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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Mandya’s Hoysala legacy


GS Paper 2:

  1. India-US Partnership


GS Paper 3:

  1. Pollution due to coal-based thermal power generation in India
  2. World Bank: Toolkit to Support Countries After Natural Disasters


Content for Mains Enrichment

  1. “Professor of Practice”
  2. Kerala mosque spreads a secular message
  3. Women’s tennis contributions


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Heliopolis Memorial in Egypt
  2. Liaquat-Nehru Pact
  3. Technology Facilitated Gender Based Violence (TFGBV)
  4. Lab-grown meat
  5. Nilotinib
  6. Chiral Bose-liquid state
  7. Cord blood banking
  8. Drugs harmful to vultures 



  1. Guwahati (Assam)



Mandya’s Hoysala legacy

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Indian Culture – Salient Aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from Ancient to modern times


Source: TH

 Context: The temples in the Mandya district of Karnataka, belonging to the period of the Hoysalas, have failed to grab as much attention as they deserve.


The Hoysala Empire:


  • It was a Kannadiga power (founder – Sala) that ruled most of what is now Karnataka between the 10th – 14th centuries.
  • The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu.
  • Taking advantage of the warfare between the Western Chalukya Empire and Kalachuris of Kalyani, the Hoysalas annexed the fertile areas north of the Kaveri delta.
  • By the 13th century, they governed most of Karnataka, entire northwestern parts of Tamil Nadu and parts of western Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.


Importance of the Hoysala era:

  • It was an important period in the development of South Indian art, architecture, and religion.
  • The empire is remembered today primarily for Hoysala architecture – 100 surviving temples are scattered across Karnataka.
  • Well-known temples Chennakeshava Temple in Belur, Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebidu, Chennakesava/Keshava Temple in Somanathapura (Mysuru), etc., are known as an amazing displays of sculptural exuberance.


Architectural features of Hoysala temples:

  • Most of the temples follow the ekakuta, dvikuta or trikuta pattern – temples with a single, double or three garbhagrihas or sanctum sanctorum.
  • There are only two examples of Panchakuta shrines or temples – Keshava temple and the Panchalingeshwara temple (Mandya).


Famous temples in Mandya district:

Temples Image Description
Panchalingeshwara temple



Panchakuta shrine, with five sanctums containing five shivalingas.

At the doorways are two dwarapalas guarding the sanctum, and the signature of the famous sculptor of the Hoysala period Mallithamma is clearly visible even today

Lakshminarayana temple



Built on a high platform with stellate corners with elephant sculptures that is typical of most Hoysala temples.

 A fine specimen of Hoysala style known for ornate embellishment with sculptures and carvings that is evident both in the temple interiors and the outer walls.

Wall panels have remarkable sculptures of Panduranga, Govardhanadhari, Dhanavantri, and Dakshinamurthi, etc.

Brahmeshwara temple


Constructed during the regime of Narasimha I with all the salient features attributable to the Hoysala architecture.
Saumyakeshava temple


Dated to the 12th century CE and renovated by successive dynasties, it has both Vijayanagar and post-Vijayanagar features.

Reasons why Mandya’s temples are less popular among tourists:

  • Proximity to Mysuru, a popular tourist destination, has robbed the sheen off Mandya.
  • This is despite the fact that Mandya has 50 State-protected and Centre-protected monuments against 39 in the Mysuru district.


Way ahead:

  • Installing signboards giving cross-references to important monuments in the district in places where tourist footfalls are high.
  • With the popularity of these monuments, efforts to conserve the architectural marvels (most of which are nearly 1000 years old) should grow.


Conclusion: Bringing the lesser-known monuments to public light is important not only from a tourism perspective but to showcase a slice of history and heritage.


Insta Links:



Mains Links:

Chola architecture represents a high watermark in the evolution of temple architecture. Discuss. (UPSC 2013)


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2019)

Building ‘Kalyana Mandapas’ was a notable feature in the temple construction in the kingdom of

  1. Chalukya
  2. Chandela
  3. Rashtrakuta
  4. Vijayanagara


Ans: 4

India-US Partnership

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Bilateral Relations


Source: TH

 Context: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to the United States marked a major step forward in India-US ties, with several significant agreements and partnerships being established.


Key highlights of the visit:

Highlights Description
High-Tech Partnership Semiconductor supply chain agreements; Introduced Indo-U.S. Quantum Coordination Mechanism to facilitate better collaboration among academia and industries;
Defence Cooperation ·        Strategic Defence partnership; India – US Defence Acceleration Ecosystem (INDUS-X);

·        MoU between GE and HAL for manufacturing GE-F414 jet engines in India (with 80% technology transfer) to be used in Tejas Mk2

·        Purchase of 16 armed MQ-9B SeaGuardian UAVs;

·        Defence acceleration ecosystems;

·        Ship repair agreements;

·        Placement of Indian liaison officers at US commands

Space Cooperation ·        India signing the Artemis Accords for lunar and space exploration;

·        NASA provides advanced training to Indian astronauts;

·        Strategic Framework for human spaceflight cooperation by 2023 end

·        NASA and ISRO have agreed to launch a joint mission to International Space Station in 2024

Trade and Consular Issues Resolution of WTO disputes and market access; Establishment of new consulates in India (Bengaluru and Ahmedabad) and the US (India’s consulate in Seattle); Relaxation in H1B visa norms
Clean Energy ·        US-India New and Emerging Renewable Energy Technologies Action Platform to accelerate cooperation in green hydrogen and other emerging technologies.

·        U.S. Agency for International Development is to support Indian Railways’ to become a “net-zero” carbon emitter by 2030.

·        India joins Mineral Security Partnership (MSP) to advance critical energy minerals supply chains globally, adhering to environmental and social standards.

Innovation partnership Created a new Joint Task Force of the Association of American Universities and leading Indian educational institutions to expand research and university partnerships.


About INDUS-X:

It will facilitate joint defence technology innovation; co-production of advanced defence technology between industries of two countries; and an Indo-US joint innovation fund for funding defence start-ups. It was launched by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Indian Ministry of Defense (MoD) as a part of the US Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) initiative.


About ARTEMIS Accord:

About The Artemis Accords are a set of non-binding principles established by NASA, in coordination with the U.S. Department of State, and signed by multiple countries involved in civil space exploration and International Cooperation.
Origin NASA established the Artemis Accords in 2020, in collaboration with seven other nations: Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, UAE, and the UK.
Immediate Objective The primary objective of the Artemis program, supported by the Accords, is to land the first woman and the first person of colour on the Moon by 2025. The program also aims to expand space exploration to Mars and beyond.
Full Form Artemis stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun.
Principles The Artemis Accords encompass several principles:
Use of space for peaceful purposes
Maintaining transparency in space activities
Interoperability among participating nations
Registration of space objects
Preservation of space heritage
De-confliction of space activities
Management of space debris
Goal The overarching goal of the Artemis Accords is to ensure the safety, sustainability, and peaceful exploration of outer space while fostering partnerships and cooperation among the participating nations.



India-US relations have steadily strengthened over the years, marked by strategic cooperation, technological partnerships, and defence collaborations. While challenges and differences remain, the overall trajectory of India-US relations is positive, emphasizing the importance of the bilateral partnership in areas such as defence, trade, technology, and space exploration.


Insta Links:

  • India-US Economic Relations


Mains Links:

What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self-esteem and ambitions’. Explain with suitable examples. ( UPSC 2019)


Prelim Links:

India Government Bond Yields are influenced by which of the following? (UPSC 2021)

  1. Actions of the United States Federal Reserve.
  2. Actions of the Reserve Bank of India.
  3. Inflation and short-term interest rates.


(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 Only

(c) 3 Only

(d) 1, 2 and 3




Pollution due to coal-based thermal power generation in India

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environmental Pollution and Degradation


Source: DTE

 Context: One of the most polluting sectors of India – coal-based thermal power generation – was found to be brazenly flouting emission norms.


Emission norms in place: The MoEFCC made it mandatory (in 2015) for thermal power plants to install a flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system to remove sulphur dioxide from their exhaust.

Status of implementation:

  • Poor implementation of the sulphur dioxide emissions regulations.
  • For example,
    • Only 5% of the country’s installed coal-based thermal power generation capacities had the FGD mechanism in place. (CSE)
    • 17% of the overall coal power capacity was still at the very initial stages of compliance.


Regional data on implementation status:

  • No plant in eastern India was found to be compliant with SO2 emissions norms.
  • Maharashtra has the highest capacity to comply with the norms, followed by Gujarat, UP, Haryana and Tamil Nadu.


What do these results indicate?

  • The sector has been unwilling to comply with the central government regulations. Even new projects are not compliant with the SO2 emissions norms.
  • This is despite the fact that the norms have been diluted for several parameters and deadlines delayed since they were issued.


Reasons for the delayed implementation of the norms: The sector’s dependency on the external market for some FGD components, the novelty of the technology for the Indian market and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Impact of poor implementation:

  • Sulphur dioxide released in the open (without desulphurisation) causes pollution.
  • When sulphur dioxide combines with water and air, it forms sulfuric acid, which is the main component of acid rain.
  • Acid rain can cause deforestation, acidify waterways to the detriment of aquatic life, and be detrimental to human health (skin cancer).


Challenges ahead: A total of 20 thermal plants are now being built with a combined capacity of 27.4 GW, which will likely be included in the national capacity by the end of 2027–2028.


Way ahead:

  • The latest National Electricity Plan (NEP) for 2022-32 has advocated for different standards for plants in different locations.
  • The Government should not further extend the deadline for compliance.
  • It should be mandatory for new units to install the FGD system, only then they can begin operations.


Insta Links:

Flue Gas Desulphurisation

World Bank: Toolkit to Support Countries After Natural Disasters

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Disaster Management


Source: World Bank

Context: The World Bank Group has announced a comprehensive toolkit to support countries in responding to natural disasters and other crises.

Need for the toolkit: It is needed to help countries respond effectively to the increasing frequency and impact of natural disasters and crises. The toolkit allows for building resilience, sharing knowledge and ensuring swift response and recovery, ultimately contributing to poverty reduction and a more sustainable world.



Toolkit Features Impact on Disaster-Facing Countries
Pause in debt repayments Provides relief to countries by allowing them to focus on urgent needs instead of loan repayments during crises or catastrophes.


World Bank Group will launch Climate Resilient Debt Clauses. These will provide a pause in debt repayments for the most vulnerable countries in times of crisis or catastrophe.

Redirecting financing Offers countries the flexibility to quickly redirect funds for emergency response, ensuring immediate access to cash for disaster management and recovery efforts.
Linking crisis preparedness and financing Helps governments build advanced emergency systems, enhancing their preparedness to respond to crises effectively from day one.
Backstopping development projects with private-sector support Supports development projects by providing private sector support in crisis preparedness and response, enabling businesses to sustain operations, protect jobs, and promote long-term sustainability in disaster-struck areas.
Building enhanced catastrophe insurance without debt Enhances catastrophe insurance options, such as Cat Bonds, and offers the integration of catastrophe insurance into lending products. Provides resources for disaster-struck countries without adding to their debt burden.


This toolkit empowers disaster-facing countries by providing relief, flexibility, and resources needed to respond effectively and recover from natural disasters and crises.


Insta Links:

Disaster Management


Mains Links:

Disaster prevention requires a proactive and comprehensive approach to reducing the risk of disasters. However, effective emergency response can help save lives and reduce the impact of a disaster. Analyse. (250 Words)

/ 24 June 2023, Today's Article

“Professor of Practice”

Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: TH

A “Professor of Practice” is an individual with significant experience in a specific profession or industry who is appointed to a faculty position at a university.

Unlike traditional academic professors, they are often hired from outside academia and may not be required to have advanced research degrees. The role of a Professor of Practice is to bring real-world insights, practical knowledge, and industry perspectives into the classroom.

The concept has been institutionalized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) and aims to bridge the gap between academia and the professional world, fostering an entrepreneurial university environment.

Kerala mosque spreads a secular message

Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: TH

The Thattuparambu Juma Masjid near Muvattupuzha in Kerala has introduced a secular tradition by announcing deaths in the neighbourhood, regardless of the religion of the deceased. This inclusive practice was initiated by the Jamaath committee as a goodwill gesture to embrace the community and share their grief. The committee plans to use the system for emergency messages such as requests for medical aid and blood donors.

Usage: Such an initiative highlights the commitment of religious institutions to promoting unity and support among different communities.

Women’s tennis contributions

Content for Mains Enrichment

Source: TH


Contribution to Gender Equality and Social Issues:

Pay Parity Billie Jean King’s efforts led to the U.S. Open becoming the first major tournament to ensure equal prize money for men and women in 1973.
Promoting LGBTQIA+ Rights Martina Navratilova has been actively involved in LGBTQIA+ causes, advocating for equal rights and supporting research on AIDS.
Raising Awareness of Gun Violence Serena Williams has spoken out against gun violence in America, motivated by her half-sister’s tragic death due to a violent crime.
Advocacy for Racial Justice Naomi Osaka and Coco Gauff were prominent voices in the Black Lives Matter movement. Osaka wore masks with the names of racial injustice victims during the 2020 U.S. Open, using her platform to raise awareness.
Support for War Victims Iga Świątek has consistently shown support for war victims in Ukraine, wearing a ribbon in Ukraine’s colours during matches.
Progressive Policies and Measures The Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) introduced rule changes allowing players returning from maternity to use their frozen ranking for tournament seeding, promoting inclusivity.
Holding Institutions Accountable The WTA boycotted tournaments in China for nearly a year-and-a-half, demanding a fair investigation into sexual assault allegations raised by Chinese player Peng Shuai against a senior government official.


Usage: The example can be used in Essay/Ethics/Social Justice/ Society for Gender Equality and Social Issues questions

Heliopolis Memorial in Egypt

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Conext: The Heliopolis Memorial in Egypt commemorates the memory of 3,727 Indian soldiers who fought in various campaigns in Egypt and Palestine during World War 1. PM Modi paid a visit to it recently.


About the Memorial:

  • The original Port Tewfik memorial, which was situated at the entrance to the Suez Canal, was destroyed in 1967.
  • In 1980, a new memorial was erected in Heliopolis Commonwealth War Grave Cemetery, bearing the names of the Indian soldiers who died in the First World War campaigns.
  • The memorial includes the names of soldiers from various Indian regiments and also commemorates Risaldar Badlu Singh, who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for his bravery (the highest British wartime gallantry award).


Contributions of India in World War 1:

Contribution Details
Troop Deployment Indian troops were sent as part of the British Indian Army to various theatres of war, including the Western Front, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), East Africa, Egypt, and Palestine.
Combat Operations Indian soldiers participated in major battles and campaigns, such as the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, Battle of Gallipoli, Siege of Kut, Battle of Gaza, and Battle of Haifa.
Medical Assistance Indian medical personnel provided critical support in field hospitals and medical units
Logistics and Supply Indian soldiers and labourers were involved in building roads, railways, bridges, and other infrastructure in war-affected regions.
Financial Support Loans and contributions to the British war fund.
War Production Indian industries were mobilized for war production, manufacturing ammunition, arms, equipment, and supplies needed for the war effort.
Sacrifices and Casualties Over 1.3 million Indian soldiers served during the war, and approximately 74,000 Indian soldiers lost their lives, while many others were wounded or went missing in action.

Liaquat-Nehru Pact

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: IE

 Context: The Liaquat-Nehru Pact was a post-Partition agreement between India and Pakistan in 1950. The pact aimed to address the treatment of minorities in both countries and provide them with equal rights and security.

  • However, the pact became a point of contention for Syama Prasad Mookerjee, a member of the Hindu Mahasabha and a part of Nehru’s first Union Cabinet.
  • June 23rd is the 70th death anniversary of Syama Prasad Mookerjee


About the Liaquat-Nehru Pact

Dimension Description
Name Nehru-Liaquat Pact (also called Delhi Pact) was signed on April 8, 1950, between Jawaharlal Nehru (Prime Minister of India) and Liaquat Ali Khan (Prime Minister of Pakistan)
Purpose Establish a framework for the treatment of minorities in India and Pakistan
Background Communal tensions and violence during the Partition of India in 1947
Provisions of the Pact
  ·        Refugees were allowed to return safe and unmolested to dispose of their property.

·        Abducted women and looted property were to be returned.

·        Forced conversions were derecognized.

·        Minority rights were confirmed.

·        Setting up minority commissions in both India and Pakistan

·        Countries to ensure complete equality of citizenship for minorities in both countries

·        Countries will guarantee freedom of movement within each country, freedom of occupation, speech, and worship for minorities


Why did Syama Prasad Mookerjee resign?

He resigned from the Union cabinet (Minister for Industry and Supply) due to his disagreement with the controversial Nehru-Liaquat Pact, which he believed would leave Hindus in East Bengal at the mercy of the Pakistani state and go against his vision of a divided Bengal with West Bengal for Hindu Bengalis.

  • He also opposed special status to Jammu and Kashmir. His famous slogan was “Ek desh mein do Vidhan, do Pradhan aur Do Nishan nahi chalenge” (trans: “One country cannot have two constitutions, two prime ministers and two flags”), referring to the provisions of Article 370.

Technology Facilitated Gender Based Violence (TFGBV)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: LM

Context:  India’s Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) is being updated as the Digital India Bill.

What is Technology Facilitated Gender Based Violence (TFGBV)?

Technology Facilitated Gender Based Violence (TFGBV) refers to the use of technology, such as the internet, social media platforms, or mobile devices, to perpetrate acts of violence, harassment, stalking, coercion, or abuse against individuals based on gender or sexual identity.

  • Existing social norms and the widening gender digital divide increase the vulnerability of groups already vulnerable to online violence.


Issues with the present legal framework:

  • India’s present legal frameworks are not equipped to tackle internet-based harms.
  • The Indian Penal Code, 1860, and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973, were enacted to address physical harm, but they are also being applied in the online space.
  • The Information Technology Act, 2000, was promulgated in the early days of the internet and as such unable to deal with the recent nature, forms and volume of online violence.
  • None of these laws specifically addresses the issue of gender violence in tech space.


The proposed Digital India Bill should incorporate sufficient safeguards against these types of crimes.

Lab-grown meat

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH


Context: Cell-cultivated chicken, also known as lab-grown meat, has received approval from the U.S. government for production and sale by two California-based companies.

  • This development is seen as a significant step in reducing carbon emissions associated with the global food industry.

About Cell cultivated meat:

  • Cell-cultivated meat involves isolating cells that makeup chicken meat and providing them with the necessary resources to grow and multiply in a controlled environment.
  • The process takes place in a bioreactor or cultivator. The cells are then processed with additives to enhance texture and appearance before being used in various recipes.


  • Lab-grown meat is being developed to address concerns related to emissions, land use, animal welfare, food security, and customization.
  • It has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and land use associated with traditional livestock farming.
  • It offers customization options for healthier and more sustainable alternatives.



  • Achieving consumer acceptance, reducing costs, and ensuring the availability of high-quality cells and resources for production.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) has signed sub-licence agreements with some Indian companies, as well as an Indonesian firm to produce generic versions of the cancer drug Nilotinib.

  • Nilotinib, used for treating chronic myeloid leukaemia, is currently marketed by Novartis under the brand name Tasigna.


About Medicines Patent Pool:

The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is a United Nations-backed public health organisation working to increase access to and facilitate the development of, life-saving medicines for low- and middle-income countries.


Significance of the move:

  • This move is expected to make cancer treatment more affordable and accessible to patients in low- and middle-income countries, providing a much-needed treatment option for those diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia.

Chiral Bose-liquid state

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: Recent research suggests that the chiral Bose-liquid state could be a completely new form of matter.

  • Typically, matter exists in solid, liquid, or gas states. However, at extremely low temperatures or within the quantum realm, matter behaves differently.


About Quantum states of matter:

  • Quantum states of matter exhibit unique behaviours distinct from our familiar solid, liquid, and gaseous states.
  • Frustrated quantum systems, in particular, involve the interactions of particles leading to infinite possibilities. In these systems, collisions can produce unexpected outcomes, such as levitating or defying traditional angles.


How it was formed:

The chiral bose-liquid state is formed by bringing two layers of a special material very close together at very low temperatures (close to absolute Zero). One layer has an abundance of electrons, while the other layer has “holes” where electrons can go. When these layers are brought together, a local imbalance is created, causing electrons to not have enough holes to fill. This imbalance triggers the formation of the chiral bose-liquid state, which has unique properties and behaviours.


This unique state allows electrons to freeze into predictable patterns, exhibit resilience to changes in spin (a characteristic of subatomic particles), and synchronize their movements.


Why it is called ‘Chiral’?

The term “chiral” refers to a property in physics where an object or system cannot be superimposed onto its mirror image. In the context of the chiral bose-liquid state, the term “chiral” is used because the electrons in the chiral bose-liquid state move or behave differently compared to their mirror-image counterparts, leading to unique and asymmetric characteristics.


Application: The state could be useful for encryption technology in the future.

Cord blood banking

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: Recently, many actresses have chosen to preserve their baby’s cord blood.


About Cord Blood:

  • Cord blood is a rich source of stem cells that can potentially be used in the treatment of certain blood, immune, and metabolic disorders.
  • Private stem cell banking companies offer community or social banking options where stored cord blood is accessible to registered individuals.
  • These community banks have a larger pool of donors, increasing the chances of finding a match for patients in need.

The use of cord blood in transplants has declined in recent years, with haploidentical transplants (It uses healthy, blood-forming cells from a half-matched family member donor to replace the unhealthy ones) becoming more common and successful. While emerging technologies may improve the utilization of cord blood in the future, the present trend shows the under-utilization of stored cord blood.

Drugs harmful to vultures

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: DTE

 Context: The ban on veterinary drugs aceclofenac and ketoprofen, which are harmful to vultures, has been widely supported by vulture conservationists and experts.


About Vultures:

  • Vultures are medium- to large-sized birds of prey. They are known for eating carrion (the bodies of dead animals).



  • CITES: Appendix II
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972:Schedule I
  • IUCN
Vulture Species Conservation Status
White-rumped vulture Critically Endangered
Slender-billed vulture Critically Endangered
Long-billed vulture Critically Endangered
Red-headed vulture Critically Endangered
Egyptian vulture Endangered
Himalayan Griffon Near Threatened
Cinereous vulture Near Threatened
Bearded vulture Near Threatened
Griffon vulture Least Concern

Conservation Initiatives:

  • National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) has approved an Action Plan for Vulture Conservation 2020-2025. Key highlights of the plan include,
  • Vulture Conservation Centre
  • Vulture Safe zone
  • Rescue Centres: Establishment of four rescue centres, in Pinjore (Haryana), Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), Guwahati (Assam) and Hyderabad (Telangana). There are currently no dedicated rescue centres for treating vultures.
  • Toxic Drugs: A system to automatically remove a drug from veterinary use if it is found to be toxic to vultures with the help of the Drugs Controller General of India.
  • Vultures Census
  • Database on Threats to Vultures

Guwahati (Assam)


Source: ANI

The Ambubachi Mela 2023, a four-day-long festival, started on June 22 at the Kamakhya temple in Guwahati. The Mela marks the annual menstruation of the presiding Goddess in the Kamakhya Temple. Kamakhya is one of the 51 Shakti Peethas, representing a body part of Sati, Lord Shiva’s companion


Assam is known for its wildlife, archaeological sites and tea plantations. Umananda Temple sits on Peacock Island in the Brahmaputra River. The ancient pilgrimage site of Hajo and Madan Kamdev, the ruins of a temple complex, lie nearby the capital Dispur.


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