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[ Day 11 – Synopsis ] 75 Days Mains Revision Plan 2023 – Indian Society & Ethics


Indian Society


Q1. Highlight the effects of globalization on the traditional Indian values and the institution of marriage in Indian society? (10M)


Globalization is a process of increasing interdependence, interconnectedness and integration of economies and societies to such an extent that an event in one part of the globe affects people in other parts of the world. As India became increasingly integrated into the global economy, the effects of globalization have touched various aspects of Indian culture, including traditional values and institutions like marriage.


Effects of globalization on the traditional Indian values and the institution of marriage:

On traditional Indian values

  • Value system –Western ideals of individualism, personal freedom, and equality have gained popularity, challenging the traditional hierarchical structure of Indian society.
  • On Caste system; – Globalization has led to weakening of caste system as incidents of inter-caste marriage, inter-dining, lower caste becoming vegetarian and higher caste choosing nonveg food has increased.
    • However, despite these changes, the caste system has shown immense resilience and still continues to exist in Indian society.
  • Old age vulnerability; – Due to rise of nuclear family’s social security provided by Joint family to old age people has diminished and they have become economically, socially and emotionally more vulnerable
  • Festival; – Due to impact of globalization cultural values related to festival in India has undergone a change as people are celebrating festivals like Valentines’ day, Friendship day.
    • However, along with these new festival and days, traditional festivals are celebrated with equal enthusiasm.
  • Traditional knowledge like theatre and indigenous knowledge system like use of turmeric for medicinal purposes etc. are fading away from the masses but it is also becoming popular among scientific community.
  • Cultural Preservation Efforts: Globalization has also sparked efforts to preserve and promote traditional Indian values and cultural heritage. Cultural organizations, festivals, and tourism initiatives have emerged to celebrate and safeguard traditional Indian values. E.g. Yoga, Diwali, Durga Pooja etc.


On marriages:

  • Positives: Due to Globalisation, the concept of love marriages is increasing and elders have started to accept and appreciate it in the same way.
    • Inter caste and inter-religious marriages have become more common
    • Parents are turning to the web to search for brides and grooms, they prefer NRI for their westernized outlook, lifestyles, and higher disposable income.
  • Negatives; – importance of marriage is declining and cases of divorce has increased as people are becoming more professional and they are preferring live in over marriage and many are also preferring single parenting.
    • However, despite that marriage as an institution has not declined rather it has just changed its role.



Given its enormous potential for economic gains, it would be a waste to categorically repudiate the phenomena of Globalisation. Instead, there is a need for better understanding of Globalization’s effects and the interplay of its economics with other issue areas.


Q2. Discuss the challenges and opportunities for managing regionalism and fostering a sense of collective national identity in India? (15M)


Regionalism can be defined as a phenomenon in which people’s political loyalties become focused upon a region. In other words, it implies people’s love of a particular region in preference to the country and in certain cases in preference to the state of which the region is a part. Regionalism in India is rooted in India’s diversity of languages, cultures, tribes, economic interests etc. It is also encouraged by the geographical concentration of these identity makers in particular regions, and fuelled by a sense of regional deprivation.


Challenges for managing regionalism:

  • Ethnic and Cultural Differences: Different ethnic and cultural groups in India have distinct identities and historical backgrounds. This can sometimes lead to inter-ethnic tensions and regional conflicts.
    • For example, conflicts between different ethnic groups in north-eastern states like Assam, Manipur, and Nagaland have been fuelled by ethnic differences and competing regional aspirations.
  • Political Fragmentation: India’s political landscape is fragmented with numerous regional political parties representing specific states or regions. These parties often prioritize regional issues over national interests.
    • For instance, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) in Tamil Nadu and the Shiv Sena in
  • Historical Regionalism: India’s history is marked by regional identities and movements that have shaped the political landscape. This sometimes challenges the national unity; as regional identities supersede national identity.
    • For example: Khalistan movement in Punjab.
  • Resource Conflicts: India’s regions vary in terms of natural resources, leading to conflicts over resource allocation.
    • For example, Mullaperiyar dam issue between Kerala and Tamilnadu.
  • Regional Imbalances: Economic disparities among different regions of India create a sense of regionalism. Some regions, such as the western states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, have experienced rapid economic growth and infrastructure development.
    • In contrast, states in the north-eastern region, like Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya, face challenges in terms of economic development and connectivity, leading to a feeling of neglect and regional bias.


Opportunities for managing regionalism and fostering a sense of collective national identity

  • Constitutional Framework: The Indian Constitution provides a strong framework for managing regionalism and fostering a collective national identity. It recognizes and respects the diversity of the country while emphasizing the principles of unity and equality.
    • The Constitution promotes a shared national identity based on the ideals of democracy, secularism, and social justice.
  • Strengthening federalism: with a balanced distribution of power between the central and state governments can help bridge the gap.
  • Cultural Exchange and Integration: India has a rich heritage of cultural diversity. Encouraging cultural exchanges and celebrations at the national level can help bridge the gaps between different regions.
  • Economic Development: Addressing regional economic disparities is vital for fostering a collective national identity. Focused efforts on equitable economic development, infrastructure development, and job creation in underdeveloped regions can reduce the sense of marginalization and promote national unity.
  • Education and media: Promoting inclusive education that highlights both national and regional histories, languages, and cultures can help inculcate a sense of belonging to both the nation and one’s region.
    • Media, including television, films, and the internet, can also play a significant role in disseminating a Pan-Indian narrative and promoting national integration.
  • Political Leadership: Political leaders play a crucial role in fostering a sense of collective national identity. Leaders who emphasize national unity, promote inclusive policies, and work towards the overall development of the country can bridge regional divides and strengthen the national fabric.
    • Encouraging political leaders to prioritize national interests over narrow regional considerations can contribute to fostering a collective national identity.



However, regionalism is not always opposed to national integration. It may also lead to higher intergroup solidarity and induce competition for betterment when certain genuine demands, especially developmental are conceded.



Syllabus: “Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.”

Q3. Often, we hear that there seems to be a “Generation gap” between parents and kids. How does this “Generation gap” get reflected in both of their value systems? Analyze how this gap affects their moral relationships with each other. (10M)


The “Generation gap” refers to the differences in beliefs, attitudes, and values between different generations, particularly parents and their children.


This is influenced by various factors, including changes in societal norms, technological advancements, and evolving cultural contexts. This gets reflected in the value system in these ways:

  • Shifting Views on Authority and Individualism: Younger generations often prioritize individualism and personal autonomy with respect to their career, life partner and life choices.
  • Environmental Awareness and Sustainability: The younger generation, shaped by climate change movements such as Greta Thunberg’s ‘Fridays for change’ exhibits pragmatic and opportunistic attitudes.
  • Technological Divide and Digital Literacy: Younger generations are digital natives and are more comfortable with online shopping, car hailing, digital payments, and telemedicine.
  • Attitudes towards work and career: The older generation tends to prioritize job security and stability over higher pay. A NASSCOM-Indeed study reveals that despite MASS layoff’s 70 per cent of Gen Z students want to take up a job in the tech industry.
  • Openness and chastity: Taboo around sex has loosened a bit with many youngsters not considering sex, and even pre-marital sex as a taboo.
  • Consumerism and brand loyalty: Over 50 per cent of Indian consumers are below 25 with high purchasing power and eagerness to possess branded products.

Generation gap affect moral relationship with each other in following ways:

  • Barriers in communication and Understanding: In 2022, a 16-year-old boy from Lucknow shot his mother dead for not letting him play mobile games.
  • Lack of acceptance: Ipsos’s LGBT+ Pride 2021 Global Survey points to a wide generation gap around gender identity and sexual attraction.
  • Intergenerational Power Dynamics: power struggles can arise as parents hold authority. For instance, many Genz’s want to follow their own career paths and not one chosen by parents.
  • Bridge of Empathy and Understanding: GenZ’s i.e born after 2000’s have been raised through a more friendly parenting style and are able to close the generation gap. For many Genz’s parents are their best friends.
  • Reverse Influence: GenZs have been able to have a ‘reverse influence’ on their parents. On reality show Shark Tank India, I saw many parent-child duos including Patil Kaki, GetAWhey—indicating that the way ahead is a combination of old and new.

Though it creates challenges, generation gap also offers numerous positive impacts through mutual learning, empathy, and collaborative a stronger positive cultural evolution is possible.

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