Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Context: South Africa is considering its legal options regarding a war crimes arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC) against Russian President Vladimir Putin.
- As a member of the ICC, South Africa would be obligated to arrest Putin if he attended a summit of the BRICS countries in Johannesburg.
Why did the International Criminal Court issue the warrants?
The court says Putin bears individual criminal responsibility for the abduction and deportation of Ukrainian children since Russia’s full-scale invasion.
About International Criminal Court:
|Creation||Established under the 1998 Rome Statute as a permanent international criminal court; HQ: The Hague, the Netherlands.|
|Members||123 countries party to the Rome Statute|
|Purpose||Investigates and tries individuals charged with war crimes, genocide, crime of aggression and crimes against humanity|
|Jurisdiction||Covers crimes committed on or after July 1, 2002|
|Structure||Four main organs: Assembly of States Parties, Presidency, Judicial Divisions, and Registry|
|Languages||Official languages: English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish|
|Limitations||No police force or enforcement body; depends on state cooperation|
|Controversies||Accused of bias and Western imperialism; faced sanctions from the USA|
|Relationship with UN||Not part of the United Nations system, but has a cooperation agreement with the UN|
|Relationship with ICJ||Separate from the International Court of Justice (ICJ)|
|India’s Membership Status||India is not a party to the Rome Statute and is not a member of the ICC (along with China and USA); the USA signed the statute but never ratified it.|
|Reasons for Non-Membership of India||State sovereignty, national interests, difficulties in evidence collection and impartiality|