InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
- Erosion of the traditional Indian family
GS Paper 3:
- Making agri-commodity value chains sustainable
- WHO: Incentivising the development of new antibacterial treatments 2023
Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
- Sam Altman: Challenges and future of AI technology
- WHO: Potential harm of using AI
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
- Matrilineal Meghalaya
- Robert Lucas’ rational expectation theory
- IT Hardware PLI Scheme 2.0
- ECL-based loan loss provisioning norms
- Meri LiFE’s app
- Bura Chapori Wildlife Sanctuary
Syllabus: Indian Society: Family System/ Ethics
Context: The article highlights the increasing cases of violence within families, suicides among young individuals, and the rising number of children involved in criminal activities as symptoms of societal ill-health and disruptions in the traditional family system.
What is a family?
A family is a social unit consisting of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption. It is a fundamental institution in society where members provide support, love, and care for one another, and share common experiences, values, and responsibilities.
What is the meaning of a traditional Indian family?
The traditional Indian family refers to the prevailing family structure and dynamics that have been historically and culturally prevalent in Indian society. It typically follows a patriarchal system where the father or eldest male member holds authority and decision-making power within the family.
Importance of family:
|Emotional Support||During challenging times, such as the loss of a loved one or personal struggles|
|Socialization||Family plays a vital role in socializing children, teaching them societal norms, values, and behaviours|
|Identity Formation||Family provides a sense of belonging and helps individuals develop their identity by instilling cultural, religious, and familial values.|
|Intergenerational Bonding||The presence of multiple generations in a family fosters intergenerational relationships, creating opportunities for shared wisdom, experiences, and mutual learning.|
|Moral and Ethical Development||Families teach principles of honesty, integrity, compassion, and responsibility.
India swear by Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Kutumb or family has traditionally acquired primacy in human interpersonal-social relationship dynamics.
|Education Guidance and Financial Support|
Challenges faced by the traditional family system:
|Changing Gender Roles||For instance, if a woman desires a career outside the home but is expected to prioritize domestic responsibilities, conflicts may arise.|
|Generational Gap||When younger members adopt different values, lifestyles, and beliefs than their older relatives.|
|Urbanization and Mobility||As individuals seek better opportunities or education, they may move away from their extended families, leading to a decrease in close-knit family support networks.|
|Influence of Technology||Technology can impact traditional family dynamics, with increased screen time and virtual interactions potentially diminishing the sense of togetherness within the family.|
|Excessive emphasis on Individualism||For example, candid and heart-to-heart dialogues between husband-wife and parent-children are becoming rare. They have become too formal and superficial. This challenges the collectivist nature of traditional family systems.|
|Excessive Formalisation||From birthdays to weddings and house-warmings to condolence meetings, everything is being made into a formal event. This creates the “crisis of authenticity” of our interpersonal feelings.|
|Cultural and Social Changes||Cultural and social changes, such as globalization and exposure to diverse perspectives, can challenge traditional family norms and values.|
|Balancing Work and Family||The traditional family system may face difficulties in accommodating individual aspirations while maintaining traditional family roles and responsibilities.|
Ways of Reviving India’s Traditional Family System:
|Promote Inter-generational Bonding||Using storytelling, family meals, and cultural celebrations.|
|Strengthen Communication and Dialogue||Promote dialogue that goes beyond formalities and embraces deeper emotional connections.|
|Value Traditional Values and Customs||Encourage the preservation of traditional values, customs, and cultural practices within the family, ensuring that they are passed down to younger generations.|
|Foster Mutual Support and Care||E.g., provide emotional support during challenging times and engage in acts of kindness and assistance.|
|Balance Individualism and Collectivism||E.g., Encourage family members to pursue personal goals while maintaining a sense of togetherness, shared decision-making, and a commitment to the welfare of the family unit.|
|Embrace Modern Technology Responsibly||E.g., Encouraging the use of technology for virtual family gatherings, sharing updates, and staying connected across distances.|
|Promote Gender Equality and Empowerment||Advocate for gender equality within the family, promoting shared responsibilities, equal opportunities, and empowering women to pursue their aspirations.
Woman-led, child-focused and elderly-sensitive families are the need of the hour
The traditional Indian family system holds immense value and significance in providing emotional support, socialization, identity formation, and a sense of belonging. Reviving and nurturing the traditional family system can contribute to the well-being of individuals, the cohesion of society, and the preservation of cultural heritage.
Examine the causes and concerns associated with the erosion of the traditional Indian family structure. How has this transformation affected Indian society? (250 Words)
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Indian Agriculture
Context: The article highlights the challenges associated with making agricultural commodity value chains sustainable. It identifies four dimensions that make mitigating environmental impacts a difficult task
Meaning of agri-commodity value chains:
Agri-commodity value chains refer to the entire process of production, processing, distribution, and consumption of agricultural commodities, from farm to fork.
“Making Agri-commodity value chains sustainable” means the practice of ensuring that the agricultural value chain minimizes negative environmental and social impacts while promoting long-term economic viability.
Need of making agri-commodity value chains sustainable:
Making agri-commodity value chains sustainable is essential to protect the environment, ensure long-term agricultural productivity, meet consumer demands, address global sustainability challenges, promote stakeholder accountability, and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
The challenges of ensuring sustainability in agricultural commodity value chains:
|Market and producer Related||E.g., uncertain Export policies; adverse WTO norms influencing Indian farmers; uncertain MSP by the government|
|Production related||The production process, including land-use strategies, seed quality, and input usage, varies across different commodities. Lack of specific intervention by farmers suited to the specific production systems, such as intensive or extensive agriculture or agroforestry, leads to low yield.|
|Weak policies||Weak governance mechanisms, subsidies, market access, and infrastructural support for Indian agriculture|
|Marginalized farmers||Poor Working conditions for marginalized tenants, almost no labour rights, and inequity for Indian farmers|
Few Government Initiatives for sustainable agriculture:
|Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana||Promote organic farming|
|National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)||Promote climate-resilient and sustainable agricultural practices such as conservation agriculture, agroforestry, integrated farming systems, etc.|
|Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana||Improve water use efficiency in agriculture|
|Soil Health Card Scheme||Encourage balanced and judicious use of fertilizers|
|National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)||Promote sustainable production of oilseeds and oil palm|
|National Agricultural Market (e-NAM)||Create a unified national market for agricultural commodities|
|Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana (PMKSY)||Develop agri-processing clusters and infrastructure to increase value addition and reduce post-harvest losses|
What should be done:
The production process, including land-use strategies and inputs, varies across commodities, requiring tailored interventions. Strong governance mechanisms and policies, including subsidies and regulations, can support sustainable value chains. Additionally, an inclusive approach is necessary, considering working conditions, labour rights, equity, and the effects of the climate crisis on production.
There is a need to address the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability in the context of agricultural production, processing, and distribution.
Examine the role of supermarkets in the supply chain management of fruits, vegetables, and food items. How do they eliminate the number of intermediaries? ( UPSC 2018).
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Science and Technology: Health
Context: The new WHO report (Incentivising the Development of new antibacterial treatments 2023) highlights progress in addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) but also identifies gaps in ensuring a robust pipeline of antibiotic treatments.
What is AMR?
It refers to the ability of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, to resist the effects of antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, and antiparasitic drugs. E.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) superbug
Status of AMR:
It was responsible for nearly 5 million global deaths in 2019 and is projected to cause over 2mn death by 2050 in India alone. Yet the development of new antibiotics is limited, and access to existing treatments remains a challenge.
What does the Report say:
- AMR remains one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity
- 1 in 5 deaths caused by AMR occurred in children under the age of 5.
- If no action is taken, AMR could cost the world’s economy USD 100 trillion by 2050.
- Recommendations by the report: increased investments in research and development, alignment of financing mechanisms, and global efforts to ensure equitable access to antibiotics.
What are the problems with AMR in India?
AMR is a particular challenge in India due to the high burden of communicable diseases, an overburdened public health system, limited laboratory capacity, inexpensive and widely available antibiotics without prescriptions, Excessive use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry farming etc
- India: National Action Plan on AMR (NAP-AMR) for 2017-2021 (updating it for 2022-2026)
- Global: One Health Quadripartite: In 2021, the FAO, UNEP, WHO and World Organisation for Animal Health joined to combat AMR.
There is a need for priority actions to accelerate progress, including commitments at the high-level meeting on AMR at the United Nations General Assembly in 2024 and targeted financing mechanisms to address the crisis and ensure equitable access to antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. Examine why. (10M)
Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
Sam Altman, CEO of OpenAI, testified before the United States Congress about the challenges and future of AI technology.
Some key points from his testimony include:
- Learning from social media’s mistakes: World missed the opportunity to regulate social media at its inception, resulting in issues like misinformation and data privacy.
- An atom bomb or printing press moment?: Altman acknowledged that if AI technology goes wrong, it can have significant negative consequences.
- Impact on jobs: Altman recognized that while AI may automate some jobs, it can also create new and better ones.
- Regulatory intervention: Altman supported the idea of regulating AI e.g., the US government might consider a combination of licensing and testing requirements for the development and release of AI models above a threshold of capabilities.
Usage: His quotes and views can be used directly in the Essay/Governance questions related to the risk of AI
The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned about the potential harm of using artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare without proper monitoring and regulation.
Some of the concerns raised by WHO are:
- The use of biased data to train AI can result in misleading information, posing risks to health, equity, and inclusiveness.
- Generate responses that seem reliable but may be completely incorrect, especially in health-related contexts.
- AI can be trained on data without prior consent, potentially compromising sensitive user-provided information.
- AI can be manipulated to spread convincing disinformation that is hard to distinguish from reliable health content.
Usage: WHO’s concerns can be quoted in the Essay/medical ethics/Governance questions related to the risk of AI in medicine field
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Source: The Hindu
Context: Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council (KHADC) ordered not to issue an ST certificate to any Khasi person who adopts their father’s surname as it is against the traditional custom of inheriting the mother’s surname.
What is the matrilineal system among Khasis?
It refers to a social and kinship system where descent and inheritance are traced through the female line. In this system, family lineage, property, and clan membership are passed down from mother to daughter. Among Khasis, the youngest daughter (khatduh) of the family is entrusted the full share of the ancestral – or the clan’s – property
The three tribes of Meghalaya — Khasis, Jaintias, and Garos — practise a matrilineal system of inheritance.
About Khasis Tribe:
The Khasis are an indigenous community in Meghalaya. While the majority of Khasis are Christians now, their traditional beliefs revolved around a Supreme Being called U Blei Nongthaw. The Khasi community celebrates festivals such as the Nongkrem Dance and Shad Suk Mynsiem.
- KHADC is a body under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
- The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution provides for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoramto safeguard the rights of the tribal population in these states.
- It provides for autonomy in the administration of these areas through Autonomous District Councils (ADCs),which are empowered to make laws in respect of areas under their jurisdiction.
Source: Indian Express
Context: The Cabinet approved the Production Linked Incentive Scheme 2.0 for IT Hardware with a budgetary outlay of Rs 17,000 crore.
- Electronics manufacturing in India has witnessed consistent growth with a 17 per cent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in the last 8 year
- PLI Scheme 2.0 for IT hardware covers laptops, tablets, all-in-one PCs, servers and ultra-small form factor devices.
About PLI Scheme:
|Objective||Scale up domestic manufacturing capability. Increase import substitution and Generate employment|
|Initial Targeted Industries||Mobile and allied Component Manufacturing, Electrical Component Manufacturing, and Medical Devices. Now expanded to—Automobile and auto components, Electronics and IT hardware, Telecom, Pharmaceuticals, Solar modules, Metals and mining, Textiles and apparel, White goods, Drones, Advanced chemistry cell batteries other sectors as well.|
|Incentives||Calculated based on incremental sales. Range from 1% to 20% depending on the industry.
In some sectors such as advanced chemistry cell batteries, textile products and the drone industry, the incentive is on the basis of sales, performance and local value addition done over the period of five years.
Facts For Prelims
Source: Indian Express
Context: Lenders have sought a one-year extension from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for implementation of the Expected Credit Loss (ECL)-based loan loss provisioning framework.
What is loan loss provisioning?
Loan loss provisioning refers to the practice of setting aside funds by banks to cover potential losses arising from loans that may default or become unrecoverable.
|Current System||Banks are required to make loan loss provisions based on an “incurred loss” approach. Also, the Loan loss provisioning happens much later, leading to an increase in credit risk for banks.|
|“Incurred Loss” model||This model assumes that all loans will be repaid until evidence to the contrary is identified. Only at that point is the defaulted loan written down to a lower value. This leads to a delay in the recognition of defaults.
|The New Proposal||RBI has proposed an expected loss (EL)-based approach for provisioning by banks in case of loan defaults. Banks are required to estimate expected credit losses based on forward-looking estimations. Banks have to categorize ECL norms for assessing the quality of assets and the expected loss.|
|ECL Norms||Banks classify financial assets (primarily loans, including irrevocable loan commitments, and investments classified as held-to-maturity or available-for-sale) into three categories: Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3.
Stage 1: Financial assets that have not had a significant increase in credit risk or with low credit risk at the reporting date.
Stage 2: Financial instruments that have had a significant increase in credit risk but don’t have objective evidence of impairment.
Stage 3: Financial assets that have objective evidence of impairment at the reporting date
Context: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) launched the “Meri LiFE” (My Life) mobile application to empower youth and encourage their participation in addressing climate change.
About the Meri LiFE app:
|App Purpose||Empower young people and encourage their participation in tackling climate change through simple actions in daily life|
|LiFE Themes||Save Energy, Save Water, Reduce Single-Use Plastic, Adopt Sustainable Food Systems, and Adopt Healthy Lifestyles|
|5 for 5 Challenge||Users are guided through a gamified experience to take five LiFE actions towards World Environment Day on June 5th, 2023|
|MoEF&CC has developed two portals|
|Mission LiFE Portal||Provides open access to over 100 creative videos and knowledge materials related to LiFE|
|Meri LiFE Portal||Enables ministries and institutions to upload event reports and track the progress of the ongoing mass mobilization drive|
About LiFE Mission:
Context: The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has launched the Artificial Intelligence and Facial Recognition powered Solution for Telecom SIM Subscriber Verification (ASTR) tool to detect and block fraudulent mobile connections.
|Purpose||To detect and block fraudulent mobile connections|
|Origin||In 2012, the DoT ordered telecom operators to share their subscriber database, including user pictures. These images form the basis for the facial recognition algorithm used in ASTR. The ASTR project was developed by the DoT’s unit in Haryana between April 2021 and July 2021.|
|Technology Used||Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Facial Recognition|
|Functionality||Analyzing subscriber databases to identify multiple connections associated with the same person|
|Example of its working||Suppose there is a suspected face associated with multiple mobile connections. ASTR will compare this face against a database of images to identify other connections linked to the same face. If there are more than nine connections against a single individual’s photograph or if the same person has taken SIMs under different names, ASTR will flag it as potentially fraudulent.|
|Connection Limit||Currently, a maximum of nine mobile connections can be taken using a single identity proof|
|Action Taken||The list of fraudulent connections will be shared with telecom operators, banks, payment wallets, and social media platforms|
|Description of technology used:|
|Image Processing||Faces in subscriber images are encoded using convolutional neural network (CNN) models|
|Face Comparison||A face comparison is carried out for each face against all faces in the database to group similar faces under one directory|
|Matching Accuracy||Faces are considered identical if they match to the extent of at least 97.5%|
|Name Matching||“Fuzzy logic” is used to find similarity or approximate matches for subscriber names, accounting for typographical errors|
|What is fuzzy logic?||Fuzzy logic is a mathematical approach that deals with uncertainty and imprecise information. It allows for the representation of vagueness and partial truth, unlike traditional binary logic.|
Context: Assam government is currently taking measures to open the traditional path for wild animals from Kaziranga to Orang National Park via the Bura Chapori Wildlife Sanctuary.
About the Bura Chapori Wildlife Sanctuary:
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services Relating to Health
Context: The ICMR under the Union Health Ministry and the Union Ministry of Ayush has agreed to enhance cooperation in health research in the field of integrated medicine.
|An integrated system of medicine/complementary medicine|
|Meaning||It means a conjoint study, training and practice in indigenous/traditional medicine (ayurveda, Unani, etc) and modern (allopathy) medicine.|
|Why do patients favour complementary medicine?||5 barriers(5As) to healthcare: awareness, access, acceptability, affordability, and accountability.|
|Complementary medicine gives people with chronic diseases who have already tried a number of things an option. That is why, 50% of people use complementary medicine, and more than 70% have used it at some point during their lifetime.|
|Concerns||No evidence-based benefits of complementary medicine, lack of data on safety and efficacy, and a lack of standardization of formulations.|
|Integrative medicine is a business: Data shows that it increases the cost of care and does not improve the patient’s clinical outcomes.|
|Efforts to promote complementary medicine in India||The National Integrated Medical Association (NIMA) is an Indian NGO of general practitioners educated in integrated system of medicine.|
|The National Ayush Mission (launched in 2014) has played a crucial role in preserving and promoting India’s traditional systems of medicine and their integration into the mainstream healthcare system.|
|WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine (Jamnagar, Gujarat) was set up to promote Traditional Medicines as a system of treatment for various ailments.|
|CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine is a premier institute located in Jammu and dedicated to the research of drug discovery.|
|Some universities in India offer BISM (Bachelor in Integrated System of Medicine)|
What is the agreement between ICMR and the Ministry of Ayush: The two-day National Ayush Mission Conclave talks about the practice at AIIMS and research in complementary medicine.
Significance of the move:
- It will enhance the treatments that can be offered under one roof.
- It will help build harmonized protocols for clinical care research, and this is especially important for non-communicable diseases, where medical treatment options are limited.
- It will take Ayurveda and yoga to the world.
Way ahead: Randomised control trials (RCTs) and peer-reviewed studies of traditional medicine must be promoted.
Conclusion: Many systems of medicine have a role to play in keeping human beings well. Modern medicine is extremely important, but there is a wealth of wisdom and ancient traditions which can be incorporated sensibly and safely for the well-being of man.
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Inclusive Growth, Issues Relating to Poverty/ Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections
Context: According to a new study, access to financial services such as bank accounts can help Indian rural households cope better with challenges such as poverty, inequality, and climate risks.
Need for financial inclusion in rural India:
- A key driver of economic growth, poverty alleviation and prosperity.
- Access to formal finance can boost job creation, reduce vulnerability to economic and climate shocks and increase investments in human capital.
- At a macro level, it can support sustainable and inclusive socio-economic growth for all.
Financial institutions for inclusion:
- Scheduled commercial banks
- Regional rural banks
- Payment banks
- Micro-finance institutions
- Business correspondents (Bank Mitra)
- Small finance banks
Highlights of the study:
- 59% of the surveyed households experienced climate shocks in at least one of the five previous years → using their own savings to cope with the issue.
- As rural households have limited access to liquidity, they take high-interest loans from informal sources.
- Households rely on financial assistance from kin and relatives followed by friends, village communities, money lenders, and banks (in this order).
Factors affecting access to financial services:
- Location: Most commercial banks set up their branches in profitable urban commercial areas.
- Lack of infrastructure in rural and semi-urban areas: Lack of access to a formal banking outlet, proper internet, electricity, etc., are major roadblocks to both consumers and financial institutions.
- Rising unemployment and low wages: Financial conditions of people plays a pivotal role in accessing available financial services.
- Service charges: High bank charges not only discourage people but also create a lack of trust among people using banking and financial services.
- The Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
- Direct Benefits Transfer (DBT)
- Aadhaar Enabled Payment Services (AePS)
- Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM)-UPI
Key challenges for India: While 80% of the Indian population may have bank accounts, almost 45% of such accounts still remain inactive due to a combination of –
- Companies such as Vakrangee Ltd., BTI payments, FINO, etc., have provided many banking and ATM services through a technology-driven platform.
- They have managed to boost rural entrepreneurship and increase the level of financial literacy.
- The PM Mudra Yojana provides collateral-free loans up to Rs. 1 million for small and micro enterprises.
- Financial inclusion will reduce the resources that households need to keep in liquid form and therefore make them available for productive investments to address climate risk.
- Climate adaptation requires putting resources in the hands of people because they are best placed to understand climate impacts.
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Context: The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (Irdai) has relaxed norms for ‘surety bonds’.
The changes introduced:
The solvency requirement for surety bonds has been reduced to 1.5 times from the previous 1.875 times, and the exposure limit of 30% applicable to each contract underwritten by an insurer has been removed.
Aim of the changes: The changes are aimed at expanding the surety insurance market and increasing the availability of such products.
What is Surety Bond?
A surety bond is a type of insurance policy that ensures parties involved in a contract are protected from financial losses if one party fails to fulfil its obligations.
If a construction company fails to complete a project as agreed, the surety bond compensates the client for the losses. It ensures financial protection and guarantees that the contract will be fulfilled.
The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (est. 1999; HQ: Hyderabad) is a statutory body under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance. It is tasked with regulating and licensing the insurance and re-insurance industries in India.
Read the CA in PDF format here:
Follow us on our Official TELEGRAM Channel HERE
Subscribe to Our Official YouTube Channel HERE
Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE
Official Facebook Page HERE
Follow our Twitter Account HERE
Follow our Instagram Account HERE
Follow us on LinkedIn: HERE