GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Government Policies and Intervention
Context: The Global Report on Internal Displacement 2023 (GRID-2023) stated that in 2022, over 32 million people were displaced by disasters, 98% of which were triggered by weather-related events such as floods and storms.
Key Highlights of the Report:
|Total Number of IDPs||Over 71million IDPs across 110 countries and territories at the end of 2022, a 20% increase in a year|
|Total IDPs in India||Over 6 lakh were from conflict and violence while 32 thousand were due to disasters|
|Weather-Related Displacements||98% of disaster displacements in 2022 were triggered by weather-related events; floods and storms caused 6 out of 10 disaster displacements|
|Pakistan and India||Pakistan had the highest number of disaster displacements in 2022, followed by China and Afghanistan, while India ranked fourth|
|La Niña’s Influence||The prolonged three-year La Niña phenomenon contributed to the rise in weather-related disasters, especially floods, leading to widespread disasters across the globe|
|Regional Displacement Patterns||Sub-Saharan Africa experienced the highest-ever displacement due to disasters in 2022. South Asia witnessed double the annual average of disaster displacements|
|Actions needed||Unconditional cash assistance for supporting the immediate needs of IDPs; Developing IDPs’ livelihoods and skills; Importance of building resilience and preparedness at an individual, community, and national levels; addressing the impacts of climate change and investing in adaptation measures are crucial to mitigate future displacements|
About Internal Displacement:
|Meaning||Internal displacement refers to the situation where people are forced to leave their homes but remain within their country’s borders.|
|Factors of Displacement||Conflict, violence, development projects, disasters, and climate change|
|Components||Internal displacement is characterized by two components:
· A person’s movement is involuntary
· The person remains within their country’s borders
|Difference from Refugee||Unlike refugees, internally displaced people have not crossed international borders and are not covered by any international convention.|
|Challenges Faced by IDPs||IDPs face the threat of physical attack, sexual- or gender-based violence, and separation from their families, lack of adequate shelter, food, health services, and access to livelihoods.|
|IDPs in India||India has one of the highest numbers of IDPs in the world|
|Internal Displacement in India – Policy Framework||India does not have a national policy or legal framework to deal with refugees or IDPs and has not ratified the 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol and does not permit UNHCR access to most refugee groups.|
|Factors of Internal Displacement in India||Internal displacement in India arises from secessionist movements, identity-based autonomy movements, localized violence, and environmental and development-induced displacement.|
About the Report:
The Global Report on Internal Displacement 2023 (GRID-2023), published by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), is the world’s leading source of data and analysis on Internal Displacement (ID). The 2023 edition sheds light on the significant increase in the number of people displaced by disasters in 2022 and the complex relationships between disasters, conflict and violence, food security and ID.
IDMC (formed 1998; HQ: Geneva) is an International non-governmental organization established in 1998 by the Norwegian Refugee Council in Geneva. It is focused on monitoring and providing information and analysis on the world’s internally displaced persons.
There is a need for India to formulate policies and strategies that are focused on migration, promote inclusive growth and development, and reduce distress-induced migration.
1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol assert the principle of non-refoulment (a refugee should not be returned to a country where they face serious threats to their life or freedom)
Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attract controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects. ( UPSC 2016)