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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 4 May 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian History

1. The Mughal Empire’s decline resulted from a confluence of factors such as corruption, incompetence, religious intolerance, and military vulnerability. Elaborate. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: InsightsonIndia

Key Demand of the question: To elaborate on the factors that led to the decline of the Mughal Empire and their impact.

Directive: Elaborate – This is an all-encompassing directive, and you must write in detail on the issues involved. You must examine all the facts and provide a detailed account of the issues involved.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Begin by providing a brief historical context of the Mughal Empire.

Body:

First, explain how a confluence of factors led to the decline of the Mughal Empire. Provide evidence to support your argument, including examples of corruption, incompetence, religious intolerance, and military vulnerability.

Highlight the role of prominent figures such as Aurangzeb and their policies in contributing to the decline.

Next, present any counter-views, if any, and explain why they are not convincing.

Finally, conclude by summarizing the key points of your answer.

Conclusion: Conclude by summarizing the key points of your answer.

Introduction

The period of the Great Mughals, which began in 1526 with Babur’s accession to the throne, ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Aurangzeb’s death marked the end of an era in Indian history. When Aurangzeb died, the empire of the Mughals was the largest in India. Yet, within about fifty years of his death, the Mughal Empire disintegrated.

Body

The reasons responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire in India are:

  • Wars of Succession:
    • The Mughals did not follow any law of succession like the law of primogeniture.
    • Consequently, each time a ruler died, a war of succession between the brothers for the throne started.
    • This weakened the Mughal Empire, especially after Aurangzeb.
    • The nobles, by siding with one contender or the other, increased their own power.
  • Aurangzeb’s Policies:
    • Aurangzeb failed to realize that the vast Mughal Empire depended on the willing support of the people.
    • Aurangzeb’s religious orthodoxy and his policy towards the Hindus damaged the stability of the Mughal empire
    • He lost the support of the Rajputs who had contributed greatly to the strength of the Empire.
    • They had acted as pillars of support, but Aurangzeb’s policy turned them to bitter foes.
    • The wars with the Sikhs, the Marathas, the Jats and the Rajputs had drained the resources of the Mughal Empire.
  • Weak Successors of Aurangzeb:
    • The successors of Aurangzeb were weak and became victims of the intrigues and conspiracies of the faction-ridden nobles.
    • They were inefficient generals and incapable of suppressing revolts.
    • The absence of a strong ruler, an efficient bureaucracy and a capable army had made the Mughal Empire weak.
    • After Bahadur Shah’s reign came a long list of weak, worthless and luxury-loving Kings.
  • Empty Treasury:
    • Shah Jahan’s zeal for construction had depleted the treasury.
    • Aurangzeb’s long wars in the south had further drained the exchequer.
  • Invasions:
    • Foreign invasions sapped the remaining strength of the Mughals and hastened the process of disintegration.
    • The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdaliresulted in further drainage of wealth.
    • These invasions shook the very stability of the empire.
  • Size of the Empire and Challenge from Regional Powers:
    • The Mughal Empire had become too large to be controlled by any ruler from one centre i.e. Delhi.
    • The Great Mughals were efficient and exercised control over ministers and army, but the later Mughals were poor administrators.
    • As a result, the distant provinces became independent. The rise of independent states led to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire.
  • Rise of independent states in the 18th century:
    • With the decline of the Mughal Empire a number of provinces seceded from the empire and several independent states came into existence.
    • Hyderabad:
      • The State of Hyderabadwas founded by Qamar-ud-din Siddiqi, who was appointed Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title of Nizam-ul- Mulk, by Emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1712.
      • He established a virtually independent state but returned to Delhi during the reign of Emperor Mohammad Shah.
      • In 1724, he was reappointed Viceroy of the Deccan with the title of Asaf Jah.
    • Bengal:
      • Bengal in the 18th century comprised Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
      • Murshid Quli Khanwas the Diwan of Bengal under Aurangzeb.
      • Farrukhsiyar appointed him Subedar (governor) of Bengal in 1717.
    • Awadh:
      • The subah of Awadh comprised Benaras and some districts near Allahabad.
      • Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulkwas appointed Governor of Awadh by the Mughal Emperor.
      • But he soon became independent.
    • Deterioration of land relations
      • Shahjahan and Aurangzeb opted for jagirs and Paibaqi instead of paying directly from state treasury to the officials.
      • Jagirs refer to temporary allotment of lands to officials for their services which may be according to the satisfaction of the Emperor.
      • Paibaqi refers to revenue from reserved lands which were sent to the central treasury.
      • There was a constant clash of interest between the nobles and zamindars.
    • Rise of the Marathas
      • Marathas consolidated their position in Western India
      • They started making plans for a greater Maharashtra empire.

Conclusion

The decline of the Mughal Empire was due to social, economic, political and institutional factors. By 1813, the British government took away the power that allowed the East India Company’s monopoly and later, the company worked on behalf of the government. In 1857, the Indian Rebellion occured which prompted the British colonial office to exile the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, and take complete control of the Indian subcontinent.

 

 


General Studies – 2


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Discuss the issues associated with the imposition of Sedition law in India and the calls for reforms in it. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: BS

Why the question: The government has informed the Supreme Court that it has initiated the process of re-examining Section 124A and consultations are in the final stage.

Key demand of the question: The question demands one to discuss the problems associated with the imposition of the sedition law in India, along with highlighting the calls for reforms in it.

Directive word: Discuss – It demands one to provide a detailed analysis of the given issue by presenting different perspectives.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Define the Sedition law and provide a brief background of its implementation in India.

Body:

First, describe the issues associated with the sedition law, such as its vague definition, misuse, and impact on freedom of speech and expression.

Second, highlight the cases of misuse of the law, like the arrest of political dissidents, activists, and journalists.

Third, discuss the calls for reforms in the law, such as the recommendations of various commissions and committees and the demand for its complete repeal.

Finally, analyse the pros and cons of the Sedition Law and provide possible solutions for its effective implementation.

Conclusion:

Briefly suggest the need for reforms in the sedition law to balance national security and individual rights.

Introduction

According to the Section 124A of IPC, Sedition is an act that brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the Government established by law in India by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise. Colonial administrators used sedition to lock up people who criticised the British policies.

Recently, The government has informed the Supreme Court that it has initiated the process of re-examining Section 124A and consultations are in the final stage.

Body

Background

  • The section 124A of Indian Penal Code is a pre- independence provision, which covers sedition charges against government.
  • Various verdicts by Indian Judiciary have led to re-interpretation and re-examination of ‘sedition’ in light of Article 19 of the Constitution.
  • There has been an effort to strike a balance between right to free speech and expression and power of State to impose reasonable restrictions (Article 19(2)).
  • In 1962, the Supreme Court in Kedar Nath Singh vs. State of Bihar upheld Section 124A and held that it struck a “correct balance” between fundamental rights and the need for public order.
  • The court had significantly reduced the scope of Sedition law to only those cases where there is incitement to imminent violence towards overthrow of the state.
  • Further, the Court held that it is not mere against government of the day but the institutions as symbol of state.

Should sedition be scrapped?

  • Against democratic norms: It stifles the democratic and fundamental right of people to criticize the government.
  • Inadequate capacity of State Machinery: The police might not have the “requisite” training to understand the consequences of imposing such a “stringent” provision.
  • Possibility of Misuse: It has been used arbitrarily to curb dissent. In many cases the main targets have been writers, journalists, activists who question government policy and projects, and political dissenters.
  • The draconian nature of this law as the crime is non-bailable, non-cognisable and punishment can extend for life—it has a strong deterrent effect on dissent even if it is not used.
  • Used to gag press: The press should be protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government.

Arguments in favour of Section 124A

  • Not really a draconian law: Now after the Supreme Court directions, its jurisdiction has been narrowed down. It can be applied only on grounds laid down by the court.
  • Application is a part of reasonable restrictions: It is provided under the Article 19 (2).
  • Does not really curb free speech: One can use any kind of strong language in criticism of the government without inviting sedition. However, such dissent should not be turned into some kind of persuasion to break the country.
  • Threats to unity and integrity of nation due to presence of anti- national elements and divisive Forces such as naxals, separatists who are receiving support from inside and outside the country.
  • Mere misuse cannot be a ground of repeal, rather provisions should be made where such misuse is eliminated.

Conclusion

The guidelines of the SC must be incorporated in Section 124A as well by amendment to IPC so that any ambiguity must be removed. Only those actions/words that directly result in the use of violence or incitement to violence should be termed seditious. The state police must be sufficiently guided as to where the section must be imposed and where it must not. Need to include provisions where the government can be penalized, if it misuses the section. This will ensure that section 124 A of IPC strikes a balance between security and smooth functioning of state with the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression.

 

Topic: United Nations and other multi-lateral agencies

3. “United Nations was mandated to prevent another world war, yet we still live with war”. Has the UN failed in carrying out its mandate? Justify your opinion.  (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: TH

Why the question: The question is relevant to the current global scenario. Also, the article highlights that “There is a lack of trust in a world beset by conflicts and crises”

Key demand of the question: The question demands one to justify their opinion on whether the UN has failed in carrying out its mandate of preventing another world war, along with substantiating their views with examples.

Directive word: Justify- One must give reasons to support their opinion.

 

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Provide a brief about the United Nations and its mandate.

 

Body: Mention the various initiatives taken by the United Nations to maintain international peace and security, along with their effectiveness. Analyze the various factors contributing to the failures of the UN in carrying out its mandate, such as veto power, lack of funding, non-compliance by member states, etc. Provide examples of UN’s successes and failures in promoting international peace, like the Korean War, Gulf War, Syrian Civil War, etc. Conclusion:

 

Conclude by giving a summary of the effectiveness of the United Nations in carrying out its mandate and provide possible solutions to improve its effectiveness. 

Introduction

The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. Its mission and work guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter and implemented by its various organs and specialised agencies. Its activities include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law.

During the 75th anniversary of General Assembly (UNGA 75), under the theme: ‘The Future we Want, the UN we Need: Reaffirming our Collective Commitment to Multilateralism’ had a strong focus on the topics of sustainability and climate change. The declaration recalled UN’s successes and failures over more than seven decades and vows to build a post-pandemic world that is more equal, works together and protects the planet, in a spirit of inclusive multilateralism.

Body

Need for Reform at UN

  • At present, the UNSC comprises five permanent members and 10 non-permanent member countries which are elected for a two-year term by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
  • The five permanent members are Russia, the U.K., China, France and the United States and these countries can veto any substantive resolution. There has been growing demand to increase the number of permanent members to reflect the contemporary global reality.
  • India, Brazil, South Africa, Germany and Japan are strong contenders for permanent membership of the UNSC which has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
  • At a special session marking 75 years of the United Nations on Tuesday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi called for reform of its “outdated structures”, pointing out that in the absence of comprehensive changes, the world body today faces a “crisis of confidence”.
  • India has been at the forefront of demanding reform in the UN, particularly its principal organ, the Security Council, for decades, staking its claim as one of the world’s largest economies and most populous countries, with a track record in promoting a rules-based international order, and contributing to peacekeeping through UN forces.
  • The UNSC does not include a permanent member from the African, Australian and South American continents, and the pillars of the multilateral order, such as the G-4 group of Brazil, India, Germany and Japan, have been ignored for long.
  • Frequent divisions within the UNSC P-5 end up blocking key decisions. These issues are underlined in a year where the coronavirus pandemic has brought the world to a standstill; yet, the UN, the UNSC, and WHO have failed to play an effective role in helping nations deal with the spread.
  • For India, what has been most frustrating is that despite the dysfunctional power balance that prevails, the UN’s reform process, held through Inter Governmental Negotiations (IGN) has not made progress over decades, despite commitments.
  • The UN has chosen to “rollover” the discussions of the IGN, which are looking at five major issues: enlarging the Security Council, categories of membership, the question of the veto that five Permanent members of the UNSC wield, regional representation, and redistributing the Security Council-General Assembly power balance.
  • The grouping of India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) expressed “frustration” over the “slow” pace of progress on reform of the UN Security Council and said the time has come to move towards a result-oriented process to expand the key global body.

Way forward in contemporary times:

  • The reform of Security Council will stop it from becoming obsolete.
  • Broader membership of the Security Council, with increased and enhanced representation of countries with the capacity and willingness to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, including from Africa, will allow it to preserve its credibility and create the political backing needed for the peaceful resolution of today’s international crises.
  • Given the capacity and willingness to take on major responsibilities with regard to the maintenance of international peace and security, there is a clear need for an enhanced role of developing countries and of major contributors to the United Nations to make the Council more legitimate, effective and representative.
  • On the one hand, the world is experiencing unparalleled levels of prosperity and connectivity,. Yet these advances are associated with ever greater complexity and systemic risks, increasing the liberal order’s vulnerability to collapse. The world’s global and national institutions are increasingly incapable of managing stresses to the system.
  • Faced with threats ranging from climate change to massive technological advancement, the world is in desperate need of stable and able global governance. And yet there is surging opposition to liberal governance due to rising inequalities and frustration with the perceived failures of the liberal order.
  • Populism and the rise of parochial economic nationalism as among the gravest threats to future stability. The risk of a disorderly collapse of the old system is more real than ever.

Conclusion:

The world is shifting to a new multi-polar order with the US and China at its centre. We need to restore and rebuild stable institutions and rules that acknowledge the changed context. They will need to be more inclusive, representative and legitimate. The role of international mechanisms of cooperation such as the UN, G20, regional organizations, non-state actors – especially financial and philanthropic actors – will also need to be elevated. It should start with reform of UNSC.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Enumerate the challenges faced by women in accessing formal financial services. What steps can be taken to ‘financially include’ women in India? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: LM

Why the question: The article calls for designing digital services to serve women, and customers, in ways that are gender sensitive.

Key demand: List down the challenges faced by women in accessing formal financial services and suggest steps to promote the financial inclusion of women in India.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what financial inclusion is and why it is important for women.

Body:

Challenges faced by women in accessing formal financial services: Discuss the challenges faced by women, such as lack of access to banking services, limited mobility, privacy concerns, etc.

Next, Steps to promote financial inclusion of women in India: Discuss the various measures that can be taken to promote financial inclusion of women, such as promoting digital payments, designing dedicated services for women, nurturing the ecosystem of business correspondents, etc.

Provide details on each step, and how it can address the challenges faced by women.

 

Conclusion: Emphasize the importance of promoting financial inclusion of women.

Introduction

Increasing access to and use of quality financial products and services is essential to inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction. Given this, increasing women’s financial inclusion is important as women disproportionately experience poverty, unequal divisions of labor and a lack of control over economic resources

Body

Challenges faced by women in accessing formal financial services

  • Demand side barriers
    • Lack of bargaining power within the household
    • Concentration in lower-paying economic activities
    • Competing demands on women’s time related to unpaid domestic work
    • Lack of assets for collateral
  • Supply Side Barriers
    • Reduced mobility due to time constraints or social norms
    • Lack of gender-specific policies and practices for product design and marketing
    • Inappropriate distribution channels
    • Lower rates of digital inclusion
  • Legal and Regulatory barriers
    • Account opening requirements that disadvantage women
    • Barriers to obtaining formal identification
    • Legal barriers to owning and inheriting property and other collateral
    • Lack of gender-inclusive credit reporting systems

 

Significance of financial inclusion for women

  • Building Financial Resilience:Women are decision-makers for spending and savings in most low-income households. They are thus more committed and disciplined savers than men.
    • Many research documents have shown that when given the opportunity, women save and by doing so build financial resilience.
    • Thus, it is economically viable for banks to target women, while contributing to such social good.
  • Increasing Social Capital: Women’s engagement with financial institutions and their ability to access participation in work and credit from such institutions can increase their social capital.
    • Thus, empowering 230 million women Jan Dhan customers financially leads to the potential upliftment of 920 million lives, at an average family of four.
  • Critical For Women’s Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: Providing low-income women with effective and affordable financial tools to save and borrow money, make and receive payments, and manage risk is critical to both women’s empowerment and poverty reduction.
  • Gender Gap in Financial Inclusion: According to the 2017 Global Findex database, 83% of males above 15 years of age in India held accounts at a financial institution in 2017 compared to 77% females.
    • This is attributed to socio-economic factors, including the availability of mobile handset and internet data facility being higher among men than women.

 

Conclusion and way forward

  • Gender-Disaggregated Data: Financial service providers need to deploy strategies that focus on the Jan Dhan women segment by using sex-disaggregated data.
    • For instance, target and communicate with women and design products and processes to be women-centric.
    • At a policy-level, collecting and analysing gender-disaggregated data is vital for the creation of products and services for low-income women.
  • In-design Changes: The design tweaks that take into account the specific needs and preferences of women can enhance their access to financial products, as well as the impact of those products on women’s ability to make investments and smooth consumption in the face of income shocks.
    • Financial Products which allow women greater degrees of control and privacy surrounding their incomes and spending decisions appear to be particularly promising.
  • Enhancing Financial Literacy: Providing financial literacy remains the key for universalisation of financial inclusion.
    • In this context, the Reserve Bank of India has undertaken a project titled Project Financial Literacy.
    • The objective of the project is to disseminate information regarding the central bank and general banking concepts to various target groups, including, school and college going children, women, rural and urban poor, defence personnel and senior citizens.

 

Topic: Internal Security: Threats from Left-Wing Extremism

5. “Understanding the Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) challenge in India requires political nuance, not just a security lens focused on violent incidents.” Elaborate (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: IE

Why the question: The article analyses the previous article on Maoist challenges and gives a solution to it. Also, a recent attack by Maoists killed many security forces in Chhattisgarh.

Key demand: Analyse the intricacies of LWE and try to give solution (political, security, social)

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Start by giving a brief overview of the Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) challenge in India and highlight the need for understanding it through political nuance.

Body:

First, discuss the origins and evolution of the LWE challenge in India, highlighting its political context, ideology, and grievances.

Next, explain why a security lens focused only on violent incidents is insufficient for understanding the LWE challenge and how it can lead to a misguided approach to countering it.

Then, elaborate on the importance of political nuance in understanding the LWE challenge, emphasizing the need to address its underlying socio-economic and political issues, such as land rights, resource distribution, and governance.

Discuss the role of state and non-state actors in perpetuating the LWE challenge and how political nuance can help in engaging with them.

Highlight examples of successful approaches that have employed political nuance in addressing the LWE challenge, such as the Andhra Pradesh model and the peace talks in Jharkhand.

Conclusion:

Highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach that takes into account the socio-economic and political factors underlying the challenge.

Introduction

Left Wing Extremism (LWE) movement has its roots in the Naxalbari area West Bengal in the 1960’s.These Maoists insurgents started running a parallel system of administration in parts of central and Eastern India. They kill civilians, destroy public buildings and extract ransom from businessmen. In the recent years, however, LWE movement is showing decline, because of the shift in the approach of the successive Governments. The recent statement by Home Minister noted that the geographical influence of the Maoists has reduced from 96 districts in 10 States in 2010 to 41 now.

The Maoists have struck in Chhattisgarh after a lull of two years. Ten jawans of the District Reserve Guard, a special unit of Chhattisgarh police recruited locally, and their civilian driver were killed recently when the extremists triggered a blast using an improvised explosive device in Dantewada district. .

Body

Present state of LWE in India

  • As per Home Ministry records, Maoist violence has come down by 77 per cent since 2010, and deaths of security forces and civilians have declined by 90 per cent.
  • The number of Naxal-affected districts has come down from more than 200 in the early 2000s to 90, with violence mostly reported from 25 districts.
  • The Maoist movement is hardly a force now in states such as Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar, once its strongholds.
  • In recent years, security operations have turned the heat on the movement and impaired its ability to recruit and operate freely.
  • With the emphasis on violence, the Maoist movement has also hollowed out as a political project and seems hardly in a position to expand its cadre base.
  • At the same time, the state has not only expanded its security muscle but has also built both physical and social infrastructure in left-wing extremism-affected districts and worked on development projects.

Factors leading to Left-wing extremism

  • Political Factors
    • Nature and apathy of the political system towards tribals remained one of the most important factors that led to such uprisings.
    • Inability of political authority in India to provide avenues for structural uplift to the deprived sections of society in the affected states.
    • Lack of political participation by the tribal community
  • Economic Factors
    • Poverty and economic inequality and underdevelopment in the naxal affected regions.
    • Entry of mining companies in Tribal lands and forests, posing threat to the livelihood of the tribals.
    • Indigenous tribal population deprived of their lands, uprooted from their traditional source of livelihood.
    • The benefits of the resource exploitation are not passed on the tribals.
  • Environmental Degradation
    • Environmental degradation in the form of destruction of land and water resources due to mining and industrial activates.
  • Lack of basic facilities
    • Lack of basic facilities like education, freedom, sanitation and food.
    • The socially backward tribals form the major support base for Naxalites because of inequality, illiteracy and lack of opportunities.
  • Discrimination against tribals
    • Poor implementation of laws prohibiting transfer of tribal land to non-tribals in the Fifth Schedule areas.
    • Non-regularisation of traditional land rights under FRA, 2006.
    • Hasty rejections of land grants to tribals.
  • Displacement of people
    • Eviction from lands traditionally used by tribals.
    • Forced Displacementscaused by mining, irrigation and power projects without adequate arrangements for rehabilitation. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
    • Large scale land acquisition for ‘public purposes’ without appropriate compensationor rehabilitation

Measures needed by government to tackle the Maoist insurgency:

  • Modernizing the police force: The scheme focuses on strengthening police infrastructure by construction of secure police stations, training centers, police housing (residential) and equipping police stations with required mobility, modern weaponry, communication equipment and forensic set-up etc.
    • On the administrative side, changes include separation of investigation from law and order, specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes are initiated in several states.
    • Various technological reforms are pushed including modernization of the control room, fast tracking Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System (CCTNS), pushing for National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) and pushing for incorporation of new technology into policing
  • Social Integration: State Governments have surrender and rehabilitation policy, while the Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments through the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme for LWE affected States.
    • Additional incentives are given for surrendering with weapons/ammunition.
    • The surrenderers are also imparted vocational training with a monthly stipend for a maximum period of 36 months.
    • Skill Development: Skill Development in 34 Districts affected by Left Wing Extremism” under implementation from 2011-12 aims to establish ITIs and Skill Development Centers in LWE affected districts.
  • Infrastructure Development: Road Connectivity, communication needs to be rapidly scaled up in LWE affected districts. g.: Mobile towers being set up in remote areas.
  • Community policing improves interface with citizens and makes police more sensitive. E.g. (i) Janamaithri Suraksha Padhathi, Kerala (ii) Friends of Police Movement (FOP), Tamil Nadu (iii) Suraksha Setu – Safe City Surat Project
  • Improve communication network: There should be sharing of information & knowledge to improve the functioning of police force.
  • Better Surveillance and Monitoring with standardization, deployment and integration of private security surveillance system.

Way forward

  • It is the belief of the Government of India that through a holistic approach focusing on development and security-related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled.
  • States play a vital role in maintaining law and order. So, emphasis should be laid on the capacity-building and modernization of the local police forces. Local forces can efficiently and effectively neutralize the LWE organizations.
  • The Kargil Review Committee (KRC) report noted that in wake of Internal security challenges that the country faces, the role and the tasks of the paramilitary forces have to be restructured particularly with reference to command and control and leadership functions.
  • A purely security-driven approach fraught with human rights’ violations has only added to the alienation among the poor in these areas.
  • The Union government and the States must continue to learn from successes such as the expansion of welfare and rights paradigms in limiting the movement and failures that have led to the continuing spiral of violence in select districts.
  • The Maoists must be compelled to give up their armed struggle and this can only happen if the tribal people and civil society activists promoting peace are also empowered.

 

 


General Studies – 4


Topic: Dimensions of ethics

6. Sexual harassment is a violation of human rights and should not be tolerated in any form. Analyze the ethical issues associated with sexual harassment at the workplace and suggest measures on how it should be tackled. 150 Words

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2023. Secure. Also the recent issue of wrestlers protesting against sexual harassment.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about ethical issues related to sexual harassment in the workplace and how it should be tackled.

Directive word: 

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and presenting them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context- rising cases of sexual harassment at workplaces and give some statistics.

Body:

Write about the various ethical issues associated with it – inequality, violence against women, etc.

Give a few examples.

Suggest steps to overcome the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Sexual Harassment at the workplace is one of the issues faced by women in the modern world. It not only violates their right to equality, life, and liberty but also discourages their participation in economic activities.

Body

Impact of sexual harassment on women

  • Emotional Well-Being: Sexual harassment can endanger the victim’s emotional and mental health. It can lead to the loss of self-esteem, and it may even compromise personal relationships. Further, it can cause significant stress and anxiety.
  • Physical Health: Weak emotional health often leads to physical health issues, such as loss of appetite, headaches, weight fluctuations, and sleep disturbances.
  • Financial Challenges: Sexual harassment frequently leads to financial challenges. Victims may even face broader career repercussions, such as the loss of job references. Women may even decide to leave their employment to avoid a hostile work environment.
    • For example, A study led by the ILO found that lewd behaviour and threatening at workplaces were the most well-known reasons due to which women left the workforce in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Global Consequences: low productivity, employee turnover, low morale, and legal costs arising from sexual harassment costs in Millions of Dollars. The economy also suffers due to premature retirement and higher insurance costs (paid if women left the job).

Measures to tackle sexual harassment

  • Justice JS Verma committee. The important recommendations were,
    • The committee recommended Rape and sexual assault are not merely a crime but also seen as an expression of power. So, any non-consensual penetration of a sexual nature has to be included in the definition of rape.
    • It had recommended a tribunal, instead of an ICC. Because dealing with such complaints internally could discourage women from complaining.
    • Rather than functioning as Civil court, the tribunal may choose its own procedure to deal with each complaint. The Committee believed that this will result in speedy disposal of complaints
    • The committee opposed penalizing women for false complaints. The committee observed punishing women can nullify the very objective of the law.
  • Further, the amendment should also include women in armed forces, agriculture to get their grievances redressed. The Act should focus on gender-neutral.
  • The government can form a committee to identify the companies not formed the ICC, companies victimizing the women, etc. We can punish these companies either financially or name and shame the company. This will make companies act according to the provisions of the Act.
  • The government might create a Gender equity company index like LGBT+ workplace equality index. This will create a healthy gender-sensitive competition among companies to hire more women, providing them with enough respect, etc.
  • More than this the attitudinal change is the need of the hour, Government has to raise the awareness about gender-sensitive child-rearing practice. The government can also introduce a gender-equity syllabus at school level. This will provide a long term solution.

Conclusion

The legislation to prevent, protect and redress sexual harassment at the workplace is only a first step. To improve the Gender-equity in society, we need proper enforcement of the legislation, good child-rearing practice and other much-needed steps.

 

Topic: International Ethics

7. The measure of a country’s greatness is its ability to retain compassion in times of crisis. Examine. 150 Words

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Abstract Thursdays’ in Mission-2023. Secure.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it, and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give brief definitions along with examples.

Body:

Write about how compassion is important in any given circumstance. Substantiate with examples.

For example, the way in which a nation responds to a crisis, whether natural disasters, political instability, or economic downturns, is a critical indicator of its moral values and character.

Then write about how to retain compassion in times of crisis, countries need to prioritize the needs of their citizens, especially the most vulnerable ones, over political or economic considerations. They also need to ensure that their responses are guided by ethical principles, such as transparency, accountability, and human dignity.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing.

Introduction

Compassion is a deeper level of empathy, demonstrating an actual desire to help the suffering person. It is a unique feeling of sympathy for the suffering of others that involves emotions and empathy towards others, a sense of understanding, and the drive to protect.

It is the willingness to relieve the suffering of another. It is the sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others. It motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Compassion is often regarded as having sensitivity, an emotional aspect to suffering. Qualities of compassion are patience and wisdom; kindness and perseverance; warmth and resolve.

Body

Compassion, cooperation and solidarity are the guiding stars of humanitarianism. Today in a world mired by wars, terrorism, trafficking, hunger and poverty, the three saviours will be amalgamation of compassion, cooperation and solidarity.

The tragic war between Russia and Ukraine is now into the 2nd year. The assault and humiliation faced by Ukrainian citizens in this period will be remembered as the stigma of the 21st century.

Compassion is a guiding star to advance humanity in crisis settings. Without compassion, which literally means ‘suffering together,’ we would not be able to put ourselves into each other’s shoes, or see a crisis through the eyes of a child and realise that other human lives are worth saving, sometimes by taking risks.

“If we want societies to be inclusive, cohesive and peaceful, this is the time to foster an alliance between cultures, civilizations, and people”. Global fraternity and global village must become a reality to save human kind from an impending apocalypse which is man-made.

Conclusion

The world desperately stands in need of compassion today. A compassion, which reaches out to the unloved, the ostracized, the marginalized and the vulnerable. A compassion, that takes a stand for the poor, the victims of injustice, the refugees and the displaced. A compassion, that is able to negate and overcome the hate and divisiveness. The humankind must be compassionate to each other to see the world thrive.