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Pangenome Map

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: A pangenome reference map has been built using genomes from 47 anonymous individuals from Africa, the Caribbean, the Americas, East Asia, and Europe.


About Pangenome Map

What is Pangenome Map?A pangenome map is a way of looking at the collective genetic information of a group of related organisms or species. It goes beyond just one individual’s genetic makeup and considers the genetic diversity within that group.
What is genome and genome sequencing?The human genome refers to the entire set of DNA in the nucleus of every cell in the human body. It is like an identity card (e.g., Aadhar) unique to each individual. Genome sequencing is a method used to determine the precise order and arrangement of the four letters (A, T, G, and C) in the genome. It helps us understand human diversity at the genetic level and our susceptibility to certain diseases.
What is a reference genome?A reference genome is a complete set of genetic information for a specific individual. When newly sequenced genomes are compared, they are matched against a reference map called a reference genome.
How pangenome map is different from the Reference genome?While a reference genome represents a single individual, a pangenome map captures the genetic diversity and variation across multiple individuals or populations.
PrincipleThe concept of a pangenome acknowledges that a species’ genome is not a fixed entity and is different for different individuals. This genetic variation contributes to differences in traits, disease susceptibility, and other biological characteristics.
Why is a pangenome map important?A pangenome map provides a comprehensive understanding of a species’ genetic content.  This helps explain genetic differences, and human diversity, study gene evolution, identify disease-associated genes, and understand the overall genomic architecture of a species.


This can shed light on disease prevalence, aid in discovering new genes for rare diseases, design better diagnostic methods, and facilitate the discovery of novel drugs for those diseases.

Pangenome map and IndiaThe current pangenome map does not include genome sequences from Indians. However, it can still help map Indian genomes against existing error-free and complete reference genomes.