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Hul Diwas

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Context:  Hul Divas is observed annually on June 30 in memory of tribal leaders — Sidho and Kanhu Murmu — who led the Santhal hul (rebellion) on June 30, 1855, at Bhognadih in Sahebganj district (now Jharkhand)


About Santhal Rebellion:

Topic Information
What is Santhal Rebellion? Santhal rebellion (also known as ‘Hul’) (1855-1856) was a revolt against both the British East India Company and the zamindari system by the Santhal. The rebellion was led by the four sibling Brothers – Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bhairav.
Santhals and their Migration The Santhal people migrated from the Birbhum and Manbhum regions of Bengal to modern-day Santhal Pargana. The British relocated them to the forested area of Damin-i-Koh as part of their revenue collection strategy.
Reasons behind the Hul The Santhals rebelled against the British due to extortions, oppressive extractions, dispossession of property, false measurements, and other illegalities.
Organization of the Hul Contrary to popular belief, the Hul was a well-planned and organized political war. Preparations included guerrilla formations, military teams, detectives, secret bases, logistics, and a network of message carriers for coordination. Non-Adivasi Hindu castes also participated in the rebellion.
Contribution of Women Phulo-Jhano, two sisters, led an army of 1,000 women who played crucial roles in the rebellion. The East India Company’s army was defeated twice during the uprising.
End After the rebellion started, martial law was proclaimed by the East India Company which lasted until January 3, 1856, when martial law was suspended and the rebellion was eventually suppressed by the Presidency armies.
Lasting Impact of the Hul The Santhal rebellion inspired future uprisings, such as the Santhal involvement in the 1857 mutiny. It symbolized resistance against British colonialism and laid the foundation for subsequent movements in Jharkhand.