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[ Day 25 – Synopsis ] 75 Days Mains Revision Plan 2023 – Ethics


Syllabus: “India and its neighbourhood- relations. Bilateral, regional and global grouping and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests”


Q1. Accelerated, Inclusive, Green & Resilient Growth is the core of India’s mission as the president of Group 20 (G-20) summit. What steps has India taken at international level to achieve this goal. (10M)


The Group of Twenty (G20), an informal grouping of the world’s largest 20 economies, was formed in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis. The Grouping was created to enhance global policy coordination and give greater visibility to emerging economies, which are increasingly interconnected in the global economy. During its G20 Presidency, India aims to focus on areas that have the potential to bring structural transformation.


Steps taken by India for Accelerated, Inclusive, Green & Resilient Growth at International level:

  • Panchamrit of India’s climate action: As per the updated NDC, India now stands committed to reduce Emissions Intensity of its GDP by 45 percent by 2030, from 2005 level and achieve about 50 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
    • Reach 500 GW Non-fossil energy capacity by
    • Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to
    • Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA): India launched the ISA in partnership with France. The ISA aims to mobilize over $1 trillion of investment in solar energy by 2030 and facilitate the deployment of solar technologies in member countries.
    • India has actively promoted the ISA, fostering global collaboration in renewable energy.
  • Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI): India has launched the CDRI, a global partnership to enhance the resilience of infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks.
    • The CDRI promotes knowledge sharing, capacity building, and policy advocacy to address the challenges posed by climate change and natural disasters.
  • International Cooperation on Clean Energy: India engages in bilateral and multilateral collaborations to promote clean energy technologies. It has partnered with countries like the United States, Japan, and France to enhance research and development, technology transfer, and investment in clean energy sectors.
  • Multilateral Climate Negotiations: India actively participates in multilateral climate negotiations to advocate for the interests of developing countries.
    • It emphasizes the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities, urging developed nations to provide financial and technological support to developing countries for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
  • Global Environmental Initiatives: India actively contributes to global environmental initiatives. It is a signatory to the Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Ramsar Convention on wetland conservation.
    • India also collaborates with international organizations like the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to support sustainable development and environmental conservation efforts.
  • International Financial Institutions: India has engaged with international financial institutions such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and New Development Bank to access financing and technical assistance for sustainable development projects.
    • These institutions support India’s efforts in areas such as renewable energy, climate adaptation, and infrastructure development.
  • Mission LiFE: In October 2022, India and the United Nations launched Mission LiFE, focusing on a three-pronged strategy to drive climate action, including individual behavioural changes, industry responsiveness, and government policy revision.
    • Among the G20 members, France, the UK, and Argentina have also extended support to Mission LiFE.



The G20 presidency presents an opportune moment for India to engage its youth in exploring creative solutions towards overcoming ‘global’ challenges such as climate change mitigation, just energy transition, digital transformation, the future of work, and sustainable economic recovery.


Q2. Discuss the challenges and dilemmas that India face in balancing its strategic interests with the need to promote democracy and human rights in Myanmar? (15M)


Myanmar (formerly called Burma) military grabbed power in a coup, third time in the nation’s history since its independence from British rule in 1948.  The crisis in Myanmar may seem slightly insignificant when compared to other global challenges, but it has far-­reaching consequences for India.


Challenges and dilemmas that India face in balancing its strategic interests with the need to promote democracy and human rights in Myanmar:

  • Strategic Interests: India shares 1600km long land border with Myanmar and has significant economic, security, and geopolitical interests in the region, such as the IMT Highway and the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project.
    • While India’s national interests clearly lie in dealing with whoever is in power in Myanmar, India would find it difficult to openly support the junta given the strong western and American stance.
  • Non-Interference Principle: India traditionally adheres to the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
    • This principle influences India’s approach towards Myanmar, making it cautious about intervening in its domestic affairs, including matters related to democracy and human rights.
  • Historical Ties: India shares historical and cultural ties with Myanmar, which influence its approach to the country. India has maintained close relations with successive governments in Myanmar, including military regimes, to safeguard its strategic interests.
    • This creates a dilemma when it comes to openly advocating for democracy and human rights, especially if it strains relations with the ruling regime.
  • Regional Stability: India is concerned about maintaining stability in its north-eastern states, which share a border with Myanmar. Instability in Myanmar can have spill over effects, such as cross-border insurgencies and the influx of refugees, which can threaten India’s security interests.
    • This consideration may lead India to prioritize stability over pressing for democratic reforms.
  • China’s Influence: Myanmar holds significant geostrategic importance for India due to its location as a bridge between South Asia and Southeast Asia. India is mindful of China’s growing influence in Myanmar, as China is a major investor and provider of military support to the country.
  • North-east angle: For India, the stakes are high as instability within Myanmar has grave implications for the Northeast.
    • There are reports of guerrilla groups in Myanmar reviving their activities and any breakdown of law and order will allow militant groups in the Northeast to take advantage of the situation.


Steps to navigate:

  • Strengthen existing transaction: India has to strengthen the existing cooperation. India currently has an active co-operation with Myanmar in areas of security, counter-terrorism, trade and investment, energy co-operation.
    • India has to encourage more active co-operation in these fields.
  • Support political dialogues across Myanmar’s diverse, anti-coup movement. These include dialogues under the People’s Representative Committee for Federalism and the National Unity Consultative Council.
  • Five-Point Consensus: India has shown support for the ASEAN initiative on Myanmar, particularly the ‘Five-Point Consensus’ that encompasses key measures such as an immediate cessation of violence, inclusive dialogue among stakeholders in Myanmar for a peaceful resolution, the appointment of a special ASEAN envoy for mediation, provision of aid to Myanmar, and a visit to the country by the envoy.
  • Balancing the chord: While it is crucial to engage with the military generals to prevent Myanmar from falling completely into China’s arms, India must also be careful not to compromise its democratic values and human rights principles.



India is left with very few clear policy options. And yet, it must continue to maintain relations with the government in power in Myanmar while discreetly pushing for political reconciliation in the country. In the meantime, the focus must be on improving trade, connectivity, and security links between the two sides.




Syllabus: “Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.”

Q3. What do you understand by the term “Deep ecology”? How does this philosophy align with the larger goal of ushering environmental justice in the world? (10M)


“Deep ecology” refers to an environmental philosophy that recognizes the intrinsic value of all living beings and emphasizes the interconnectedness of humans and nature.


It shows that humans are part of nature rather than superior and therefore must protect all life on Earth as they would protect their family or self.


How does ‘Deep Ecology’ align with the goal of environmental justice:

  • Distribution: It recognizes the importance of equitable distribution of environmental resources and benefits. This would advocate for fair access to clean air, water, and land for all communities, regardless of socioeconomic status.
  • Recognition: It argues for the protection of endangered species not solely for their instrumental value to humans but for their inherent worth and right to exist.
  • Responsibility: It highlights the ethical responsibility humans have towards the environment and future generations, similar to the ethical principle of stewardship, which asserts that humans have a moral duty to care for and protect the natural world.
  • Participation: It supports the involvement of indigenous communities in conservation efforts, as they possess traditional knowledge. This aligns with principles of democratic environmental governance.
  • Capability: It might advocate for providing education and resources to empower communities to engage in sustainable livelihood practices. This aligns with the capabilities approach, which emphasizes enabling individuals to live a life they have reason to value while respecting ecological limits.


Overall, By fostering a shift in consciousness and inspiring activism, it aligns with the larger goal of ushering environmental justice in the world.


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