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Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE, DTE

 Context: As per a recent study published in the Journal of Science, more than half of the world’s large lakes are drying up.


Major Findings of the Study:

Findings Details
Indian lakes More than 30 large lakes in India experienced a drying trend from 1992 to 2020. E.g., Mettur, Krishnarajasagar, Nagarjuna Sagar, and Idamalayar, showed a decline in lake levels and storage
Global lakes Global lakes contribute to 95% of the total lake water storage on Earth. 53% of the world’s largest lakes have been losing water, while 24% have seen an increase in water levels.
Global population affected Nearly 33% of the global population resides in a basin with a large, drying lake.
Role of climate change Climate change, including temperature, precipitation, and runoff, was identified as one of the main drivers of water losses
Other factors contributing to lake decline Human water consumption, potential evapotranspiration, and sedimentation were identified as additional factors contributing to the decline of lakes.
Measures needed Integrated approaches to lake management are crucial to address the declining trends


About Lakes:

Lakes Description Examples
Definition A lake is a large body of water that is surrounded by land. It is generally localized in a basin or depression and is separate from rivers or other outlets that serve to feed or drain the lake.
Types of Lakes
Temporary Lakes Lakes formed temporarily after heavy showers with evaporation greater than precipitation Small lakes of deserts
Permanent Lakes Lakes with deep water that carry more water than can be evaporated, with evaporation less than precipitation Great Lakes of North America, East African Rift Lakes
Freshwater Lakes Lakes fed by rivers and without-flowing streams Great Lakes of North America
Saline Lakes Lakes with no natural outlet or rapid evaporation cause high salt content in the water Great Salt Lake, Aral Sea, Dead Sea
Tectonic Lakes Lakes formed due to the earth’s movements such as warping, subsidence, bending, and fracturing of the Earth’s crust Lake Titicaca, Caspian Sea
Rift Valley Lakes Lakes formed along rift valleys, deep and narrow, with water collecting in troughs below sea level Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, Rudolf, Albert, Dead Sea
Crater and Caldera Lakes Lakes formed in volcanic craters or calderas with no superficial outlet Lonar (Maharashtra, India), Krakatao (Indonesia)
Uses of Lakes Inland waterways for transportation; Economic and industrial development; Water storage; Hydroelectric power generation; Agricultural purposes etc. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Waterways, Kolleru Lake, Hirakud Dam, Dead Sea, Lake Chilka
Lakes in India Largest Freshwater: Wular Lake (J&K)

Largest Brackish water: Chilika (Odisha)

Largest Saltwater: Sambhar (RJ)

Largest Artificial: Gobind Ballabh Pant Sagar (UP)

Longest: Vembanad (Kerala)

High altitude: Cholamu (Sikkim)