GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Issues related to poverty and hunger
Context: The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2023 report was released recently with the theme “Urbanisation, agrifood systems transformation, and healthy diets across the rural-urban continuum”.
Key findings of the 2023 report:
|Global Hunger||Over 700 million people was facing hunger in the world in 2022|
|Nutritional Access||~2.4 billion individuals did not have consistent access to nutritious, safe, and sufficient food in 2022.|
|Child Malnutrition||Child Malnutrition: In 2021, 22.3% (148.1 million) children were stunted (too short for their age), 6.8% (45 million) were wasted (too thin for their height), and 5.6% (37 million) were overweight.|
|Urbanisation’s Impact on Diet||As urbanisation accelerates, there is a noticeable increase in the consumption of processed and convenience foods, leading to a spike in overweight and obesity rates across urban, peri-urban, and rural areas.|
|Rural Dependence on Global Markets||Previously self-sustaining rural regions, especially in Africa and Asia, are now found to be increasingly dependent on national and global food markets.|
- While global hunger numbers have stalled between 2021 and 2022, there are many places in the world facing deepening food crises.
- Largely women and residents of rural areas did not have consistent access to nutritious, safe, and sufficient food in 2022.
- Child malnutrition is still alarmingly high.
- By 2050, it’s projected that 70% of the global population will reside in cities.
- This significant demographic shift necessitates a reorientation of food systems to cater to these new urban populations and eradicate hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition.
- The policy can strengthen intensification and increase productivity in farming close to small and intermediate cities and towns (SICTs).
- This will improve connectivity between farms and input and output markets, thus reducing the cost of access to markets and fostering farmers’ access to and use of modern inputs.
A case study from India – The Role of urban proximity in agricultural intensification:
- Bangalore and its surroundings provide evidence of the essential role of SICTs in increasing the use of modern agricultural inputs in rural areas.
- Farmers located farther from Bangalore show a higher use of modern inputs due to the influence of the town of Doddaballapura – a City in Bangalore’s Rural district.
Conclusion: The agrifood systems governance mechanisms and institutions must bridge sectoral and administrative borders and rely on subnational and local governments in order to implement these solutions.
About the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World Report:
- It is an annual flagship report jointly prepared by the –
- Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO),
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD),
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF),
- World Food Programme (WFP) and
- World Health Organisation (WHO)
- It aims to inform on progress towards ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition and to provide an in-depth analysis of key challenges for achieving this goal in the context of the SDG.
- The report targets a wide audience, including policy-makers, international organisations, academic institutions and the general public.
Tags: The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2023 report, FAO, Today’s article, 14 July CA, GS 2