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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Quad cooperation in biotechnology


GS Paper 3:

  1. Indian Pharma Industry
  2. Methane mitigation policies


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Maria Mies
  2. Technophobia
  3. Ganga Prahari


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Freedom to Protest
  2. e-Malkhana
  3. Sunflower oil
  4. Arsenic contamination
  5. WHO’s advice on non-sugar sweeteners
  6. Calcium-41
  7. Cold-blooded animals
  8. INDUS-X under the iCET 
  9. NIA’s Operation Dhvast



Quad Cooperation in Biotechnology

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings Affecting India’s Interests


Source: TH

 Context: In order to give the necessary fillip to enhance Quad cooperation in biotechnology, India should be an ideal choice for the establishment of a Quad-led biomanufacturing hub.



  • In 2021, the Quad set up a Critical and Emerging Technology Working Group to facilitate cooperation related to developments in critical and emerging technologies, including biotechnology.
  • However, the Quad countries do not collaborate enough in biotechnology yet.



  • Meaning: It uses living systems, particularly microorganisms and cell cultures, to produce molecules and materials on a commercial scale.
  • Potential:
    • It can transform the global industrial system, with up to 60% of physical inputs to the global economy.
    • Countries like the US and China have designed specific policies to shape their bio-economies.


Case of India:

  • The National Biotechnology Development Strategy envisions the country as a “Global Biomanufacturing Hub” by 2025.
  • While the strategy sets a target of $100 billion for the hub, it is important to recognize that India’s ambitions require external support.


India’s strengths:

  • Existing infrastructure, pharmaceutical manufacturing expertise, and skilled manpower.
  • India is among the top performers in the field of biomanufacturing in both the quality of research and research publications.
  • India also has significant potential in low-cost biomanufacturing (33% lower than the U.S.), particularly in the production of enzymes, reagents, research materials, and equipment.



  • India still requires significant capability and capacity uplifts to become a world leader.
  • China has expressed its intention to capture this market, similar to how it dominated small-molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).
  • Such dependence on the biomanufacturing sector will be detrimental to both India and the Quad.


How does Quad complement these strengths?

  • The U.S. has significant funding capability.
  • Japan, Australia and the U.S. possess advanced biotechnology innovation ecosystems and intellectual property.


Advantages of the proposed hub for India and Quad:

  • Can help facilitate technology transfer,
  • Connect investors,
  • Establish a biomanufacturing fund that is administered through the Quad,
  • Support efforts to reduce dependency on China.


Way ahead for India:

  • Strengthening physical infrastructure.
  • A scheme on the line the PLI scheme allocated $2 billion to the pharmaceutical sector to make biopharmaceuticals, APIs, etc.
  • Boosting the workforce by enabling access to cutting-edge technology and training, with a focus on commercialising R&D.



  • The proposed hub in India can capitalise on the economic potential of the biomanufacturing industry and address existing and potential vulnerabilities in the global system.
  • Through cross-Quad collaboration, India may emerge as a major force in the field of biomanufacturing and assist the Quad in competing in this key area.


Insta Links:

India’s Biotech Sector


Mains Links:

‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)’ is the transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss. (UPSC 2020)

Indian Pharma Industry

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Industrial Growth/ Governance


Source: IE

 Context: The article emphasizes the need to improve India’s drug regulatory regime to ensure credibility in the pharmaceutical industry.


Status of India’s pharmaceutical industry:

Generic medicinesIndia is the largest manufacturer of generic medicines globally (valued at US$50bn currently and expected to reach US$130 Bn by 2030)


India’s ranking in productionIndian Pharma ranks third in pharmaceutical production by volume. India is often referred to as the ‘pharmacy of the world’


Vaccine supplierIndia is the largest vaccine supplier in the world by volume (over 50% of all vaccines manufactured in the world)


Major pharmaceutical hubs in IndiaVadodara, Ahmedabad, Ankleshwar, Vapi, Baddi, Sikkim, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Margao, Navi Mumbai, Mumbai, Pune and Aurangabad, Pithampur.



Various issues associated with regulating the pharmaceutical industry in India:

Quality control failuresInstances of contaminated medicines and substandard drugs raise concerns about product safety.Contaminated medicine causing deaths in Gambia or Uzbekistan (2022)
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)Allegations of violating IPR lawsPatent infringement case between Roche and Cipla.
Pricing and affordabilityChallenges in balancing the need for affordable medicines for the poor with the profitability of pharmaceutical companies.Concerns by pharma companies overpricing of drugs within

National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM)

Healthcare infrastructure and accessIssues related to inadequate healthcare infrastructure, uneven distribution of facilities, and low insurance coverage.Limited access to healthcare in rural areas of the country.
Global reputationMaintaining a strong global reputation as a reliable supplier of high-quality pharmaceutical products.Global Pharma Healthcare had to recall a batch of eye drops exported to the US due to links with vision loss (Feb 2021)
Regulatory frameworkIndia has 36 drug regulatory bodies causing confusion and non-effective enforcement of regulations.
Transparency and credibilityLack of public disclosure of drug application reviews.
Environmental sustainabilityE.g., Implementing green chemistry and waste reduction measures has been found to be non-existent.


In India, drugs and cosmetics are regulated by:

  • Act: Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945: It assigns various responsibilities to central and state regulators.
  • Agencies:
    • Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI): It is responsible for approving licenses for specified categories of drugs, setting standards for manufacturing, sales, import, and distribution of drugs in India, and heads the department of CDSCO.
    • Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO): It prescribes standards for ensuring the safety, efficacy, and quality of drugs, cosmetics, diagnostics, and devices. It also regulates the market authorization of new drugs and clinical trial standards.
    • National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA): It controls the pricing of pharmaceutical drugs in India


Steps that can be taken by the government:

Amend the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (1940)Modify the existing legislation to align it with current requirements and enhance regulatory oversight.
Create a centralized drug databaseEstablish a comprehensive database to facilitate effective surveillance of all pharmaceutical manufacturers.
Merge India’s 36 regional regulators Consolidate the regional regulatory authorities into a unified entity to streamline the regulatory process and reduce the risk of inconsistent enforcement.
Set common quality standards across statesImplement uniform quality standards across all states to ensure consistent product quality and reduce the risk of varying regulatory enforcement.
Increase budgetary support Allocate additional funds to strengthen inspection teams and conduct more frequent inspections related to product quality.
Impose clear penalties for firms exporting spurious drugsEstablish strict penalties for companies involved in exporting counterfeit or substandard drugs. This will deter such practices and safeguard public health.
Create a public database of safety dataDevelop a comprehensive safety database that contains information on drug-related adverse events, side effects, and other safety concerns.
Enact a national law on drug recallThis will ensure swift and effective recall processes, protecting the public from potentially harmful drugs.
Strengthen CDSCOStrengthen the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) and provide it with statutory backing
WHO’s Good Manufacturing Practice certificationPromote and incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to adhere to the WHO’s Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards.



Indian government can enhance the quality and regulation of the pharmaceutical industry through legislative amendments, centralized drug databases, and the merging of regulators. It will build confidence, ensure high-quality generics, and uphold India’s reputation as a reliable supplier, benefiting both domestic and global healthcare while protecting public health.


Insta Links:
Spurious Drug Menace


Mains Links:

India enjoys an important position in the global pharmaceuticals sector. Analyse the strength and weaknesses of India in this sector. Suggest steps to overcome the weaknesses. (250 Words)

Methane mitigation policies

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation


Source: DTE 

Context: According to a new study, only 13% of methane emissions are covered by global methane mitigation policies.

Methane (CH4)
●       A greenhouse gas (GHG) responsible for 30% of the warming since preindustrial times, second only to carbon dioxide (CO2).

●       However, it is 80 times more potent at warming than CO2.

●       Agriculture, fossil fuels as well as solid waste and wastewater are the three major sources of methane.

●       In India (3rd largest emitter of CH4) ~20% of its anthropogenic CH4 emissions come from agriculture (manure management), coal mines, municipal solid waste, etc.

●       According to the IPCC, the world must cut methane emissions by at least 30 % by 2030.

Efforts to curb methane emissions
Global Methane PledgeBoth the US and the EU have planned to cut methane emissions by 30% (by 2030) compared with the 2020 levels.According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, a nationwide strategy to boost biogas production has received significant funding.
UNEP’s International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO) strategy – To get policy-relevant data into the right hands for emissions mitigation.ICAR’s National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project: Technologies (like System for Rice Intensification, Direct Seeded Rice) were developed to reduce methane emissions. 
Methane Alert and Response System (MARS) – Launched at the COP27 to the UNFCCC in Sharm El-Sheikh, EgyptCrop Diversification Programme: Methane emissions are avoided due to the diversion of paddy to alternate crops like pulses, oilseeds, maize, cotton, and agro-forestry. 


Highlights of the study:

  • Since the 1980s, the rate of increase in methane emissions is higher than ever before.
  • Methane policies are actions by governments that explicitly aim to monitor, prevent, or reduce methane emissions from anthropogenic sources.
  • 90% of identified national policies were from three regions: North America, Europe and Asia Pacific.
  • The policies targeting fossil methane (coal, oil, and gas) are lower than biogenic methane (released by living organisms).



  • This trend has emerged despite readily available solutions to cut methane emissions from the fossil fuel sector.
  • Impact of methane mitigation policies on industries (like agriculture) important to the national economy, energy and food security or rural poverty considerations.


India-specific findings:

  • No effective policies targeting methane emissions from rice cultivation and biomass burning (burning of crop residues).
  • While policies targeting biomass burning have quite broad coverage, their implementation remains challenging.
    • For example, the 1997 Coalbed methane policy was ineffective in incentivising coalbed methane production.


Way ahead:

  • The policies should focus on super emitters, which are facilities, equipment, and other infrastructure, typically in the fossil-fuel, waste, or agriculture sectors, that emit methane at high rates.
  • While reducing livestock or rice-production-related emissions is challenging, India can contribute by reducing emissions associated with coal production.


Insta Links:

Fossil fuels firms failed to curb methane emission: What IEA’s annual report says

Maria Mies

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: IE


Maria Mies, a Marxist Feminist scholar, recently passed away. She was known for her extensive work on how patriarchy, capitalism, and colonialism exploit women and nature.


Her works:

  • Ecofeminism: She co-wrote the book “Ecofeminism” with Vandana Shiva, a scientist and activist. Ecofeminism recognizes the interconnectedness of humans with nature and women.
  • Mies’s work emphasized women’s contributions to the economy.
  • “Indian Women and Patriarchy”: In this book, she highlighted how capitalism and Patriarchy undermine women’s control over various sectors such as farming.
  • Impact of climate change on women: Climate change disproportionately impacts women, denying their knowledge and vulnerability to climate disasters.


Usage: Her works and views can be directly quoted in the Essay/Indian Society/ Sociology paper.


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: IE

Technophobia is the tendency of individuals or societies to exhibit resistance, fear, or negative attitudes toward emerging technologies.


Examples of Technophobia:

RailroadsIn the early days of railroads, some people perceived them as the work of the devil, expressing fear and concerns about the speed, vibrations, and potential health impacts associated with train travel.
Nuclear EnergyThe development of nuclear energy sparked widespread fear and worry, particularly after incidents like the Three Mile Island accident and the Chornobyl meltdown.
Artificial IntelligenceThe rapid advancement of artificial intelligence has generated fears of job displacement, loss of human control, and potential misuse of AI technology.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)Genetically modified organisms have faced resistance and criticism due to concerns about potential health risks, environmental impacts, and ethical implications of manipulating the genetic makeup of plants and animals.


Reason for “technophobia”: It can be attributed to various factors such as complexity, lack of knowledge, fear of losing control, and emotional responses.

Usage: Such terms and related examples can be used in the Essay to highlight psychological fear related to ‘new technologies’.

Ganga Prahari

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: TH

Ganga Prahari refers to the volunteers (about 4000 in number) who are part of the task force called “Guardians of the Ganga.” They are individuals who have joined the National Mission for Clean Ganga and Namami Gange initiative to protect and preserve the Ganga River in India.


Training: The Wildlife Institute of India provides training in conserving biodiversity as well as livelihood training opportunities to the volunteers.


Responsibilities: Monitoring the river, preventing littering, and reporting instances of poaching.


The United Nations in December 2022 recognised the Namami Gange initiative as one of the top 10 World Restoration Flagships involved in reviving the natural world.


Usage: This example can be quoted in the Essay/Ethics and Environment paper. Also, Ganga Prahari shows the values of Environmental Stewardship, Respect for Life, Civic Duty, Courage and Resilience, Collaboration and Community Engagement, etc.

Freedom to Protest

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Context: The Andhra Pradesh High Court recently struck down a government order that aimed to regulate public meetings, processions, and assemblies on roads, highways, and streets.


What was the issue involved?

The Andhra Pradesh government contended that its action was necessary to regulate these activities in light of recent accidents caused by processions on roads. However, the Andhra High Court struck down the government order, stating that the tradition of public meetings and assemblies holds historical, cultural, and political significance in the country.


What did Andhra HC say:

About Police Act 1861The court analyzed relevant sections of the Police Act, 1861, and concluded that they give authorities the power to regulate (e.g., in case of “road blockage”), but not completely restrict, assemblies and processions on public roads.
Fundamental RightsThe right to assemble, to protest peacefully, and to express one’s opinion freely is an important freedom which cannot be taken away.
Constitutional ProvisionArticle 19(1)(a) of the Indian Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of speech and expression. Article 19(1)(b) protects the right to assemble peaceably and without arms.
Importance of freedom of speech and democracyFreedom of speech is considered the “bulwark” of democracy and is regarded as the first in the hierarchy of liberties. It plays a crucial role in safeguarding democratic principles and ensuring open dialogue and expression of ideas.
SC guidelinesThe Supreme Court, in the case of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan vs Union of India, laid down guidelines for regulating protests and demonstrations.


These guidelines include regulating the intended number of participants, prescribing minimum distances, imposing restrictions on certain routes, and disallowing the carrying of weapons.

Protest vs StrikeProtests are broader expressions of dissent or objection by individuals or groups on various issues. Strikes, on the other hand, specifically refer to organized work stoppages by employees seeking improved labour conditions.
Right to protest vs right to strikeIn India, the right to protest is a fundamental right under Article 19 of the Constitution. However, the right to strike is not a fundamental right but a legal right, protected by specific labour laws and regulations.


Facts for Prelims:


Source: TH


Context: Visakhapatnam City police is set to introduce e-Malkhana in all police stations by June this year.

What is e-Malkhana?

e-Malkhana is a scientific storage system implemented by the Visakhapatnam Police Commissionerate to preserve and organize items and evidence recovered from crime scenes.



The system uses standardized cardboard boxes labelled with unique numbers and QR codes for easy retrieval and access to case-related information.

  • Benefits: It enhances efficiency, transparency, and the chain of custody for law enforcement officials.


Other such measures are: Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS), e-Courts, e-Prisons, National Database on Sexual Offenders (NDSO), Integrated Criminal Justice System (ICJS), etc.

Sunflower oil

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: The Ukraine-Russia war had a significant impact on sunflower oil consumption in India.


Status of Sunflower Oil:


  • Ukraine (the highest producer) and Russia account for 60% of the world’s sunflower oil production
  • Other top producers of sunflower oil globally include Ukraine, Russia, Argentina, Romania, and Bulgaria


In India:

  • Sunflower oil is the fourth most consumed edible oil in India, following mustard, soybean, and palm oil.
  • Domestic production of sunflower oil has significantly declined over the past decade, unlike soybean oil, which has expanded its cultivated area.
  • India imports a substantial amount of sunflower oil due to limited domestic production.
  • Major producers: Karnataka (highest producer in India); Telangana and Maharashtra
  • Major Consumer: Karnataka, Telangana, and Maharashtra


About Sunflower: 

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), popularly known as “Surajmukhi” (it follows the sun by day) is an annual flowering plant, native to North and Central America but is now cultivated worldwide for its versatile uses. It is known for its large, bright yellow flowers.

Sunflowers are relatively easy to grow and are adaptable to different climates and soil types. They require full sun exposure and well-drained soil. They are known for their ability to extract heavy metals from the soil, making them useful in phytoremediation efforts to clean up polluted areas.

Arsenic contamination


Source: TH


Context: A recent peer-reviewed study suggests that even low levels of arsenic consumption, commonly found in contaminated groundwater in India, can impact cognitive function in children, adolescents, and young adults.


What does the study say:

  • Arsenic exposure leads to reduced grey matter in the brain, affecting concentration, information storage, and switching between tasks.
  • At the population level, contamination leads to increased school failures, diminished economic productivity, and a higher risk of criminal and antisocial behaviour.
  • The major factor for contamination: Arsenic intake from food, primarily through rice consumption; using contaminated groundwater.


Remedy: Modifying food preparation techniques, such as cooking rice in a specific way, can significantly reduce arsenic levels; promoting piped water access and installing arsenic removal plants; encourage extraction from aquifers (water channels below the ground) that are deeper than 100 m.


About Arsenic:

Arsenic is an odourless and tasteless metalloid found naturally in the earth’s crust and groundwater. It is highly toxic in its inorganic form and can cause arsenic poisoning. Arsenicosis, the accumulation of high levels of arsenic in the body, leads to adverse health effects and can result in multi-system organ failure and death. Efforts have been made under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to provide safely managed drinking water free of arsenic contamination. The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide safe drinking water to all households in rural and urban India by 2024.

WHO’s advice on non-sugar sweeteners

Facts for Prelims:

Source: TH

 Context: The WHO’s new guidelines advise against the use of non-sugar sweeteners (NSS) as a “healthy” alternative to sugar.

Non-sugar sweeteners (NSS)
MeaningThey are marketed as low or no-calorie alternatives to free sugars which aid in weight loss, and in controlling blood glucose in individuals with diabetes.
CategoriesAspartame (to sweeten diet colas), advantame, cyclamates, neotame, saccharin (to sweeten tea or coffee), sucralose, stevia, etc.
Rise in PopularityIn 2015, when WHO said that a high intake of free sugars is linked to weight gain and obesity.


WHO’s new guidelines?NSS should not be used as a means of achieving weight control or reducing the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Long-term use of NSS could lead to increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease and cancer.
Concerns for IndiaOne in 9 women and one in 25 men are obese (NFHS5), and an estimated 25 million people living with pre-diabetes in India (WHO).
WHO’s nutritional adviceHaving alternative foods which are minimally processed, unsweetened foods and beverages.




Source: TH

 Context: A recent study has proposed using calcium-41 as a new method for radiometric dating, similar to carbon-14 dating but with several advantages.


What is radiocarbon dating?

Radiocarbon dating, also known as carbon-14 dating, is a method used to determine the age of organic materials that originated from living organisms. It relies on the radioactive isotope carbon-14, which is a variant of the element carbon. Carbon-14 is unstable and undergoes radioactive decay over time.


Limitations of Carbon-14 dating:

  • Limited Time Range: Carbon-14 dating is effective for objects up to approximately 50,000 years old due to the short half-life of carbon-14 (5,700 years).
  • Contamination Issues: Contamination from modern carbon sources can affect the accuracy of carbon-14 dating, leading to inaccurate age estimates.
  • Incomplete Preservation: Organic materials must be well-preserved to contain sufficient carbon-14 for dating. Poor preservation or exposure to environmental factors can compromise the reliability of carbon-14 dating.


Advantages of Calcium-41:

  • Longer Half-Life: Calcium-41 has a much longer half-life of 99,400 years, allowing for the dating of much older materials compared to carbon-14.
  • Abundance in Earth’s Crust: Calcium-41 is found in the Earth’s crust, making it available for dating various geological materials, including fossilized bones and rocks.
  • Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA): The technique of ATTA enables the detection of calcium-41 atoms with high sensitivity and selectivity, improving the accuracy of dating methods.
  • Potential for Extension: The successful application of ATTA to calcium-41 opens the possibility of using similar techniques for other metal isotopes, expanding the range of dating methods available.
  • Earth-Science Applications: Calcium-41 and ATTA can be used to study geological processes, such as determining how long rocks have been covered by ice, providing valuable insights into Earth’s history and climate changes.

Cold-blooded animals

Facts for Prelims:

Source: TH

Context: Scientists have disputed the idea that as the planet warms, the bodies of cold-blooded marine species, including fish, will contract.


Conventional understanding: Warming temperatures lead to smaller body sizes in cold-blooded marine animals, suggesting that they may actually grow larger in response to warmer waters.


The recent study challenges the expectation due to several reasons:

  • Warm water pollution: The study suggests that warm water pollution, caused by the discharge of warm pollutants, can actually contribute to the growth of aquatic animals.
  • Accelerated growth at younger age: Contrary to previous assumptions, the study found that cold-blooded animals, or ectotherms, experience faster growth at a younger age in warm waters.
  • Sustained growth throughout life: The study discovered the positive effect of warmer waters on growth and they continue to experience growth throughout their lives, leading to a larger maximum body size.
  • Survival trade-off: While the warmer waters provide favourable conditions for growth, they also come with higher death rates.
  • Influence of warm water on young populations: The research revealed that even if the water becomes inhospitable to the fish due to excessive warmth, the growth boost is significant enough to create a larger population of young-and-large fish.


Highlights of the study: Aquatic animals/ectotherms/cold-blooded animals such as fish would actually grow larger due to warm water pollution, i.e. water heated by warm pollutants.

INDUS-X under the iCET


Source: TH

Context: India and the U.S. are exploring the possibility of co-producing jet engines, long-range artillery, and infantry vehicles with the upcoming launch of INDUS-X.


What is INDUS-X?

 It is a major upcoming initiative under the Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies (iCET), with the aim to promote partnerships and collaboration between the defence innovation ecosystems of both countries.

  • INDUS-X is focused on advancing high-tech cooperation and exploring opportunities for joint research, development, and production in the defence sector.


About iCET dialogue:

iCET was announced in 2021 and is spearheaded by the National Security Councils of both countries, to expand the India-US partnership for critical and emerging technologies
Areas of CooperationR&D, Quantum computing, Defence innovations, Space, 6G, Semiconductors, etc.
Significance of iCETAccelerates America’s technology partnership and strategic convergence with India; Important for India’s role as a trusted supply chain partner; Allows gradual lifting of the US’s export control restrictions on India
Other India-US Technology PartnershipsNISAR (NASA-ISRO), Joint Indo-US Quantum Coordination Mechanism, Innovation Bridge; Lockheed Martin-Tata partnership for plane production; India-USA strategic clean energy partnership; Launch of “Innovative Bridge” connecting defence startups between India and the USA; Readiness Assessment Development for building resilient semiconductor supply chains; ISRO-NASA partnership on human space flight; CLPS Project Partnership in 56/6G; Open RAN using trusted sources, etc.

NIA’s Operation Dhvast

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: NIA

 Context: NIA’s Operation Dhvast was a nationwide operation targeting terrorists, gangsters, and drug smugglers. It involved raids at 129 locations across multiple states, resulting in three arrests.


Aim: The operation aimed to dismantle the terror nexus involved in targeted killings, terror funding, extortion, and smuggling of drugs and weapons.


About NIA:

The National Investigation Agency (founded 31st Dec 2008; HQ: New Delhi; Under Home Ministry) is the primary anti-terror investigation task force of India. The agency is empowered to deal with the investigation of terror-related crimes across states without special permission from the states under a written proclamation from the Ministry of Home Affairs. It has the authority to take over cases from state police forces and other agencies. It seeks the sanction of the Central government for prosecuting accused individuals under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and other scheduled offences.


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