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How does climate affect social issues?

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Indian society


Source: DTE

 Context: According to a study, domestic violence will rise as temperatures across the Indian subcontinent spike.


Findings of the study:

  • These findings highlight the vulnerabilities and inequalities of women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in low- and middle-income countries in the context of global climate warming.
  • High ambient temperature may be associated with the risk of IPV against women. Each 1°C increase in the annual mean temperature is associated with a mean increase in IPV prevalence of 4.49%.
  • The prevalence of physical violence was highest (23.0%), followed by emotional and sexual violence.


How does global warming increase IPV prevalence?

  • Increasing temperature is
    • Squeezing working hours → impacting the income of daily wage earners → Family members spend maximum time within the houseincreasing the workload for women.
    • Generating requirements for comfort which low-income groups and economically weaker sections cannot afford.
    • Directly impacting mental health.
  • All of this is contributing to domestic violence.


Challenges ahead: The IPV prevalence would increase by 21% by the end of the 21st century under unlimited emissions scenarios.


Case of India:

  • This comes as India witnessed several heat-related deaths with temperatures up to 45 degrees Celsius in certain parts of the country.
  • India is likely to experience the highest IPV prevalence increase (23.5%) in the 2090s, followed by Nepal and Pakistan.


Way ahead:

  • Climate action is an essential component in the ongoing fight to eliminate violence against women and girls.
    • For example, under stricter emissions-cut scenarios, the IPV prevalence would only moderately increase.
  • The world also needs greater involvement of women in climate action → gender mainstreaming in the policymaking process.
    • UNICEF’s Gender Action Plan (GAP) and the Lima work programme on Gender (LWGP adopted at UNFCCC’s COP 20) are efforts in this direction.


Conclusion: Tackling the issue of violence against women and girls is an important step towards achieving the core objective of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is to leave no one behind.


Insta Links:

Still a nightmare for domestic violence survivors


Mains Links:

Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality. poverty and malnutrition to be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (UPSC 2021)