Context: Iran and Afghanistan are engaged in a long-standing dispute over the sharing of water from the Helmand River.
Both countries rely on the Helmand River as a vital water source for agriculture, livelihoods, and ecosystems in the region.
The dispute: Iran accuses Afghanistan of violating its water rights, claiming that it receives far less water than agreed upon in a 1973 treaty. Afghanistan, on the other hand, attributes the reduced water flow to climatic factors such as a shortage of rainfall.
About Helmand River
It is the longest river in Afghanistan and the primary watershed for the Endorheic Sistan Basin. It emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains. It is separated from the watershed of the Kabul River by the Unai Pass.