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World Biodiversity Day 2023

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: DTE

 Context: International Day for Biological Diversity, celebrated on May 22 each year, is a reminder of the promise made during Kunming Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) (December 2022)


About the News:

About International Day for Biological DiversityThe United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1993 proclaimed 22nd May as IDB to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues.


·        2011-2020: United Nations (UN) Decade on Biodiversity

·        2021-2030: UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration

Theme for 2023“From Agreement to Action: Build Back Biodiversity”
About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework  (GBF)It is a non-binding international agreement that calls for urgent and integrated action to address biodiversity considerations in all sectors of the global economy.
Main TargetsThe framework consists of four goals and 23 targets for 2030. The four goals are: 1. Conserve and restore biodiversity. 2. Ensure sustainable use of biodiversity. 3. Share benefits fairly and equitably. 4. Enable transformative change.
30 by 30 TargetOne of the important targets is to make 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans protected status by 2030.
Issues in meeting the targets·        Lack of Political will (similar targets set under the previous Aichi Biodiversity Targets in 2011 were not met by 2020);

·        Funding Gap (Developed countries were supposed to provide $20 billion in international finance to developing nations by 2025 and $30 billion by 2030)- not yet functional

·        Non-alignment of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (NBSAPs) with the GBF (only Spain has submitted the realigned NBSAP; even India has not done so)

·        Experts argue that the ‘targets of protection of 30% of land and water’, may infringe upon the rights of indigenous peoples.