Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Context: International Day for Biological Diversity, celebrated on May 22 each year, is a reminder of the promise made during Kunming Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) (December 2022)
About the News:
|About International Day for Biological Diversity||The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1993 proclaimed 22nd May as IDB to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues.
· 2011-2020: United Nations (UN) Decade on Biodiversity
· 2021-2030: UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration
|Theme for 2023||“From Agreement to Action: Build Back Biodiversity”|
|About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)||It is a non-binding international agreement that calls for urgent and integrated action to address biodiversity considerations in all sectors of the global economy.|
|Main Targets||The framework consists of four goals and 23 targets for 2030. The four goals are: 1. Conserve and restore biodiversity. 2. Ensure sustainable use of biodiversity. 3. Share benefits fairly and equitably. 4. Enable transformative change.|
|30 by 30 Target||One of the important targets is to make 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans protected status by 2030.|
|Issues in meeting the targets||· Lack of Political will (similar targets set under the previous Aichi Biodiversity Targets in 2011 were not met by 2020);
· Funding Gap (Developed countries were supposed to provide $20 billion in international finance to developing nations by 2025 and $30 billion by 2030)- not yet functional
· Non-alignment of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (NBSAPs) with the GBF (only Spain has submitted the realigned NBSAP; even India has not done so)
· Experts argue that the ‘targets of protection of 30% of land and water’, may infringe upon the rights of indigenous peoples.