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Manufactured sand (M-Sand)


Source: BS

 Context: The Rajasthan government has announced its support for the use of manufactured sand (M-Sand) as a cost-effective and convenient alternative to river sand


  • As per the M-Sand Rajasthan policy introduced in 2021, it is mandatory to use at least 25% M-Sand in government construction projects.
  • M-Sand units have been granted industrial status, allowing them to benefit from the Rajasthan Industrial Promotion Scheme (RIPS) 2019, which includes subsidies and concessions on taxes and fees.


What is M sand?

M-Sand, or Manufactured Sand, is an alternative to natural river sand used in construction. It is produced by crushing rocks or quarry stones to obtain sand particles of consistent size and shape.



It has similar properties to natural sand, making it suitable for various construction purposes. It is cost-effective, readily available, and reduces the need for mining natural sand.

It also requires less water for construction projects as it does not need to be washed before use.


Differences between M-Sand and natural sand:

AspectM-SandNatural Sand
Particle ShapeCubic form, enhancing bondingFlaky, sharp, and angular grains
Silt ContentZero silt contentSilt content ranging from 3-20%
Quality ControlManufactured in a controlled environmentNo strict control, and variations in silt content
Concrete StrengthHigh concrete strengthLower concrete strength
AvailabilityRequires production and availability may varyNaturally occurring, availability depends on the riverbed
Environmental ImpactReduces the need for natural sand mining, repurposes waste materialsThis can lead to environmental degradation, habitat destruction, and water scarcity
Cost-effectivenessCan be more cost-effective as it can be produced in large quantities at a lower costCost may vary based on availability and location


Sand is classified as a ‘minor mineral’ under Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulations) Act, 1957, and administrative control vests with State Governments. Sustainable Sand Mining Management Guidelines 2016, issued by MoEFCC, encourages scientific sand mining and environmentally friendly management method.