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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. 16th Finance Commission
  2. Strengthening the Integrated Child Development Services scheme


GS Paper 3:

  1. Consequences of subsidies
  2. The Maritime India Vision, 2030


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Justice Clocks
  2. “Julley Ladakh” (Hello Ladakh)


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Tamil Nadu withdraws general consent accorded to CBI
  2. Skill Impact Bond initiative
  3. Memorial wall for fallen United Nations peacekeepers
  4. Agri Min issues draft guidelines for registration of bio-stimulants
  5. Wind Energy in India
  6. New Species of Sea Lettuce
  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  8. Saturn’s moon Enceladus



  1. First Janjatiya Khel Mahotsav



  1. Ratnagiri district (Maharashtra)
  2. Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu)



16th Finance Commission

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies


Source: TH

 Context: Soon the government will appoint a Finance Commission to determine how much of the Centre’s tax revenue should be given away to States (the vertical share) and how to distribute that among States (the horizontal sharing formula).


What is the Finance Commission?

  • It is a constitutional body constituted every 5 years by the President of India under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution to define the Centre-states financial relations.
  • The First Commission was established in 1951 under The Finance Commission (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1951.
  • Individual commissions operate under the terms of reference (ToR) which are different for every commission, and they define the terms of qualification, appointment and disqualification, the term, eligibility and powers of the Finance Commission.
  • As per the constitution, the Commission consists of a chairman and four other members.


Each FC is required to make recommendations on:

  • Sharing of central taxes with states,
  • Distribution of central grants to states,
  • Measures to improve the finances of states to supplement the resources of panchayats and municipalities, and
  • Any other matter referred to it.


Why is there a need for an FC?

  • The Indian federal system allows for the division of power including the taxation powers between the Centre (collects the majority of the tax revenue) and states (responsible for delivering public goods in their areas).
  • Sometimes, this (and also due to vast regional disparities) leads to states incurring expenditures higher than the revenue generated by them.
  • To address these imbalances, the FC recommends the extent of central funds to be shared with states.
  • In the pre-reform period, the FC recommendations were not that critical because the Centre had other ways to compensate States (such as plan financing).
  • Post-reforms (after 1991), fresh PSU investments have been reduced and the Planning Commission was abolished in 2014 making FC the sole architect/balancing wheel of India’s fiscal federalism.



Issues with the horizontal distribution:

  • The ToR of the 15th FC became quite contentious because it referred to the 2011 population figures in determining the expenditure needs of a State.
  • This was a departure from the standard practice to use the 1971 population numbers.
  • States (particularly the southern States) which had done well in stabilising population growth rates, protested against this change calling it a ‘penalty for good performance’.


Issues with the revenue deficit grants that the FC awards to States:

  • The rationale of revenue deficit grants is that every State should be able to provide a minimum level of service to its residents.
  • Historically, FCs have struggled to determine how much a State’s deficit is due to its fiscal incapacity and how much is due to fiscal irresponsibility.
  • They have tried to tweak the distribution formula to support deficit States without penalising responsible States.


Areas on which the 16th FC should concentrate:

  • Horizontal distribution:
    • The very nature of the horizontal distribution is that richer States compensate poorer States.
    • The challenge of the government before defining the ToR of the 16th FC is to ensure that this happens without further deepening the divide between States (North-South).
  • Restraining levying of cesses and surcharges:
    • Raising taxes is the obvious choice for increasing revenue, but doing so would require the Centre to provide the States 41 paise (for every Rs raised).
    • On the other hand, it gets to retain every rupee if it raises it through a surcharge.
    • The FC should specify conditions under which cesses and surcharges may be imposed as well as a mechanism for capping the amount that may be raised.
  • Restraint on freebies
    • In theory, the restraints imposed by the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act should have acted as a check on such populist spending.
    • Governments have, however, devised innovative methods to increase debt without it showing up in the budget books.
    • The FC, in the interest of long-term fiscal sustainability, should lay down guidelines on the spending on freebies.


Insta Links:

Centre to roll out process to set up 16th Finance Commission soon


Mains Links:

How have the recommendations of the 14th France Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position? (UPSC 2021)


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2014)

Q.Which of the following are associated with ‘Planning’ in India?

  1. The Finance Commission
  2. The National Development Council
  3. The Union Ministry of Rural Development
  4. The Union Ministry of Urban Development
  5. The Parliament

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 5 only
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5


Ans: 3

Strengthening the Integrated Child Development Services scheme

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Government policies and programme: Health


Context: The article emphasizes the need to strengthen the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme in India to address issues of malnutrition and health among children.

Status of malnutrition in India:

For under 5 years, stunting has reduced from 38.4% to 35.5%, Wasting has reduced from 21% to 19.3% and Underweight prevalence has reduced from 35.8% to 32.1% (As per NFHS-5 (2019-21) vs NFHS-4 (2015-16))


About ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services):

AboutThe ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development. It was launched in 1975, to break the inter-generational cycle of malnutrition.
Major Objectives of ICDS·        To improve the nutritional and health status of children aged 0-6 years

·        Promote proper psychological, physical, and social development of the child

·        Reduce mortality, morbidity, malnutrition, and school dropout rates

·        Coordinate policy and implementation among various departments for child development

·        Enhance the capability of mothers to meet the health and nutritional needs of their children.

·        Empower adolescent girls to become self-reliant and aware citizens


Schemes Under ICDS
Anganwadi Services SchemeProvides services for early childhood care and development, including supplementary nutrition, preschool education, health check-ups, and referral services.
Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana YojanaProvides cash incentives to pregnant women and lactating mothers during pregnancy and lactation.
National Creche SchemeOffers daycare facilities for children of working women aged 6 months to 6 years, including nutrition, education, and health services.
Scheme for Adolescent GirlsEmpowers out-of-school girls through nutrition, life skills, and education, aiming to improve their social status.
Child Protection SchemeAims to improve the well-being and protection of children in difficult circumstances, reducing vulnerabilities to abuse and exploitation.
POSHAN AbhiyaanTargets the reduction of malnutrition and undernutrition in children, with a focus on adolescent girls, pregnant women, and lactating mothers.
Services provided under ICDS·        Supplementary nutrition (SNP).

·        Non-formal preschool education (PSE).

·        Immunisation.

·        Health check-up.

·        Referral services.

·        Nutrition and Health Education (NHE)


Significance of ICDS

  • Interventions focusing on nutrition, education, and health during early childhood, such as ICDS, can significantly improve human capital, particularly in developing countries.
  • The ICDS has a positive impact on cognitive achievements, especially among girls and those from economically disadvantaged families.
  • Children who were exposed to ICDS during the first three years of life completed more grades of schooling than those who were not.



Challenges with ICDS:


  • Overworked: Anganwadi workers are frequently stretched beyond their limits.
  • Variations: There is a significant variation in the implementation of the ICDS and the level of skills of Anganwadi workers
  • Jurisdictions: Anganwadi worker recruitment falls under the jurisdiction of State governments. This sometimes creates coordination issues between the centre and the state.
  • Quality of Services: inadequate infrastructure, lack of trained and motivated personnel, and insufficient availability of essential supplies and equipment.
  • Supplementary Nutrition: There have been instances of “nutrition interruption,” where beneficiaries were not provided with supplementary nutrition for the recommended 300 days a year.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation issues: E.g., inadequate data collection, limited capacity for data analysis, and a lack of timely feedback and corrective measures.
  • Urban-Rural Disparity: ICDS implementation faces specific challenges in urban areas, where population density, migration, and a lack of adequate infrastructure pose hurdles in reaching and delivering services to vulnerable populations


Measures to improve ICDS implementation include:

  • empowering Anganwadi workers by increasing their numbers
  • providing specialized training
  • improving infrastructure and resources
  • strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems
  • promoting community participation and awareness
  • enhancing coordination among departments
  • utilizing technology and innovation for efficient program management



Empowering Anganwadi workers in India strengthens ICDS by improving health and education outcomes for children, reducing malnutrition, enabling easy implementation, creating job opportunities for women, and optimizing resource allocation. It is a crucial step in unlocking the full potential of ICDS.


Insta Links

 Integrated Child Development Scheme


Mains Links

Discuss the pitfalls in ICDS and Poshan Abhiyan interventions as a cause of concern in so far eradicating nutritional deficiency in mother and child in India. What interventions would you suggest to overcome these pitfalls? (250 Words)


Prelims Links

  1. Which of the following can be said to be essentially the parts of ‘Inclusive Governance’? ( UPSC 2012)
  2. Permitting Non-Banking Financial Companies to do banking
  3. Establishing effective District Planning Committees in all the districts
  4. Increasing the government spending on public health
  5. Strengthening the Mid-day Meal Scheme


Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4


Ans: C

/ 16 June 2023, Today's Article

Consequences of subsidies

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Indian Economy and related issues/ Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies


Source: DTE

 Context: A new World Bank report highlights the negative consequences of inefficiently subsidising agriculture, fishing and fossil fuel sectors.


Highlights of the report:

  • Subsidies in the 3 areas (generally considered to bail out economies in crises) exceeded $7 trillion, equivalent to 8% of the global gross domestic product (GDP).
  • In 2021, countries shelled out $577 billion to actively lower the price of polluting fuels such as oil, gas, and coal.
  • Agricultural subsidies (over $1 trillion globally) are targeted at farmers for buying specific inputs or growing particular crops.
    • However, these subsidies tend to favour wealthier farmers, even when programs are designed to be targeted to reach the poor.
  • The fisheries sector receives 35.4 billion per year in subsidies and about $22.2 billion contributes to overfishing.


Negative implications of subsidies:

  • Exacerbate climate change: For example, fossil fuel subsidies incentivise the overuse of fossil fuels → lead to air pollutionhigh health burden.
  • Dwindling fish stocks.
  • Inefficient subsidy usage: It is responsible for ~17% of all nitrogen pollution in water in the past 30 years → Health impacts reducing labour productivity by up to 3.5%.



Positive implications of reducing subsidies: For example, a US$0.10 per litre increase in the average annual retail price of diesel may be associated with a decrease of 2.2 μg/m3 in the average annual concentration of PM2.5.



  • Demand for energy is less responsive to prices.
  • Cleaner alternatives are not easily accessible and are sometimes not affordable.


Way ahead:

  • These subsidies could be repurposed to finance just transition activities or to provide a better quality of life, as they have far-reaching impacts on the environment.
  • Diverting these subsidies to the financial allotments made towards commitments made under the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  • Ensuring the availability and affordability of clean technologies, addressing information and capacity constraints, and addressing behavioural biases are ways to increase the effectiveness of subsidy reform.


Conclusion: There is an urgent need to redirect these subsidies to unlock significant funds for sustainable purposes.


Insta Links:

Understanding Subsidies in India


Mains LInks:

In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss. (UPSC 2015)

The Maritime India Vision, 2030

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Infrastructure (Ports)


Source: IE

 Context: The global recognition of the operational efficiencies of Indian ports is an important step in India’s endeavour to become a global maritime power as envisaged in the Maritime India Vision (MIV), 2030.


Global recognition of the Indian maritime/shipping sector:

  • In the WB’s Logistic Performance Index (LPI) Report 2023, India has moved up to 22nd rank in the global rankings on the “International Shipments” category from the 44th position in 2014.
  • The country has secured 38th rank on the LPI score.


The reason for the improved performance:

  • Substantial reduction in the dwell time at Indian ports: Dwell time (the amount of time vessels spend in port actively loading or unloading cargo) has reached an optimum level of about 3 days only as compared to 7 in the US and 10 in Germany.
  • Improvement in port operational efficiency: The country’s average turnaround time (TRT) of only 0.9 days is amongst the best in the world (in Germany it is 1.4 days, in the US 1.5 days).


What’s behind improved performance?

  • Large investments in the upgradation of infrastructure in the ports and shipping sector in the past few years.
    • As a result, the capacity at 12 major ports in the country has increased from 871 million metric tonnes (MMT) in 2015 to 1,617 MMT in 2023.
  • Consistent focus on:
    • Improvements in port efficiency and productivity through reforms,
    • Induction of new technologies,
    • A greater thrust on public-private partnership (~150% increase in the value of operationalisation of PPP projects),
    • An overall commitment to the ease of doing business, and
    • Decarbonisation (14-fold increase in the use of renewable energy in major ports) along with the Panchamrit commitments.


Key policy and legislative reforms:

  • The Harit Sagar Green Port guidelines: It aims to bring about a paradigm shift towards safe, efficient and sustainable ports while implementing sound environmental practices among all stakeholders.
  • The National Logistics Portal (Marine): It is a single-window digital platform for all stakeholders including those engaged in cargo services, carrier services, banking and financial services, and government and regulatory agencies.
  • The Sagar Setu app: Facilitates seamless movement of goods and services in ports while substantially enhancing the ease of doing business.
  • The Major Port Authorities Act, 2021: It grants greater autonomy to major ports.
  • The Marine Aids to Navigation Act, 2021: It provides for increased safety and efficiency in vessel traffic services and training and certification at par with international standards.
  • The Indian Vessels Act, 2021: It brings uniformity in law and standardised provisions across all inland waterways in the country.
  • The Indian Ports Act, 1908: The government is in the process of replacing this with a piece of legislation that is in tune with present-day requirements.


What is MIV 2030?

  • To develop global standard ports in India, the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways under the MIV 2030 has identified initiatives such as
    • Developing world-class Mega Ports,
    • Transhipment hubs and
    • Infrastructure modernization of ports.
  • It estimates the investments to the tune of 1,00,000-1,25,000 crore for capacity augmentation and development of world-class infrastructure at Indian Ports.


Insta Links:

Draft Indian Port Bill


Mains Links:

Adoption of the PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free of criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model. (UPSC 2013)

Justice Clocks

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: PIB

Electronic signage systems called Justice Clocks have been installed in the court complexes of High Courts. These clocks aim to inform stakeholders about key court-related parameters and provide a bird’s eye view of court-related data. The initiative is expected to increase awareness among the public about the judicial process.


Usage: The initiative can be highlighted in Polity /Ethics questions.

“Julley Ladakh” (Hello Ladakh)

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: PIB

The Indian Navy is conducting an outreach program called “Julley Ladakh” (Hello Ladakh) to increase awareness about the navy in the Ladakh region and engage with youth and civil society. This initiative is part of the Navy’s efforts to connect with different regions of India, following successful programs in the North East and coastal states.


Other objectives are:

  • Celebrating 75 years of Indian Independence
  • Conducting awareness drives at schools and colleges to promote career opportunities in the Indian Navy
  • Motivating youth to join the navy
  • Showcasing women officers and spouses as part of the “Nari Shakti” initiative
  • Interacting with naval veterans and Veer Naris (war widows) in the region.


Usage: Such initiatives highlight the responsibility of Armed forces to actively engage with local communities. This can be quoted in Internal security questions.

Tamil Nadu withdraws general consent accorded to CBI

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE


Context: The state government of Tamil Nadu has decided to withdraw the general consent granted to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) to conduct investigations in the state.

  • This move comes shortly after the arrest of Tamil Nadu Minister V Senthil Balaji by the Enforcement Directorate (ED) in connection with a job racket scandal.


What is General consent accorded to the CBI?

It allows the agency to conduct investigations in a state without seeking fresh permission for each case. It facilitates seamless investigation in cases of corruption or violence involving central government employees in the state.


More about it:

Legal BasisAccording to Section 6 of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946, the State’s consent is required for the CBI to extend its investigation beyond Union Territories.
Constitutional BasisEntry 80 of the Union List, allows the extension of police powers from one State to another with permission. Also, “Police” is listed as Entry 2 in the State List under the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.
Types of ConsentGeneral Consent: When a state grants general consent to the CBI, the agency can conduct investigations in the state without seeking fresh permission for each case.
Specific Consent: If the general consent is withdrawn, the CBI needs to seek case-specific consent from the concerned state government for each investigation.
SC Judgment  (in the Advance Insurance Co. Ltd case (1970))The CBI, being a force constituted for Union Territories under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946, can investigate in the territories of the States only with their consent.
High Court powerThe withdrawal does not restrict the power of the jurisdictional High Court to order a CBI investigation.
Impact on Pending InvestigationThe withdrawal of general consent does not affect pending investigations or cases registered in another State that involve investigation leading into the territory of the state that withdrew consent.
Other states that have withdrawn the consentWest Bengal, Rajasthan, Kerala, Mizoram, Punjab, Telangana, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Meghalaya

Agri Min issues draft guidelines for registration of bio-stimulants

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: Business Standard

Context: The agriculture ministry has come out with draft guidelines specifying efficacy data and trial reports required for registration of various categories of bio-stimulants under Schedule VI of the FCO Amendment order 2021.


Bio-stimulants are defined as substances or microorganisms that stimulate plant physiological processes and enhance growth, nutrient uptake, and stress tolerance, excluding pesticides and plant growth regulators regulated under the Insecticides Act, 1968.


More about the news:

  • India has introduced separate regulations for bio-stimulants, making it one of the few countries to do so.
  • The government issued the bio-stimulant regulation through the FCO Amendment Order in 2021, requiring bio-stimulants to be registered and demonstrate efficacy before being marketed.
  • Manufacturers must submit data on chemistry, bio-efficacy trials, and toxicity for each product. The Central Bio-stimulant Committee (CBC) will evaluate toxicity data based on safe use history or bio-safety data accepted by Indian or developed country government bodies.
  • Shelf-life studies, fortification restrictions, and tolerance limits for naturally occurring elements are defined.
  • Animal testing should be minimized, and scientifically validated in-vitro methods can be accepted. The data submitted for provisional registration may not need to be resubmitted for regular registration if the composition and claims remain unchanged.

Skill Impact Bond initiative

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: BS

Context: Under the Skill Impact Bond (SIB) initiative, nearly 18,000 first-time job seekers have been skilled, with 72% of them being women


About SIB:

 The Skill Impact Bond (SIB) is India’s first development impact bond for skilling and employment.

  • Launched by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in collaboration with global partners
  • Aim: To benefit 50,000 young Indians (over 4 years), with a focus on empowering women (60% of beneficiaries)
  • It is a public-private partnership (PPP) model that emphasizes providing employment opportunities to trainees rather than just issuing training certificates.



The SIB addresses the impact of the pandemic on women and employment, removes barriers to women’s workforce retention, and leverages private sector capital and expertise. It also works towards strengthening India’s technical and vocational education ecosystem through knowledge exchange and mainstreaming good practices.


What is a Development impact bond?

A development impact bond is a financial tool that leverages private-sector funding to address social and development challenges.


Explanation using an example:

Let’s say the investors provided $1 million for the education program. If the program successfully improves literacy rates, the government might repay the investors $1.2 million, including a predetermined return on investment. However, if the program doesn’t achieve the desired outcomes, the investors may receive a lower repayment or even no repayment at all.

Memorial wall for fallen United Nations peacekeepers

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB

The United Nations General Assembly has adopted a resolution, introduced by India, to establish a memorial wall in honour of fallen peacekeepers.


Other information about UN Peacekeeping:

  • There are currently 12 UN peacekeeping operations.
  • In 1988, UN peacekeepers were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • India in collaboration with the UN launched UNITE Aware Platform (a software programme for real-time threat assessments to peacekeepers)
  • India had proposed a four-point framework with a focus on technological availability and improvement and Consistent training and capacity building for securing the UN peacekeeper’s mission.

Wind Energy in India

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB


Context: On Global Wind Day (June 15), the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy in India organized a day-long event in New Delhi to celebrate the success of wind energy adoption and explore its future potential.



  • Launch of Wind Atlas at 150 meters above ground level, prepared by National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, HQ: Chennai)
  • The onshore wind potential of the country is now estimated at 1,164 GW at 150 meters above ground level
  • Rajasthan was felicitated for achieving the highest wind capacity addition, Gujarat for achieving the highest wind capacity addition through open access and Tamil Nadu for initiating the repowering of wind turbines.


India’s Status in Wind Energy:

  • India ranks fourth in wind power capacity in the world.
  • India currently has 4 GW of prospective projects in wind energy.
  • India has a potential of about 60 GW of wind.
  • Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of wind energy


Government’s initiatives: National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy (2018) and National Offshore wind energy policy (2015)


India’s overall renewable targets: 

Wind energy is crucial to India’s efforts to achieve its goal of having 50% of its electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030 and to achieve Net Zero by 2070. India is fully committed to achieving the target of 500 GW of renewable energy capacity by the year 2030

New Species of Sea Lettuce

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


 Context: Researchers discover 20 New Species of Sea Lettuce in the Baltic Sea Region.


About Sea Lettuce:

Belonging to the genus Ulva, sea lettuce is a prominent species of green macroalgae, scattered widely across the vast Baltic Sea region, stretching from the Atlantic waters to the Bay of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea.



  • Owing to its rapid growth and easy reproduction, sea lettuce has piqued the interest of the growing aquaculture industry.
  • Research is ongoing both in Sweden and abroad for utilizing sea lettuce in the food industry and for different biochemical applications.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses magnetic pulses applied to the scalp to stimulate the brain.

  • It has shown promise in reversing brain changes and providing rapid relief to severely depressed patients who have not responded to standard treatments.


How rTMS works:

  • rTMS works by generating electromagnetic pulses through a coil placed on the scalp, which modulates the cortical activity of the brain.
  • The mechanism of action for rTMS involves increasing neuronal activity and changing the strength of connections between different brain areas. The electromagnetic pulses create electrical currents in the brain tissue and affect the membrane potential of brain cells.



  • Studies have indicated that rTMS may alleviate depression by reversing abnormal signalling patterns between brain regions. It has also been found effective in reducing symptoms of various neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • The S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved rTMS as a treatment for clinical depression in 2008.
  • rTMS has also been investigated as a potential treatment for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Saturn’s moon Enceladus

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: Live Mint


Context: A new study reported that phosphorus, a key chemical element for many biological processes, has been found in icy grains emitted by Enceladus, the small moon of Saturn.

  • NASA’s Cassini space probe, which has been studying Saturn and its moons for 13 years, has made a significant discovery.



  • This finding is significant because phosphorus is a crucial building block for DNA and is essential for life as we know it. The concentrations of phosphates in Enceladus’ ocean waters were found to be at least 100 times higher than those in Earth’s oceans.
  • This discovery suggests that the ocean on Enceladus could potentially support life and meets the strict requirements for life as we understand it.

Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu)


Source: PIB

The Women 20 (W20) Summit, with the theme of “Women-Led Development: Transform, Thrive and Transcend,” took place in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. Under India’s presidency, the summit aimed to enhance grassroots-level participation and citizen engagement in the W20 process.


Mamallapuram is a town on the Coromandel coast in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It’s known for its temples and monuments built by the Pallava dynasty in the 7th and 8th centuries (UNESCO world heritage sites). The seafront Shore Temple comprises 3 ornate granite shrines.

First Janjatiya Khel Mahotsav



The first Janjatiya Khel Mahotsav, a grand sporting event jointly hosted by the Ministry of Culture, the Odisha Government, and KIIT University, concluded in Bhubaneswar.

Janjatiya Khel Mahotsav is a sporting event organized to celebrate the athletic prowess of tribal communities in India. It aims to promote and showcase traditional sports and cultural heritage of tribals on a national platform.

Odisha emerged as the overall champion in both the men’s and women’s categories. The event witnessed the participation of 5,000 tribal athletes and 1,000 officials from 26 states. Odisha excelled in sports like rugby, hockey, kabaddi, football, and kho kho. The success of the event showcased Odisha’s growing status as a sports hub in India.


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