Print Friendly, PDF & Email



InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Will the Indian Ocean Dipole save the monsoon?
  2. How does climate affect social issues?


GS Paper 3:

  1. Challenges faced by India’s bioeconomy


GS Paper 4:

  1. New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules (2023)


Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. Affirmative Action in Higher Education
  2. Painting Roofs White


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. PEN Pinter Prize
  2. Children impacted by armed conflict
  3. Schemes to promote judicious use of fertilisers
  4. Short-lived halogens
  5. Aspartame
  6. Responsible antibiotic production Certificate
  7. American bald eagle
  8. Sea lions and algae bloom



  1. Philippines
  2. Turkmenistan
  3. Rwanda policy


Will the Indian Ocean Dipole save the monsoon?

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Indian Geography: Monsoon


Source: TOI, IE

 Context: The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) predicts a normal monsoon despite the possibility of an El Nino event.


What is Monsoon and El Nino?

  • Monsoon: A seasonal reversal of wind system that brings heavy rainfall, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The Indian summer monsoon affects a vast region spanning 25 countries and covering a distance of 18,000 kilometres from east to west and 6,000 kilometres from south to north.
  • El Nino: A climate pattern characterized by warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, which can have widespread impacts on weather patterns around the world.


Factors that can impact the monsoon rains:

FactorsImpact on Monsoon
El Nino/La NinaEl Nino can lead to weaker monsoons, while La Nina can enhance it.
Dateline El Nino or a Central Pacific El NinoIt is considered to have a larger negative impact on the monsoon, but an exception was the 2005 El Nino.
Atlantic NinoIt is the east-west anomaly pattern in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It also influences the monsoon.
Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)Positive IOD can enhance monsoon, while negative IOD can weaken it.
Sea Surface TemperaturesWarmer sea surface temperatures can enhance monsoon, while cooler temperatures can weaken it.
Atmospheric PressureChanges in atmospheric pressure patterns can affect monsoon circulation and rainfall patterns.
Land-Sea Temperature ContrastGreater contrast between land and sea temperatures can influence monsoon strength and rainfall distribution.
Himalayan Mountain RangeThe presence of the Himalayas can influence monsoon winds and rainfall patterns in the Indian subcontinent.
TopographyThe shape and elevation of landforms can impact local wind patterns and rainfall distribution.
Tropical CyclonesThe occurrence and track of tropical cyclones can influence monsoon rainfall, especially in coastal regions.
Global Climate PatternsVariations in global climate patterns, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), can affect monsoon dynamics.
Local FactorsFactors like local vegetation, soil moisture, and land use changes can also impact monsoon conditions at a regional level.


What is the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)?

IOD is a climate phenomenon in the Indian Ocean characterized by the fluctuation of sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pressure between its eastern and western parts. The IOD is similar in nature to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean but on a smaller scale.


How the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) can affect the monsoon:

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) PhaseImpact on MonsoonExample
Positive IODEnhances monsoon rainfall over the Indian subcontinentIn 1997, a positive IOD offset the impact of El Nino, resulting in above-normal monsoon rainfall.
Negative IODWeakens monsoon rainfall over the Indian subcontinentIn 2019, a negative IOD contributed to deficient monsoon rainfall, particularly during the first month of the monsoon season.
Neutral IODMinimal or neutral impact on the monsoonA neutral IOD does not significantly influence the monsoon and allows other factors to play a more dominant role.


The Earth System Science Organisation (ESSO) and the IMD take into account five conditions while making forecasts about the monsoon in April every year.

1) The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradient between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific (conditions during December of the previous year and January of the present year)
2) SST of the equatorial south Indian Ocean (conditions during February and March of the present year)
3) Mean Sea Level pressure in East Asia (conditions during February and March of the present year)
4) The surface air temperature over northwest Europe (conditions during January of the present year)
5) The warm water volume of the equatorial Pacific Ocean (conditions during February and March of the present year)



What are the limitations of forecasting El Nino and IOD?

  • For the IOD and Atlantic Nino, forecasting models currently lack the reliability to accurately predict their occurrence and behaviour. As a result, their specific role in influencing monsoon patterns in a particular season remains uncertain.
  • When it comes to forecasting El Nino events, models face challenges in precisely predicting the location and intensity of warming during the early stages.


Insta Links:

El Nino


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2017)

With reference to the ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting the Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The IOD phenomenon is characterised by a difference in sea surface temperature between the tropical Western Indian Ocean and the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.
  2. An IOD phenomenon can influence El Nino’s impact on the monsoon.


Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Ans: 2

How does climate affect social issues?

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Indian society


Source: DTE

 Context: According to a study, domestic violence will rise as temperatures across the Indian subcontinent spike.


Findings of the study:

  • These findings highlight the vulnerabilities and inequalities of women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in low- and middle-income countries in the context of global climate warming.
  • High ambient temperature may be associated with the risk of IPV against women. Each 1°C increase in the annual mean temperature is associated with a mean increase in IPV prevalence of 4.49%.
  • The prevalence of physical violence was highest (23.0%), followed by emotional and sexual violence.


How does global warming increase IPV prevalence?

  • Increasing temperature is
    • Squeezing working hours → impacting the income of daily wage earners → Family members spend maximum time within the houseincreasing the workload for women.
    • Generating requirements for comfort which low-income groups and economically weaker sections cannot afford.
    • Directly impacting mental health.
  • All of this is contributing to domestic violence.


Challenges ahead: The IPV prevalence would increase by 21% by the end of the 21st century under unlimited emissions scenarios.


Case of India:

  • This comes as India witnessed several heat-related deaths with temperatures up to 45 degrees Celsius in certain parts of the country.
  • India is likely to experience the highest IPV prevalence increase (23.5%) in the 2090s, followed by Nepal and Pakistan.


Way ahead:

  • Climate action is an essential component in the ongoing fight to eliminate violence against women and girls.
    • For example, under stricter emissions-cut scenarios, the IPV prevalence would only moderately increase.
  • The world also needs greater involvement of women in climate action → gender mainstreaming in the policymaking process.
    • UNICEF’s Gender Action Plan (GAP) and the Lima work programme on Gender (LWGP adopted at UNFCCC’s COP 20) are efforts in this direction.


Conclusion: Tackling the issue of violence against women and girls is an important step towards achieving the core objective of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is to leave no one behind.


Insta Links:

Still a nightmare for domestic violence survivors


Mains Links:

Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality. poverty and malnutrition to be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (UPSC 2021)

Challenges Faced by India’s bioeconomy

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Biotechnology

 Source: TH

 Context: India’s bioeconomy growth is not in sync with desired funding and policy support.

Bioeconomy: It is the economic activity involving the use of biotechnology and biomass in the production of goods, services, or energy.


India’s bioeconomy:

  • According to the DBT’s ‘Bioeconomy Report 2022’ report, India’s bioeconomy contributes 2.6% to the GDP and by 2030 it will be ~5% of the GDP.
  • This ambitious leap of $220 billion in eight years will require aggressive investment and policy support.



  • Neither funding for the DBT nor its recent policies reflect any serious intention to uplift this sector.
  • For example,
    • The current Budgetary allocation to the DBT is only 0.0001% of India’s GDP.
    • Also, policies that enable risk-taking appetite within Indian scientists to create an ecosystem of innovation and industrial action, are missing.
    • Also, the alignment between biotechnology policies and economic goals is missing.


Case study – Problems in the Guidelines for Genetically Engineered (GE) Insects:

  • Uncertainty of purpose
    • The guidelines emphasise that GE insects offer applications in various fields (such as human and livestock health; crop management; etc) uplifting the standard of living by
      • Reducing disease burden,
      • Enabling food security and
      • Conserving the environment.
    • However, the guidelines don’t specify the purposes for which GE insects may be approved in India.
    • The guidelines only provide regulatory procedures for R&D on insects with some beneficial applications.
  • Uncertainty for researchers:
    • The guidelines are applicable only to research and not to confined trials or deployment.
    • Once the insects are ‘made’ and tested in the laboratory, researchers can conduct trials with them on the approval of the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) of the MoEFCC.
    • Once deployed, GE insects can’t be recalled and unlike GM foods they are not amenable to individual consumer choice.
  • Uncertainty of ambit:
    • The guidelines offer standard operating procedures for GE mosquitoes, crop pests, and beneficial insects – but what ‘beneficial’ means, in the context of GE insects, is not clear.
    • The lack of clarity will impede funders and scientists from investing in this research.


Way ahead:

  • Further efforts are needed to attract private funding for biotechnology R&D.
  • Policies need to be significantly revised if biotechnology is to be of any serious consequence to the economy.
  • Both of the above are essential considering the importance of biotechnology to any pandemic preparedness efforts.


Insta Links:

India’s Biotech Sector


Mains Links:

How can biotechnology help to improve the living standards of farmers? (UPSC 2019)

New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules (2023)


Syllabus: Application of Ethics/ Government Policies and Related Issues


Source: TH, BBC

Context: The government of India recently passed an amendment to the New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules (2023) that permits researchers to utilize non-animal and human-relevant methods for testing the safety and effectiveness of new drugs.


  • It will amend the Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules, 2019

Alternative methods proposed are 3D organoids, 3D bioprinter, organs-on-chip, and advanced computational methods.

 To know the process of Clinical Trials in India: Click Here


The use of animals in drug testing has limitations:  

LimitationsDescription Example
Limited predictability for human responseAnimals may respond differently to drugs compared to humans due to differences in biological processes, genetics, and other factors.The drug Thalidomide caused severe birth defects in humans but did not produce the same effects in animal tests, leading to tragic consequences.
Ethical Concerns and animal welfareAnimal testing involves the use of sentient beings and raises ethical concerns regarding the suffering and harm caused to animals. This includes procedures such as force-feeding, injections, and euthanasia.The Draize test, which involves applying substances to animals’ eyes, has been criticized for causing severe pain and distress.
The high failure rate in translating to human efficacyDespite passing animal testing, many drugs fail during human clinical trials, leading to wasted resources and potential harm to human participants.For instance, a study published in the British Medical Journal found that over 90% of drugs tested on animals fail to translate into safe and effective treatments for humans.
Inadequate representation of human diversityAnimals used in testing may not accurately represent the diversity of human populations in terms of age, sex, genetic variations, and underlying health conditions.For example, the drug Ximelagatran showed promise in animal studies but caused liver damage in humans, highlighting the need for more accurate models.
Regulatory and legal considerationsThe use of animals in testing is subject to regulatory requirements and ethical considerations, which can lead to delays, increased costs, and challenges in obtaining approvals.The European Union has implemented a ban on animal testing for cosmetics.


Ethical Issues Related to the Use of Animals in drug testing:

Ethical DilemmaDescription
Animal SufferingAnimal experimentation often involves causing pain, distress, or harm to the animals, raising concerns about their welfare and the ethics of inflicting suffering on them.
Moral Status of AnimalsThe debate centres around the moral consideration and rights of animals. Some argue that animals have inherent value and should not be subjected to experimentation, while others believe that human benefits justify their use.
Balancing Human BenefitsThe dilemma arises when weighing the potential benefits to human health and well-being against the harm caused to animals. Ethical considerations involve determining if the benefits are significant enough to justify the use of animals in experiments.
Informed Consent and Voluntary ParticipationUnlike human clinical trials where participants can provide informed consent, animals have no agency or ability to voluntarily participate in experiments, raising questions about the ethics of subjecting them to testing without their consent.


Steps by Other Countries:

  • In 2021, the European Unionpassed a resolution on an action plan to facilitate the transition towards technologies that don’t use animals in research, regulatory testing, and education. The U.S. passed the FDA Modernization Act 2.0 in December 2022, allowing researchers to use these systems to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs.
  • Also, in 2022, South Korea introduced a Bill called ‘Vitalization of Development, Dissemination, and Use of Alternatives to Animal Testing Methods’.
  • In June 2023, Canada amended its Environmental Protection Act to replace, reduce or refine the use of vertebrate animals in toxicity testing.



Thus the use of non-animal methods is significant for avoiding these ethical dilemmas. However, India faces challenges in terms of interdisciplinary expertise and the availability of resources for research in this area. Efforts are being made to establish centres of excellence and develop an end-to-end ecosystem in India to support the implementation of these new technologies.


Insta Links:

Clinical Trials


Mains Links:

 Case Study: One of the scientists working in the R&D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of the company’s bestselling veterinary drugs has the potential to cure a currently incurable liver disease which is prevalent in tribal areas. However, developing a variant of the drug suitable for human beings entailed a lot of research and development having a huge expenditure to the extent of Rs. 50 crores. It was unlikely that the company would recover the cost as the disease was rampant only in poverty-stricken areas having very little market otherwise. (250 Words)

If you were the CEO, then;

(a) Identify the various actions that you could take

(b) Evaluate the pros and cons of each of your actions

 Affirmative Action in Higher Education

Content for Mains Enrichment


Source: TH

The U.S. Supreme Court recently ruled to strike down race-conscious policies in college admissions, bringing an end to affirmative action in higher education. Affirmative action refers to admissions policies that aim to increase the representation of minority students, such as Black and Hispanic students, on college campuses.

Many colleges and universities consider race as part of a holistic approach to admissions, along with other factors like grades and extracurricular activities, to promote diversity and enhance the educational experience.

Reason for such a decision: US Supreme Court has narrowly emphasized individual rights and equal treatment over considerations of historical disadvantage or societal diversity.

Impact: The impact of this ruling will lead colleges to explore new strategies to ensure diversity in their student populations. Also, Indian Students will be affected as well.

Usage: The example can be used as a counterargument to affirmative policies in India.

Painting Roofs White

Content for Mains Enrichment

 Source: BBC

Extreme heat in Indian slums is negatively affecting women’s health and productivity. To address this issue, the Mahila Housing Trust (MHT), a non-profit organization, has introduced a simple solution: painting roofs with white solar-reflective paint. The reflective paint helps limit the heat from infiltrating the homes, providing relief to women, children, and the elderly. It lowers indoor temperatures, allowing for improved health, increased work hours, and better studying conditions.

Usage: The example can be used in Environment/ Governance/ Social Justice paper


PEN Pinter Prize

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Context: Michael Rosen, a British children’s writer and performance poet, has been awarded the PEN Pinter Prize 2023.

  • The prize is given to a writer from the UK, Ireland, and the Commonwealth who is committed to fearless exposition of truth about contemporary life.


Michael Rosen works:

  • Rosen is known for his accessible poetry for children and his themes often touch on social, political, and ethical issues.
  • He has published over 140 books and has championed a style of writing that reflects children’s everyday worlds and validates their imaginative thinking.


About PEN Pinter Prize:

  • Named in honour and memory of English writer Harold Pinter, the PEN Pinter Prize is a prestigious award which is given to a writer who reflects a “fierce intellectual determination (to) define the real truth of our lives and our societies,”.
  • Established in 2009, previous winners of the PEN Pinter Prize include Hanif Kureishi (2010), Salman Rushdie (2014), and Lemn Sissay (2019).

Children impacted by armed conflict

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: DTE

 Context: The United Nations (UN) has removed India from its annual list of countries affected by armed conflict children, citing measures taken by the Indian government to better protect children.

  • India was previously included in the list due to allegations of recruitment of young boys by separatist militant groups in Jammu and Kashmir, as well as accusations of detention of young boys by Indian security forces.


More findings:

  • The UN Secretary-General’s report highlighted that the highest number of violations against children occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Israel, Palestine, Somalia, Syria, Ukraine, Afghanistan, and Yemen.
  • Myanmar, South Sudan, and Burkina Faso experienced the worst deterioration in the situation.
  • The report also noted an increase in attacks on schools and hospitals, with a significant rise in the military use of schools by armed forces and groups.

The report highlighted the ongoing challenges in monitoring and verifying violations, including access constraints and underreporting, and emphasized the need for increased efforts to protect children affected by armed conflict.

Schemes to promote the judicious use of fertilisers

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB

 Context: The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) chaired by the PM approved a unique package of innovative schemes for farmers.

PM Programme for Restoration, Awareness Generation, Nourishment and Amelioration of Mother – Earth (PMPRANAM)Announced in Budget 2023-24, it will be launched to incentivise States/ UTs to promote alternate fertilisers and balanced use of chemical fertilisers.
Market Development Assistance (MDA) scheme For promoting Organic Fertilisers from Gobardhan Plants.
Introduction of Sulphur coated Urea (Urea Gold)To address the sulphur deficiency of soil and save input costs for the farmers.
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samruddhi Kendras (PMKSKs) For the convenience of farmers, farm inputs are being provided as a one-stop solution for all needs of farmers. About one lakh PMKSKs have already come up in the country.


  • The approved schemes will help in the judicious use of chemical fertilisers, thereby reducing the input cost of cultivation for the farmers.
  • The initiatives will boost farmers’ income, strengthen natural/organic farming, rejuvenate soil productivity, and ensure food security.

Short-lived halogens

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: DTE

 Context: A new study reveals that oceans play a crucial role in cooling the planet by releasing short-lived halogens, including chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

  • These halogens currently contribute 8-10% of cooling, a figure projected to increase to 18-31% by 2100.


About Short-lived halogens:

Short-lived halogens refer to chlorine, bromine, and iodine compounds that have a relatively short lifespan in the atmosphere, typically less than six months. These halogens play a role in the Earth’s climate system by contributing to cooling and warming effects.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Context: The cancer research arm of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is reportedly set to list the artificial sweetener aspartame as “possibly carcinogenic to humans.”

  • If confirmed, would go against previous studies that have found no evidence of harm caused by aspartame.


About Aspartame:

  • Aspartame is widely used as a sugar substitute in various food and beverage products, including diet soft drinks, chewing gum, and breakfast cereals

The IARC’s assessment does not take into account safe consumption levels, which are determined by the Joint Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and national regulators.

 Other examples of artificial sweeteners are: Sucralose, Saccharin, Stevia, Neotame

Responsible antibiotic production Certificate

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: DTE

Context: A new certification scheme has been launched in India to promote responsible antibiotic manufacturing (first of its kind)


About the Scheme:

  • Developed by: the British Standards Institute (BSI) (a business improvement and standards company) and the AMR Industry Alliance (one of the largest private sector coalitions that provide long-term solutions to antimicrobial resistance)
  • Aim: To address environmental concerns related to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by limiting the release of antibiotic residues into waterways through industrial waste.
  • Process:
    • The certification process involves third-party validation to monitor environmental practices throughout the manufacturing process.
    • Manufacturers must demonstrate effective environmental management and wastewater treatment systems to obtain certification.
    • The concentration of antibiotics in waste streams must be below a specified threshold to prevent the emergence of AMR in the environment.
  • Time: The certification is valid for three years, with annual surveillance to ensure ongoing compliance.

In 2022, The AMR Industry Alliance and BSI came up with a set of Antibiotic Manufacturing Standards and launched the certification to ensure their implementation. The initiative is part of efforts to promote sustainable and responsible drug production while mitigating the environmental impact of antibiotic manufacturing.

Current Affairs

American bald eagle

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Context: The American bald eagle was removed from the endangered species list in 2007, marking a significant milestone in its conservation.

  • The bird’s population has steadily increased since then, with a 2021 report stating that the number of bald eagles in the wild has quadrupled since 2009.
  • The bald eagle, once abundant across the United States with an estimated 100,000 nesting birds in the country, faced a severe decline in population due to hunting, habitat destruction, and the pesticide However, measures such as the ban on DDT and the implementation of the Endangered Species Act helped protect the species and prevent it from going extinct.
About the American bald eagle
HabitatThe bald eagle’s natural range covers most of North America, including most of Canada, all of the continental US, and northern Mexico.
It is the only sea eagle endemic to North America.
CharacteristicsThe average life span of bald eagles is 20 to 30 years.
Bald eagles build their nests at the very top of tall trees so the eggs will be safe.
Female bald eagles are a bit bigger than the males.
Feeding PatternBesides live fish, bald eagles also prey on other birds, small mammals, snakes, turtles, and crabs, and they readily eat carrion (decaying flesh of dead animals).
Protection StatusIUCN Status: Least Concern

Sea lions and algae bloom

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: A recent outbreak of algae bloom – commonly known as red tide – has sickened and killed an unknown number of sea lions and dolphins off the coast of California, US.


Sea lions (IUCN Status – Endangered):

  • They are pinnipeds characterised by external ear flaps, long fore flippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short and thick hair and a big chest and belly.
  • Their range extends from the subarctic to tropical waters of the global ocean in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, except the northern Atlantic Ocean.


Algal bloom/red tides:

  • An algal bloom is a term used for the excessive growth of algae over a water body causing discolouration of the water body.
    • Blooms can proliferate because of human causes such as climate change and an excess of nitrates washed out to sea.
  • Red tide is the red colouration of seawater due to the presence of dinoflagellate Gonyaulax.



  • Algal blooms cause the production of a neurotoxin called domoic acid and result in the death of fish and other aquatic organisms.
  • Small fish consume the toxin and pass it up the food chain. Humans are unaffected unless they eat infected shellfish.




Source: TH

India and the Philippines have discussed the potential for expanding defence cooperation, particularly in maritime security, including joint sales and patrols. The Philippines had previously signed a deal with India for the purchase of anti-ship BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles.

The Philippines is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. In the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of over 7000 islands which are broadly categorized into three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.



Source: TH

 Turkmenistan has unveiled a new $5 billion “smart” city called Arkadag.

Arkadag, situated southwest of the capital Ashgabat, is named after Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov, who ruled the country from 2006 to 2022 and carries the title Hero Arkadag (Protector).

Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia bordered by the Caspian Sea and largely covered by the Karakum Desert. It’s known for archaeological ruins including those at Nisa and Merv, major stops along the ancient trade route the Silk Road.

Rwanda policy


Source: TH

 The UK Court of Appeal has ruled against the government’s plan to send asylum seekers to Rwanda, dealing a blow to Prime Minister Rishi Sunak’s administration. The policy, known as the “Rwanda policy,” is part of the government’s strategy to deter migrants from crossing the English Channel to seek asylum in the UK. It involves relocating potential asylum seekers to Rwanda while their applications are processed.

Rwanda is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

/ 30 June 2023, Today's Article


Read the CA in PDF format here: 


Follow us on our Official TELEGRAM Channel HERE

Subscribe to Our Official YouTube Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Official Facebook Page HERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram Account HERE

Follow us on LinkedIn: HERE