing weather patterns.
  • Additionally, the study raises questions about evolution and the notion of extinction, as these worms have stretched their lifespan by thousands of years.
  • The research could have practical implications in helping species alive today and humans adapt to extreme conditions.
/ 01 August 2023, Today's Article

Room-temperature superconductor


Source: LM

Context: Korean researchers claim to have developed a superconductor named LK-99 that operates at room temperature and ambient pressure, a significant breakthrough in the field of physics.

  • Superconductors are materials that transmit electricity with nearly 100% efficiency and have various practical applications, such as in MRI machines and magnetic levitation trains.
  • Room-temperature superconductors would have numerous benefits, including reducing the cost of electricity grids, computer chips, maglev train magnets, energy storage devices, and fusion reactors by saving on coolant expenses.

Significance: If validated, this discovery could revolutionize various industries, including computing.

Superconductors are essential for quantum computing, where quantum bits (qubits) process information simultaneously, providing immense computational power. Currently, physical qubits require super-cooling to avoid errors, but room-temperature superconductors could eliminate the need for elaborate cooling systems, making quantum computing more practical and accessible.

New blood testing technology called GEMINI


 Context: Researchers have developed a new blood testing technology called GEMINI (Genome-wide Mutational Incidence for Non-Invasive Detection of Cancer) that uses genome-wide sequencing of single molecules of DNA combined with machine learning.

  • This technology has the potential to enable earlier detection of lung and other cancers.


How it works?

The GEMINI test starts by collecting a blood sample from individuals at risk of cancer. From this sample, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed by tumours is sequenced using cost-efficient whole genome sequencing. Single molecules of DNA are analyzed for sequence alterations, providing mutation profiles across the genome.

A machine learning model then identifies changes in cancer and non-cancer mutation frequencies, generating a score indicating the likelihood of having cancer.

 In laboratory tests, the GEMINI test, when combined with computerized tomography imaging, detected over 90% of lung cancers, including early-stage diseases. The test also identified altered mutation profiles in cfDNA from patients with other cancers, such as liver cancer, melanoma, and lymphoma, suggesting broader applications.

cfDNA stands for “cell-free DNA.” It refers to small fragments of DNA that are released into the bloodstream or other bodily fluids when cells in the body die and break down. These fragments of DNA are not enclosed within cells, hence the term “cell-free.”



Source: DTE

Typhoon Doksuri, China’s fifth and most powerful typhoon in 2023, has caused significant rainfall and flooding in Beijing and other provinces.


China is vulnerable to typhoons due to its long eastern coastline, warm ocean waters, and geographic location in the western Pacific basin. Typhoons tend to form in this region and often make landfall in China, bringing heavy rainfall, strong winds, and potential flooding and damage to coastal areas.


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