Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Context: This year marks the 30th anniversary of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
About the convention:
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (VDPA) is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria.
Main features of declaration:
- It affirmed the universality, indivisibility and interdependency of human rights.
- Vienna’s Right of self-determination to freely determine their political status, and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development
- Fight against impunity, including the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC).
- The position of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rightswas recommended by this Declaration and subsequently created by General Assembly
- World Conference on Human Rights recommended that each State consider the desirability of drawing up a national action plan for the protection of human rights
- United Nations Human Rights Councilholds regular debates (under its agenda item 8) on follow-up
The declaration reaffirms the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) of 1948. Throughout 2023, UN Human Rights is celebrating the Human Rights 75 initiative to nudge countries to fulfil the promises of the Universal Declaration.
About UDHR (1948):
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted in 1948, sets out a common standard of human rights for people worldwide, regardless of their nationality, race, religion, or other status. It consists of two treaties i.e. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) adopted in 1966. Together with UDHR, ICCPR and ICESCR comprise the International Bill of Human Rights.
India has ratified both ICCPR and ICESCR.
Note: Don’t confuse this with Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations