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NAFIS

 

Source: HT

Context: The Ministry of Home Affairs in India has directed central law enforcement agencies, including the CBI, NIA and the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB), to access and share their records with the national fingerprints database, NAFIS (National Automated Fingerprint Identification System).

  

About NAFIS

This database, known as NAFIS, is a web-based application that serves as a central repository of criminal fingerprint data collected from various states and Union territories.

Description
About National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS) is a web-based application that serves as a central repository of criminal fingerprint data collected from various states and Union territory’s police records
AimThe aim is to enhance the ability of these agencies to identify criminals and expedite investigations by leveraging the comprehensive fingerprint data available in the database.
Conceptualized National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) in 2022
Managed byCentral Fingerprint Bureau (CFPB) at NCRB
Unique IdentifierAssigns a unique 10-digit National Fingerprint Number (NFN) to each person arrested for a crime
Lifetime UsageThe NFN is used for the person’s lifetime, and different crimes registered under different FIRs are linked to the same NFN in the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) database
Fingerprinting HistoryFirst began automating fingerprint database in 1992 with FACTS 1.0, recommended by the National Police Commission. FACTS 5.0 was upgraded in 2007 and later replaced by NAFIS in 2022
Historical SignificanceFingerprinting identification system emerged in colonial India and spread to Europe. William Herschel introduced fingerprinting to reduce fraud and forgeries. Bengal Police established the world’s first Fingerprint Bureau in Calcutta.
AdvantagesProvides a secure and non-transferable identification method, simplifies record keeping, and enhances security.
DisadvantagesSystem failures, implementation and maintenance costs, and limitations for certain populations, such as those with worn prints or missing fingers

 

About NCRB

 The National Crime Records Bureau (founded 1986; HQ: Delhi) is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing, crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code and Special and Local Laws. It comes under the Ministry of Home Affairs.