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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 June 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The Gupta Age is widely regarded as the “Golden era” of ancient Indian history due to several factors that contributed to its significance and achievements. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons for considering Gupta age as golden age.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context of Gupta age as golden era.

Body:

First, mention about the various reasons why it is considered to be the golden era – Political, economic, social, cultural and technological etc.

Next, write about the limitations of Gupta age as golden age of ancient Indian history.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion on the above view.

Introduction

After centuries of political disintegration an empire came to be established in A.D. 319, under the Guptas. The empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE, keeping north India politically united for more than a century. It was responsible for the Indian Golden Age, an era of peace in which great advances were made in arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophical pursuits. Hindu culture also started to take form during this period.

Body:

The term golden age refers to the age of Indian history during which remarkable progress were witnessed in different spheres of human life like polity, economy, culture, society etc. The cultural creativity of the Golden Age of India produced magnificent architecture, including palaces and temples, as well as sculptures and paintings of the highest quality.

Elements of Golden age in Gupta period (320-550 AD)

Polity:

  • With the decline of Mauryan Empire, the unity and integrity of India shattered. The central authority disappeared and regional principalities emerged everywhere.
  • This trend was reversed by emergence of Gupta rulers in 4th Century AD. They ruled over extensive empire with their capital at Pataliputra.
  • Therefore, the Gupta age witnessed political unification of India after long period of more than 500 years after the decline of Mauryans.
  • A number of strong and efficient rulers came to power during Gupta period. For example, Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, Chandragupta II and Skandgupta ruled over extensive empires.

Economy:

  • Gupta age was full of economic prosperity. According to Chinese traveller Fa-hien Magadh, the power centre of Gupta empire was full of cities and its rich people.
  • In ancient India, the Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins which were called ‘dinaras’ in their inscriptions.

Art and Literature:

  • Gupta rulers were patrons of art and literature. For example, Samudragupta was represented on his coins playing the veena and Chandragupta II is credited with maintaining in his court nine luminaries.
  • During the Gupta age beautiful images of Buddha were fashioned at Sarnath and Mathura, but the finest specimens of Buddhist art in Gupta times are the Ajanta paintings. Although these paintings covered the period from the first century BC to the seventh century AD, most of them relate to Gupta times.
  • The Gupta age is remarkable for the production of secular literature. For example, Kalidasa belonged to this age. He was the greatest poet of classical Sanskrit literature and wrote Abhijnanashakuntalam which is very highly regarded in world literature.
  • There was also an increase in the production of religious literature. The two great epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were almost completed by the fourth century AD.

Science and Technology:

  • In mathematics, a work called Aryabhatiya was written by Aryabhata in age. Aryabhatta displayed an awareness of both the zero system and the decimal system. A Gupta inscription of 5th century AD from Allahabad suggests that decimal system was known in India.
  • The Gupta age craftsmen distinguished themselves by their work in iron and bronze. For example, iron pillar found at Mehrauli in Delhi manufactured in the 4th century AD has not gathered any rust over the subsequent fifteen centuries which is a great tribute to the technological skill of the craftsmen.

Conclusion:

Gupta culture has carved a niche for itself in the annals of Indian history by virtue of its individuality and perfection. The period evolved an all-India norm which in due course was designated as the classical tradition of the country. No description of Indian culture can be complete without reference to the high standards of Gupta cultural heritage which attained its zenith of excellence.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Discuss the system of self-government in Chola villages and the significance of local self-government under the Chola dynasty. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the Chola local self-governing villages. 

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context of Uttaramerur inscription.

Body:

First, write in detail, the features of Chola local self-governing villages – various qualifications, disqualifications, committees and their natures of responsibilities.

Next, write about the level of autonomy enjoyed by these Chola local self-governing villages. 

Next, write about the significance of Chola local self-governing villages.  

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

There were two types of villages at the local in the Chola empire. One type of village consisted of people from different caste and the assembly which ran this type of village was called ‘ur’. The second type of village was ‘agrahara’ types of village which were settled by Brahmins in which most of the land was rent-free.

The assembly of this agrahara type of village was a gathering of the adult men in brahmana villages called ‘Sabha’ or ‘mahasabha’. These villages enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. The affairs of the village were managed by an executive committees to which educated person owning property were elected by drawing lots or by rotation.

Uttarameruru inscription issued by Parantaka Chola gives details of election to these committees.

Body

The system of village autonomy with sabhas and their committees developed through the ages and reached its culmination during the Chola rule. Two inscriptions belonging to the period of Parantaka I found at Uttiramerur provide details of the formation and functions of village councils.

That village was divided into thirty wards and each was to nominate its members to the village council. The qualifications to become a ward member were:

  • Ownership of at least one fourth veli of land.
  • Own residence.
  • Above thirty years and below seventy years of age.
  • Knowledge of Vedas.

However, certain norms of disqualification were also mentioned in the inscriptions. They were:

  • Those who had been members of the committees for the past three years.
  • Those who had failed to submit accounts as committee members.
  • Those who had committed sins.
  • Those who had stolen the property of others.

From the persons duly nominated, one was to be chosen for each ward by kudavolai system for a year. The names of eligible persons were written on palm-leaves and put into a pot. A young boy or girl would take out thirty names each for one ward. They were divided into six variyams such as samvatsaravariyam, erivariyam, thotta variyam, pancha variyam, pon variyam and puravuvari variyam to take up six different functions of the village administration. The committee members were called variyapperumakkal. They usually met in the temple or under a tree and passed resolutions. The number of committees and ward members varied from village to village.

Conclusion

Hence Chola administration gave a lot of autonomy to village councils and committees. This local decentralization shows the acumen for good governance back in the ancient and medieval period which was indigenously developed.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Examine the challenges in laying the foundation for a future-ready Digital India. Suggest measures to bridge the digital divide and ensure inclusive digital transformation. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article discusses the importance of building a strong foundation for a future-ready Digital India.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the challenge for future ready digital India and steps needed to overcome it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write about the challenges in the above – Policy frameworks, Infrastructure, Digital literacy and empowerment etc.

Next, write about the measures to bridge the digital divide – Infrastructure development, Digital literacy and skill development, Inclusive policies and affordability etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Internet connectivity is critical for making the Digital India project inclusive, and widespread use of optical fibre in the remotest corners of the country is vital to ensure that no one is left behind in this endeavour. With over 117 crore telecom users and more than 82 crore internet subscribers, India is one of the fastest-growing markets for digital consumers. A 2019 Mckinsey study rated India as the second-fastest digitising economy. Digital infrastructure, which seamlessly integrates with physical and traditional infrastructure, is critical to India’s growth story and the country’s thrust towards self-reliance.

Body

India’s Digital India progress

  • India is pioneering the concept of digital public goods that enhance the ease, transparency and speed with which individuals, markets and governments interactwith each other.
  • Built on the foundation of Aadhaar and India Stack, modular applications, big and small, are transforming the way we make payments (UPI revolution), withdraw our PF, get our passport and driving licence and check land records,to name just a few activities.
  • Children have access to QR-coded textbooks across state boardsand languages, the economically disadvantaged have access to the public distribution system and beneficiaries of government schemes have money transferred directly into their bank accounts.
  • There is an opportunity for India to embark on digital diplomacy — to take its made-in-India digital public goods to hundreds of emerging economies across the world.
  • This could be astrategic and effective counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative(BRI). But India needs to bring transformation in its technological, startup and innovation ecosystem.

 

Challenges for future ready Digital India

  • Digital Divide: The digital divide takes form in rich-poor, male-female, urban-rural etc segments of the population.
  • The gap needs to be narrowed down, then only the benefits of digitization would be utilized equally.
  • There are many roadblocks in the way of its successful implementation like digital illiteracy, poor infrastructure, low internet speed, lack of coordination among various departments, issues pertaining to taxation These challenges need to be addressed in order to realize the full potential of this programme.
  • Slow adoption of new technologies. For example, Banking sector most vulnerable to cloning of magnetic strip debit/credit cards.
  • Piracy: Rampant use of unlicensed and pirated software that are easy targets for malware. E.g.: Saposhi attack leading to Denial of Service.
  • Import dependence: Majority of electronic devices from cellphones to equipments used in power sector, defense and other critical infrastructure puts India into a vulnerable situation.
  • Lack of uniform security protocol and standards used across various electronic devices.
  • Security Issues: There is a cybersecurity challenge in ensuring end-to-end protection of data throughout the whole ecosystem.
    • While channels and databases used by the Government for transmission and storage are usually secure, other players in the ecosystem may not possess the requisite expertise or security to prevent and respond to breaches.
    • The alleged breach of the Aadhar database is a case in point.

Measures to bridge the digital divide

  • To bridge the digital divide, there is a need to accelerate execution of digital India initiative.
  • Meaningful collaborations with the private sector, technological innovations and following a consistent focused approach towards the larger objective are necessary.
  • Utilisation of multiple modes of transactions such as Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD), Unified Payment Interface (UPI), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), and Point-of-Sale (POS) machines, need to be strengthened.
  • India also needs easing of regulations to allow interoperability of wallets to ensure easy transfer of funds for merchants as well as for consumers.
  • There is a need to enhance and develop robust rural digital infrastructure and ecosystem.
  • Focus must also be on enhancing the digital literacy through various platforms especially media.

Conclusion

Noting that digital literacy is an important force for good governance and transparency, India has tried to bridge the digital divide gap by enacting some programmes like Digital India, efforts to make India a cashless economy, Pradhan Mantri Grameen Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) aimed at spreading digital literacy among the rural population. Govt in states are trying to address these issues through various schemes in conjugation with Central govt’s Digital India programme and PMDISHA. Multi-pronged approach (spreading across various ministries and departments) is needed to address these issues.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

4. By leveraging digital platforms and implementing gender-transformative strategies, India can create an inclusive and empowering financial ecosystem for women. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The article discusses India’s journey towards financial inclusion and women’s empowerment in the digital era through a gender-transformative approach.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about challenges faced by women in accessing formal financial services and suggest steps to promote the financial inclusion of women in India.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly explain what financial inclusion is and why it is important for women.

Body:

First, write about the challenges faced by women in accessing formal financial services – lack of access to banking services, limited mobility, privacy concerns, etc.

Next, write about the various measures that can be taken to promote financial inclusion of women – promoting digital payments, designing dedicated services for women, nurturing the ecosystem of business correspondents, etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Digital platforms provide an opportunity to bridge the gender gap in financial access by offering convenient and accessible financial services to women, particularly those in remote areas.

Body

Digital platforms and gender transformative strategies

  • Inclusion in economic activity: By adopting digital payment infrastructure (DPI), such as mobile banking and digital wallets, India can provide greater accessibility and convenience to women, enabling them to participate more actively in the formal financial system.
    • This can help overcome traditional barriers like distance, time constraints, and lack of documentation that often hinder women’s access to financial services.
  • Access to Information and Education: Digital platforms have made it easier for women in India to access information and education, breaking down traditional barriers.
    • Online learning platforms offer courses and resources on various subjects, including entrepreneurship, leadership, and gender studies.
    • This allows women to enhance their skills, pursue higher education, and gain knowledge to challenge societal norms.
  • Entrepreneurship and Economic Empowerment: Digital platforms have opened doors for women entrepreneurs in India.
    • E-commerce platforms enable women to start online businesses, reaching customers across the country.
    • Platforms like Etsy, Amazon, and Shopify provide opportunities for women to showcase their products and services, expanding their customer base and generating income.
    • Additionally, digital payment systems have made financial transactions more accessible, enabling women to participate in the formal economy.
  • Safety and Security: Digital platforms have also played a role in enhancing women’s safety and security.
    • Mobile applications like Safetipin and Himmat provide safety features such as emergency helplines, real-time location tracking, and reporting mechanisms. These apps help women feel safer when traveling alone and enable them to seek help in case of emergencies.
  • Online Communities and Networking: Digital platforms facilitate the formation of online communities where women can connect, share experiences, and support each other. Online forums, social media groups, and professional networking platforms create spaces for women to network, collaborate, and seek mentorship. These communities foster a sense of belonging and enable knowledge sharing and collective action.

 

Measure needed to improve digital financial inclusion for women

  • A gender-transformative approach should be integrated into the design and implementation of digital financial solutions.
  • This involves addressing gender-specific challenges, such as addressing the digital gender divide, promoting digital literacy, ensuring privacy and security, and tailoring services to meet women’s specific needs.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) a pioneer in promoting financial inclusion. By linking these initiatives with digital platforms and ensuring gender-sensitive policies, India can further enhance the financial empowerment of women.
  • Building trust and confidence in digital platforms is crucial to encourage women’s participation and enable them to fully benefit from the opportunities presented by the digital era.
  • Important thing is creating a safe and secure digital environment for women. This includes ensuring privacy, protection against fraud, and addressing issues of harassment or discrimination that may arise in digital financial transactions.

Conclusion

There is a need for a comprehensive approach that combines digital technologies, policy interventions, and gender-transformative strategies to create an inclusive and empowering financial ecosystem for women in India.

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

5. What is a flash flood? Analyse the causes and consequences of flash floods and suggest measures to mitigate their impact. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains the meaning and causes of flash floods and landslides. It highlights that flash floods occur when there is sudden heavy rainfall, causing an overflow of water and rapid flooding in low-lying areas.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes, consequences and steps needed to mitigate the impact of flash floods.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly define flash floods and their characteristics

Body:

First, write about the causes of flash floods – Heavy rainfall, Steep terrain and drainage patterns, River and dam failures etc.

Next, write about the Consequences of flash floods – Loss of life and infrastructure damage, Environmental impact Economic implications etc.

Next, write about the Measures to mitigate the impact of flash floods – Early warning systems, Reforestation and watershed management, Community preparedness and awareness etc

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

Flash flooding is a specific type of flooding that occurs in a short time frame after a precipitation event – generally less than six hours. It often is caused by heavy or excessive rainfall and happens in areas near rivers or lakes, but it also can happen in places with no water bodies nearby.

The Chandigarh-Manali highway was blocked on Monday (June 26) following flash floods and landslides since Sunday morning in parts of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Flash floods were witnessed in Khotinallah near Aut (in HP) on the Pandoh–Kullu stretch due to a heavy downpour and the commuters have been stranded as a result.

Body

Causes

  • flash floods are often associated with cloudbursts, sudden intense rainfall in a short period of time.
  • Himalayan states additionally face the challenge of overflowing glacial lakes, increasingly formed due to the melting of glaciers.
  • It happens more when rivers are narrow and steep.
  • It also occurs in urban areas located near small rivers, as concretization prevents percolation of water as seen in cities of Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, etc.
  • Depression and cyclonic storms in the coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and others also cause flash floods.
  • Wildfires, whose frequency is increasing with climate change, destroys forest and other vegetation, which in turn weakens the soil and makes it less permeable for water to seep through. It may result in increased Flash floods.
  • Climate change/global warming has increased the frequency/numbers of the above events.

Consequences

  • Flash floods can have devastating effects and a wide variety of side effects, from infrastructure and building damage to effects on vegetation, human and animal life, and livestock.
  • Large debris and floodwaters can cause structural damage to bridges and roadways, making travel impossible.
  • Power, telephone, and cable lines can be taken out by flash floods as well.
  • Flood waters can disrupt or contaminate ground water, making tap water unfit for consumption.
  • In urban locations, the consequences are particularly challenging to define.
  • Rapid soil erosion can be a result of flash floods.
  • Short-duration flash floods primarily affect the floodplain through sedimentation, causing little to no bedrock erosion or channel widening.
  • Some wetland plants, like some types of rice, are prepared to withstand rapid flooding.
  • However, floods can harm plants that grow well in drier environments because the excess water stresses the plants.

Way forward

  • Monitoring on the ground in hilly areas.
  • Planning development works in a way that is sensitive to the region’s ecology.
  • Mitigation to reduce the extent of damages.
  • India has launched first-of-its-kind Flash Flood Guidance services for India and other South Asian countries – Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.
  • The Flash Flood Guidance is designed to provide warnings for flash floods about 6- 12 hrs. in advance.
  • A comprehensive strategy of monitoring, planning development works in a way that is sensitive to the region’s ecology, and mitigation to reduce the extent of damages.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. By emphasizing character development alongside academic learning, character education aims to shape individuals who are morally upright, socially responsible, and capable of contributing positively to their communities and society as a whole. Discuss.

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of Mission-2024 Secure.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the various objectives of education.

Body:

Write about how the primary aim of education should be producing good character and it will impact the society along with providing livelihood. Also, mention education devoid of good character can be a menace to the society. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of education in character building.

Introduction

“A bad character is like a flat tire; you can’t go anywhere until you change it” — Zig Ziglar

Education promotes the metamorphosis of a child to become a full-fledged adult. Mere learning without promotion and development of values even discards the definition of education. Education of values and principles shapes and moulds a soul

Body

Achieving academic excellence for all students is at the very core of any school’s purpose, and will inform much of what they do. Character education is not a new thing, extending as it does back to the work of Aristotle. Yet it could be argued that the pursuit of success in schools in more recent years has sought to put the cart before the horse. In driving students to think of success solely in terms of exam grades and university places, pressure is created that can often be counter intuitive to student well- being and academic progress.

It does not matter how educated or wealthy one is, if the inherent character or personality lacks morals. In fact, such personalities can be threat to a peaceful societyE.g.: Mussolini, Hitler are all examples of education devoid of morality leading mankind to their destruction.

In contemporary times it is equally relevant. For instance, An educated man taking dowry will be a death spell for gender equality and gender justice. The seven sins of Gandhiji will materialise when we are educated without morality like Science without humanity as is the case with nuclear weapons today.

Thus, Education without values as useful as it seems makes a man, a clever devil.

Conclusion

Education without morals is like a ship without a compass, merely wandering nowhere. It is not enough to have the power of concentration, but we must have worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. It is not enough to know truth, but we must love truth and sacrifice for it.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. While some individuals may naturally possess a higher level of compassion, it is also a skill that can be cultivated and nurtured through conscious effort, practice, and the influence of the aforementioned factors. Analyse. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of Mission-2024 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To distinguish factors that lead to the development of compassion.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining compassion.

Body:

Write about the factors that lead to development of compassion – influences, experiences, value education etc. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about importance of compassion.

Introduction

Compassion is a deeper level of empathy, demonstrating an actual desire to help the suffering person. It is a unique feeling of sympathy for the suffering of others that involves emotions and empathy towards others, a sense of understanding, and the drive to protect. It is the sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others. It motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Compassion is often regarded as having sensitivity, an emotional aspect to suffering. Qualities of compassion are patience and wisdom; kindness and perseverance; warmth and resolve.

Body

Development of compassion: Intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors

  • Family and friends: Emulating the behaviour of the authoritative figures in the family and friend circle makes one compassionate and gives a compassionate outlook to individual.
  • Self-awareness: Being aware of one’s behaviour, privilege and understanding the factors influencing one’s attitude can alos make one compassionate.
  • Role model: Fan worship, hero worship or inspirational leaders who lead by examples are extrinsic factors for being compassionate.
  • Experiences: Understanding the pain of others comes easily when one’s has experiences someone else’s compassion towards themselves in time of crisis. This will make them compassionate in turn to return the good to the society.
  • Seeing the injustices, inequalityand understanding why there is inequality will make one compassionate and philanthropic in nature.

Compassion is a guiding star to advance humanity in crisis settings. Without compassion, which literally means ‘suffering together,’ we would not be able to put ourselves into each other’s shoes, or see a crisis through the eyes of a child and realise that other human lives are worth saving, sometimes by taking risks.

“If we want societies to be inclusive, cohesive and peaceful, this is the time to foster an alliance between cultures, civilizations, and people”. Global fraternity and global village must become a reality to save human kind from an impending apocalypse which is man-made.

Conclusion

It takes character and integrity to be the one who is willing to step up and make a difference. To feel sympathy for someone is not enough. We must also be willing to take action. That is why compassion requires courage. Together they are one of the most dynamic combinations in the world. It is impossible to know how much good can come from a single act of compassion.


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