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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:


GS Paper 1:

  1. The battle to end child marriage
  2. Insufficient Representation of Women in India’s Workforce


GS Paper 2:

  1. UN Report: Improving Maternal and new-born health and Survival and reducing stillbirth
  2. Strategic convergence between the US, UAE, Saudi Arabia


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Financial Inclusion and Energy Conservation: NITI Aayog’s Compendium on Best Practices in Social Sector 2023
  2. Napier grass
  3. Keep Underprivileged Youth Away from Drugs


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF)
  2. Build-Operate-Transfer (toll) model
  3. Land Port Authority of India (LPAI)
  4. ‘Harit Sagar’ Green Port Guidelines
  5. Ethanol blending
  6. Project-SMART
  7. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)
  8. FluHorse



The battle to end child marriage

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Social issues


Source: UNICEF

 Context: According to UNICEF, multiple crises are threatening to reverse hard-earned gains in the decline in child marriage.


Child marriage:

  • It refers to any formal marriage or informal union between a child under the age of (18 for females and 21 for males in India) and an adult or another child.
  • Most child marriages involve girls, many of whom are in poor socio-economic conditions.


Data on child marriage:

  • Worldwide, an estimated 640 million girls and women alive today were married in childhood, or 12 million girls per year.
  • Child marriages have declined from 21 to 19% (globally) since the last estimates were released five years ago.
  • However, global reductions would have to be 20 times faster to meet SDG (5.3) of ending child marriage by 2030.


Status in India:

  • While India has recorded significant progress in recent decades, it still accounts for one-third of the global total (India’s child marriage rate is 21% as per NHFS-5).
  • Eight States have a higher prevalence of child marriage than the national average – West Bengal, Bihar and Tripura top the list with more than 40% of women aged 20-24 years married below 18.


Most affected regions:

  • South Asia continues to remain home to nearly half (45%) of the world’s child brides.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is home to the second-largest global share of child brides (20%).


Highlights of the UNICEF’s findings:

  • The world is engulfed by a ‘Polycrisis’ – a cluster of related global risks with compounding effects, such that the overall impact exceeds the sum of each part.
  • Health and economic crises (rising poverty, income shocks), escalating armed conflicts, climate change shocks and the ongoing impacts of COVID-19 are forcing families into child marriage.
  • Girls living in fragile settings are twice as likely to become child brides as the average girl globally.

Fig: Factors Driving Child Marriage


Immediate and lifelong consequences on girls:

  • Less likely to remain in school.
  • Difficult for girls to access health care, social services and community support that protect them from child marriage.
  • Increased risk of early pregnancy → increasing the risk of child and maternal health complications and mortality.
  • Can also isolate girls from family and friends, taking a heavy toll on their mental health and well-being.


Laws and policy interventions in India:

  • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012 aim at protecting children from violation of human and other rights.
  • A parliamentary standing committee is weighing the pros and cons of raising the age of marriage for women to 21, which has been cleared by the Union Cabinet.
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana: The government launched this scheme in 2015 to encourage parents to save money for the future of their girl child
  • Kanyashree Prakalpa Scheme: The West Bengal government launched this scheme in 2013 to promote the education and welfare of girls and prevent child marriage in the state.
  • National Plan of Action for Children: The plan includes strategies to prevent child marriage and promote education and healthcare for children
  • Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme


Way ahead for India:

  • The solution lies in empowering girls, creating proper public infrastructure and addressing societal norms.
  • At the gram panchayat level, ensuring that Child Protection Committees and Child Marriage Prohibition officers are doing the job and activating community support groups.
    • Best practice: Odisha now has over 12,000 Child Marriage Free Villages.



It is possible to end child marriage, which requires unwavering support for vulnerable girls and families. The focus should be on keeping girls in school and making sure they have economic opportunities.


Insta Links:

ILO–UNICEF joint report on social protection for children

Insufficient Representation of Women in India’s Workforce

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Role of women


Source: BBC

 Context: India surpassed China as the world’s most populous country, which led analysts to highlight the potential benefits of India’s demographic dividend.

A major obstacle to realising this potential: Insufficient representation of women in India’s workforce.

Significance of more women in the workforce: India could add $550bn to its GDP by increasing its female labour force participation by just 10% (McKinsey).

What does the data say? Nearly half of India’s population is female and yet, the female participation rate in India’s labour force has consistently fallen from its peak in 2000 (31%) to a low of 21% in 2018 (World Bank).


Reasons for this:

  • India is still a largely patriarchal society:
    • Indian women spend 8 times the number of hours on unpaid care work compared with men. The global average is 3 times.
    • Only 32% of Indian women work after they get married and most of them are part of the agricultural sector.
  • Safety concerns: Not being able to find jobs close to home also prevent women in big cities from joining the workforce.
  • Insufficient formal wage employment opportunities: For example, women employees account for less than 20% of India’s manufacturing sector.
  • Concentration in low/non-productive jobs: Like agriculture, primary caregiver at home, etc.
  • Lack of opportunities for women returning to their careers after a professional break.
  • Higher level of participation in education and increase in the family income.




Steps taken:

  • A new Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has been established to coordinate the skill development schemes across various sectors.
  • The National Career Service (NCS) Project provides a nationwide online platform for job seekers and employers.
  • The Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act 2017 provides for enhancement in paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks and provisions for mandatory crèche facilities.
  • An advisory to the States under the Factories Act 1948 for permitting women workers in the night shifts with adequate safety measures.
  • A network of Women Industrial Training institutes, National Vocational Training Institutes and Regional Vocational Training Institutes.
  • A number of protective provisions have been incorporated in various labour laws – The Equal Remuneration Act 1976, The Minimum Wages Act 1948.


Best practices:

  • TVS (one of India’s biggest two-wheeler manufacturers): Offers a scheme for women who are returning to their careers (after the break) with flexible working hours, mentoring and training to them.
  • Gabriel India Ltd [An auto parts company in Hosur (Tamil Nadu)]: It provides perks such as on-site accommodation, subsidised food and training programmes to attract more women workers, as their attrition rates are lower compared to their male counterparts.


Way ahead:

  • A policy framework encouraging and enabling women’s participation should be constructed.
  • Active awareness of the “gender-specific” constraints that face most women.
  • Gender-responsive policies need to be contextually developed.
  • The goal is not merely to increase female labour force participation, but to provide opportunities for decent work → contribute to the economic empowerment of women.


Conclusion: Women’s labour force participation and access to decent work are important and necessary elements of an inclusive and sustainable development (SDG 5) process.


Insta Links:

Women in the workforce


Mains Links:

What are the continued challenges for women in India against time and space? (UPSC 2019)

UN Report: Improving Maternal and newborn health and Survival and reducing stillbirth

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Social Justice: Health


Source: WHO 

Context: According to a report by the United Nations global progress on improving maternal and newborn health has halted since 2015.

Objective of the report: It outlines progress at the mid-point for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and highlights priority actions towards eliminating preventable maternal and newborn deaths and stillbirths.


Global Findings:

  • Global progress in reducing deaths of pregnant women, mothers and babies has stagnated for eight years
  • Deaths: Over 4.5 million women and babies die every year during pregnancy, childbirth or the first weeks after birth – mostly from preventable or treatable causes if proper care was available.
    • 290 000 maternal deaths each year
    • 1.9 million stillbirths (babies who die after 28 weeks of pregnancy )
    • 2.3 million newborn deaths (in the first month of life)


India Findings:

  • India tops the list of 10 countries which bear 60% of global maternal deaths, stillbirths & newborn deaths burden
  • India accounts for 17 per cent of global maternal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal births


Despite the high numbers, As per the Sample Registration System (SRS) report by the Registrar General of India (RGI), the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of India has reduced from 130 per 100,000 live births in 2014-16 to 113 per 100,000 live births in 2016-18.


Reasons for the halt in progress:

Reasons Examples
Decreasing investments in maternal and newborn health Just 1 in 10 countries (of more than 100 surveyed) report having sufficient funds to implement their health schemes related to maternal and newborns.
Lack of Infrastructure Less than a third of countries report having sufficient newborn care and maternal care units.
Prematurity (the leading cause of under-five deaths globally) According to the report, every year, 2.5 million babies are born prematurely, and one million of these babies die due to complications.
COVID-19 pandemic Around a quarter of countries still report ongoing disruptions to vital pregnancy and postnatal care and services for sick children.
Rising poverty Poverty can impact access to quality maternal and child healthcare services, nutrition, and education.
Worsening humanitarian crises For example, the current crisis in Sudan and the Russia-Ukraine war can affect access to healthcare services and supplies.
Gender inequality Only about 60% of women aged 15-49 years make their own decisions regarding sexual and reproductive health and rights. This can affect access to healthcare services and information.



  • Scale-up access to quality sexual and reproductive health services as part of universal health coverage and primary health care
  • Use of technology: E.g., using a simple, low-cost collection device called a ‘drape’ to reduce blood loss during delivery
  • Addressing harmful gender norms, biases and inequalities
  • Investment and political commitment
  • Strengthening service delivery for quality and respectful care
  • Community engagement
  • Data and information systems
  • Access to quality emergency obstetric care (EmOC)


Targets to be achieved:

Frame an action plan to end preventable newborn deaths
Build strategies for ending preventable maternal mortality
90% of pregnant women receiving at least four antenatal care contacts
Skilled health personnel attending 90% of births
80% of new mothers and babies receive postnatal care within two days of birth
80% of districts across countries have access to emergency obstetric services and small and sick newborn care

Insta Links:

Maternal death rate declining: report


Mains Links:

In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate healthcare policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal healthcare. Discuss. (UPSC 2020)

Strategic convergence between the US, UAE, Saudi Arabia

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: International Relations


Source: IE

 Context: The meeting in Riyadh between Saudi Arabia and the US, UAE, and India underlines the growing strategic convergence between Delhi and Washington in the Gulf.


What is unique about this meeting?

  • A major departure from the traditional approaches to the Middle East in both India and the US.
  • In India, the Nehruvian foreign policy either opposed Washington or kept its distance from the US in the Middle East.
Recent changes in India’s foreign policy Impact
Shedding its “anti-Western” lens in the Middle East. Joining hands with the US (in the Middle East), openly showcased its friendly relations to Israel. Transformed India’s relations with the two Arabian kingdoms – Saudi Arabia and the UAE, into solid strategic partnerships.


France has emerged as an important partner in the Gulf and the Western Indian Ocean. India now has a trilateral dialogue with Abu Dhabi and Paris. The formation of a four-nation grouping (in October 2021) called I2U2 brought the US, India, Israel, and the UAE together.


Delhi and London are expected to work together in the Gulf soon. Britain enjoys much residual influence in the Gulf. A new quadrilateral with the US, UAE, and Saudi Arabia.



Recent changes in USA’s foreign policy (recalibrating its regional strategy):

  • Pakistan was a key part of the Baghdad Pact (1955), Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Regional Cooperation for Development (1964) to counter the Communist threat to the region.
  • However, it does not figure in the current strategy to connect the Gulf with the Subcontinent.
  • This means the US is discarding its pro-Pakistan bias in thinking about the relationship between the Subcontinent and the Gulf and building new partnerships, including with Delhi.


What led to the changes in the foreign policies of India and the US?

  • The decline in the Role of Pakistan in the Middle East:
    • Pakistan’s continuing strategic decline, and socio-economic-political challenges.
    • Pakistan has drifted too close to China (all-weather partnership), tempted to align with China and Russia in the region.
  • The rising power of the Arabian Peninsula:
    • The Gulf kingdoms (especially Saudi Arabia and the UAE) have accumulated massive financial capital and economic transformation will reduce their dependence on oil.
    • They have also begun to diversify their strategic partnerships, develop nationalism, promote religious tolerance and initiate social reform.


India’s new possibilities in the Arabian Peninsula:

  • Regional partnership with the US is seen in terms of geopolitical competition with China, elevating its own standing in the region.
  • Economic growth and productive involvement in promoting connectivity and security.
  • Overcoming violent religious extremism within the Subcontinent.


Challenges: Beijing is now the second most important power in the world, and its diplomatic and political influence in the Gulf region will continue to rise.


Conclusion: Seizing the new strategic opportunities in the Gulf would involve the long overdue modernisation of Delhi’s strategic discourse on the Gulf.


Insta Links:

Diplomatic Dispatch- I2U2 Summit


Mains Links:

‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)’ is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss. (UPSC 2020)

Financial Inclusion and Energy Conservation: NITI Aayog’s Compendium on Best Practices in Social Sector 2023

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)


Source: Niti Aayog


Every day, in this section we are bringing best practices from each category. Today’s best practices will cover  ‘Financial inclusion and Energy conservation’

Initiative Components Impact
PM SVANidhi (Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs) For providing working capital loans to urban street vendors affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and other benefits to their family members



·        SVANidhi se Samriddhi programme (for Socio-economic profiling of beneficiaries to link them to other schemes)

·        Swadisht Vyanjan Ki Adhunik Dukaan (SVAD) (to increase the delivery footprint of street vendors)

·        Main Bhi Digital campaign (vendors are trained to become digitally active)

Over 26 lakh street vendors across India have availed benefits. More than 24 lakh street vendors have been onboarded digitally.
Project Uddyam (Talasari, Palgarh, Maharashtra) For enhancing the income of the tribal households and creation of local women managers for local collectives Agro-extension services to over 10,000 farmers; 20 Warli paintings producer groups formed, community cadres organized.
Telangana State Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) for commercial buildings Effective implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) Around 430 commercial buildings have been certified as ECBC compliant. Received National Energy Conservation Award, 2020 from Bureau of Energy Efficiency
Ethanol Blending (Department of Food and Public Distribution) Production of ethanol from sugarcane and its benefits to the Indian economy Reduction in oil import bills, improvement in air quality, investment opportunities, and addressing the problem of excess sugarcane/sugar.

Napier grass

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: DTE

 Napier grass, also known as elephant grass, is a productive and versatile forage grass native to Africa and Southeast Asia. It is widely used as feed for livestock and in bioenergy applications.


Favourable properties for its use in bio-energy:

  • Energy output-to-input ratio of approximately 25:1
  • High yield
  • Ability to withstand drought conditions
  • An excellent feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes
  • it can be harvested 5-6 times annually
  • Short cycle: Its first harvest occurs four months after planting.


Napier grass is found in various parts of India, including Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala.


Usage: The example can be used in Geography/Economy/Environment questions for alternative energy sources.

Keep Underprivileged Youth Away from Drugs

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: TH

The Venda Cup is a football tournament organized by the Bengaluru-based NGO Fourthwave Foundation, aimed at keeping vulnerable youth away from drugs.


The boys and girls aged under 18, have been selected from four districts in Kerala identified as prone to drug use. The competition will be held on the four-a-side international slum soccer model, with fair play being an important component.


The Foundation’s Project Venda, which was launched six years ago, aims to actively engage vulnerable youngsters in sports and activities of interest to them. It has been recognized by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime as one of the best practices in working with children and young adults.


Usage: The example shows values of Empathy, Fairness, Community building, and Social responsibility

Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: BS

 Context: India fears that a proposal by the US under the “supply chains” pillar of the IPEF could violate WTO rules and reduce policy space.

US proposal: All IPEF partner nations would be required to give advance notification of any changes to export regulations and tariffs.

India’s concern: Notifications are usually done only after measures are taken and not before. India has therefore sought industry inputs to protect its interests.


  • It is an economic initiative launched by the US President Joe Biden on May 23, 2022.
  • The framework launched with a total of 14 participating founding member nations in the Indo-Pacific region with an open invitation for other countries to join.
  • The IPEF members represent 40% of the global GDP and 28% of the world’s trade.
  • Analysts have compared it to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which the US withdrew from in 2017.


The IPEF has four pillars:

  • Trade, supply chains, clean economy, and fair economy.
  • India has yet to take a call on whether to join the trade pillar, though it has joined the other three.


Land Port Authority of India (LPAI)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: ET

Context:  Recently, Union Home Minister laid the foundation stone of various development projects of LPAI.

About the Land Ports Authority of India (LPAI):

The Land Ports Authority of India is a statutory body established under the Land Ports Authority of India Act, 2010 to provide safe, secure and systematic facilities for the movement of cargo as well passengers at its Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) along the international borders of India.
Responsible for Developing and managing facilities for the cross-border movement of passengers and goods at designated points along international borders
Under Ministry of Home Affairs
Operational land ports Currently 9: Attari, Agartala, Petrapole, Raxaul, Jogbani, Moreh, Sutarkandi, Srimantapur, and PTB at Dera Baba Nanak
Purpose To establish, operate and manage Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) along land borders of India
What are ICPs? These are facilities established at designated points along international borders to provide a single-window service for customs clearance, immigration, and other regulatory clearances for the cross-border movement of goods and people.

Build-Operate-Transfer (toll) model

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: FE

 Context: The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is working on increasing the share of the Build-Operate-Transfer (toll) model in highway construction to 10% of the total awards


Status of the model used:

As per the ICRA report: EPC will remain the mainstay of awarding contracts, accounting for 70-75% of total projects offered while BOT will be less than 5%.


Aim of NHAI: Building 60% of highways through HAM, 30% through EPC, and 10% through BOT (toll).


Changes proposed in BOT:

  • NHAI will offer only viable projects with land already tied up for bidding, which can be completed on their own or with viability gap funding.
  • NHAI will commit 90% of the construction zone (land for execution) for such projects
  • Flexibility has been given to concession holders, allowing them to change ownership after a year instead of two years as was the rule earlier.
  • Innovations like dispute resolution boards and sharing of traffic risk have been provided to make BOT (toll) more attractive.


Comparison of three models:

Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Model Build-Operate-Transfer Model Hybrid Annuity Model
The government pays private players to lay roads. The private player has no role in the road’s ownership, toll collection or maintenance (it is taken care of by the government) Private players build, operate and maintain the road for a specified number of years before transferring the asset back to the government. A mix of EPC and BOT: NHAI releases 40 per cent of the total project cost. The balance of 60 per cent is arranged by the developer
Risk: Borne by NHAI Borne by concessionaire Shared between NHAI and concessionaire
Cost sharing: NHAI bears the full cost The concessionaire bears construction and O&M costs NHAI and concessionaire share construction and O&M costs
Ownership: NHAI owns the project from beginning Concessionaire owns the project for the concession period, then transfers to NHAI Concessionaire owns the project for 15 years, then transfers to NHAI

‘Harit Sagar’ Green Port Guidelines

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB

Context: The Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways has launched the ‘Harit Sagar’ Green Port Guidelines to achieve the larger vision of achieving the Zero Carbon Emission Goal.


Key points of the ‘Harit Sagar Guidelines 2023’:

Objective To achieve Zero Carbon Emission Goal and promote environmental-friendly practices across all ports
Envisages Ecosystem dynamics in port development, operation, and maintenance
Emphasizes Use of Clean/Green energy in port operation, development of port capabilities for storage, handling and bunkering of greener fuels
Provides a framework for Major ports to draw a comprehensive action plan for achieving a quantified reduction in carbon emission over defined timelines
Aims to achieve Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG) and minimising waste through reducing, reusing, repurposing, and Recycling to attain zero waste discharge from port operations
Promotes Monitoring based on Environmental Performance Indicators
Covers aspects of National Green Hydrogen Mission pertaining to ports, development of green hydrogen facility, LNG bunkering, Offshore Wind Energy
Provides provision for Adopting the global Green Reporting Initiative (GRI) standard


The ‘Sagar Shreshtha Samman’ awards were also conferred to major ports for their exceptional achievements in various operational parameters during the event.


Awards conferred to major ports during FY-2022-23:

Award Category Port Achievement
Best Absolute Performance Deendayal Port, Kandla Handling the highest cargo of 137 MMT
Overall Annual Performance Paradip Port Based on cargo handling, average turnaround time, ship birthday output, idle time at berth, operating ratio
A major milestone in Turn Around Time Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) Achieving a major milestone in Turn Around Time

Ethanol blending

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: HBL


Context: Oil marketing companies (OMCs) receive 45% of contracted 514 crore litres of ethanol for the ethanol supply year (ESY) 2022-23 ending October. It will help them to increase blending to 11.65% against 10% during the same period a year ago.


Ethanol blending in India:

Topic Information
What is Ethanol blending? Blending ethanol with petrol to burn less fossil fuel while running vehicles
National Policy on Biofuels 2018 Target 20% ethanol blending under the Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme by 2025; the Current Ethanol Blending Ratio is 10%; the Current year target is 12%.
Significance Less polluting fuel, lower cost, energy security, transitioning to a low carbon economy, enabling local enterprises and farmers to participate in the energy economy
Benefits of Ethanol Blending Estimated $4 billion per annum saving with 20% ethanol blending; Reduction in the emission of CO2, CO, and HC, a lower share of oil imports, replacement of crude oil, boosting farmers’ income, minimizing air pollution
Challenges Shift towards sugarcane production, storage constraint, food insecurity, instability of ethanol movement between states, no reduction in emission of nitrous oxide
Recent Government Initiatives National Policy on Biofuels 2018, E100 Pilot project, Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana 2019, Repurpose Used Cooking Oil (RUCO); a pilot project for E20 fuel launched recently
Way Forward Ensuring uniform availability of ethanol blends, promoting advanced biofuels, addressing challenges associated with ethanol blending


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB


Context: The Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and the Ministry of Railways in India have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for ‘Station Area Development along Mumbai-Ahmedabad High-Speed Rail’ (Project-SMART)


Aim: To develop the areas surrounding the Mumbai-Ahmedabad High-Speed Railway (MAHSR) stations to improve the accessibility and convenience of commuters and promote economic activities in the vicinity of station areas.


About Mumbai-Ahmedabad High-Speed Rail (MAHSR):

Aspect Description
Inauguration The project was inaugurated in 2017


Location From Sabarmati (Gujarat) to Bandra (Mumbai). It will pass through three districts in Maharashtra, eight in Gujarat and will cut through Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
Implementing agency National High-Speed Rail Corporation (NHSRCL)
Distance 508 KM
Significance It is the first and only approved bullet train in India. HSR has an economic multiplier effect and is expected to further catalyze India’s economic growth and act as a stimulus for the development of satellite towns.
Technology Automatic train control, Undersea tunnel technology, E5 Series Shinkansen Technology, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology
Challenges faced by the MAHSR Challenges in land acquisition, significant engineering challenges, and daily passenger requirements for the project to make investments even


NHSRCL (National High-Speed Rail Corporation Limited) is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) created in 2016 with the objective of financing, constructing, maintaining and managing the High-Speed Rail Corridor in India. The SPV has equity participation from the Central Government through the Ministry of Railways, as well as the governments of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: IE

 Context: Car manufacturers have started providing ADAS which could create a safe traffic environment resulting in reduced accidental death.

What is ADAS? Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is an electronic system of automated vehicle safety features.
Components The System uses innovative sensor technology to provide information, warnings, and assistance to the driver while they are driving.
Role The role of ADAS is to prevent deaths and injuries by reducing the number of car accidents and the serious impact of those that cannot be avoided on the road.
ADAS Applications Adaptive Cruise Control, Glare-Free High Beam Light, Adaptive Light Control, Automatic Parking, Autonomous Valet Parking, Navigation System, Night Vision,
What is Autonomous Driving? Autonomous driving is the ability of a vehicle to drive itself.
Challenges to Self-Driving Cars Limited success; No consensus on technology to be used; Available technology at present do not have the capacity of humans to predict and take decision in complex traffic scenario; and lack of government support.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: BS

Context: A new Android malware named ‘FluHorse’ has been discovered that targets users in Eastern Asia with fake carrier apps that mimic legitimate versions, such as the Taiwanese toll collection app ‘ETC’ and the Vietnamese banking app ‘VPBank Neo’.


The malicious apps are designed to extract sensitive information, including user credentials and Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) codes.


What is Android malware?

Android malware is malicious software designed to target Android smartphones and tablets. Malware can come in various forms, such as trojan horses, viruses, and spyware, and can be distributed through various channels, such as malicious apps, phishing emails, and websites.


What are Two-Factor Authentication codes?

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) codes are a security measure used to protect user accounts. In addition to requiring a password to access an account, 2FA adds an extra layer of security by requiring a unique code ( such as OTP) to be entered as well.


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