InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
- India and BRICS
GS Paper 3:
- National Manufacturing Innovation Survey (NMIS) 2021-22
- Labour Day
- Gig economy
Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
- Bihan Mela (Seed Festival)
- Rajasthan Platform-based Gig Workers Bill
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
- Thrissur Pooram
- Blue Hole
- Hate Speech
- Star rating system for water taps, and sanitary fixtures: Bharat Tap
- Lesser flamingos
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: International Relations
Context: 19 nations including Saudi Arabia, UAE, Algeria, Egypt, Bahrain, and Iran have expressed interest in joining the emerging-markets bloc of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa).
|BRICS (founded: 2009; HQ: Shanghai) is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (included in 2010)|
|Origin||The term “BRIC” was coined by the British Economist Jim O’Neill in 2001 to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.|
|Share of BRICS||BRICS brings together five of the largest developing countries, representing 41% of the global population, 24% of the global GDP, and 16% of the global trade (By 2028, BRICS is expected to make up 35 per cent of the global economy)|
|Chairmanship||The chairmanship of the forum is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S. South Africa is the chair for 2023.|
|Initiatives of BRICS||1. New Development Bank (NDB) 2. Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) 3. BRICS Payment System 4. Customs Agreements 5. Remote Sensing Satellite|
|New Initiative||BRICS is planning to launch its own “new currency” system, a major step towards de-dollarization (reducing dependence on the US dollar for trade)|
Importance of BRICS for India:
|Geo-Politics||BRICS provides India with an opportunity to balance its strategic interests between the US and the Russia-China axis.|
|Global Economic Order||BRICS plays an important role in the G20, in shaping global economic policies and promoting financial stability.|
|Voice of Developing Nations||BRICS has emerged as the voice of developing countries and is playing a significant role in protecting the rights of developing countries.|
|Terrorism||BRICS provides a platform for India to galvanize its efforts against terrorism and has worked within the grouping to take a strong stand against terrorism.|
|Global Grouping||BRICS provides an opportunity for India to actively engage with China and resolve mutual disputes. It also helps in garnering support from other partner countries.|
Challenges for BRICS:
|Economic Divergence||Brazil and Russia have been experiencing economic recessions in recent years, while China and India have sustained high growth rates. South Africa’s economy has been performing poorly, with high levels of unemployment and inequality.|
|Political Differences||Russia’s annexation of Crimea and involvement in conflicts in Ukraine and Syria have strained its relations with other BRICS members. China’s territorial claims in the South China Sea have been a source of tension with other BRICS countries that have competing claims in the region.|
|Institutional Constraints||The New Development Bank (NDB), established by BRICS in 2014 to provide development financing, has faced challenges in disbursing loans and identifying viable projects. The Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA), a pool of foreign exchange reserves, has not been tested yet.|
|Coordination Difficulties||Disagreements over the governance structure of the NDB and the CRA, as well as differing priorities in areas such as trade, investment, and climate change, have made it difficult for BRICS to present a unified front on many issues.|
|External Pressures||The rise of protectionism, nationalism, and populism in some advanced economies has posed challenges for BRICS in terms of trade, investment, and access to capital.|
Way forward for BRICS:.
|Reform of Multilateral Institutions||BRICS countries could jointly advocate for the reform of the UN Security Council, calling for the inclusion of more developing countries as permanent members.|
|Resolve to Combat Terrorism||BRICS countries could share best practices and intelligence to combat terrorism, as well as work together to cut off funding and resources for terrorist groups.|
|Promoting Technological and Digital Solutions for the SDGs||BRICS countries could share their experiences in adopting and implementing digital solutions in these sectors|
|Expanding People-to-People Cooperation||BRICS countries could organize joint cultural events and exhibitions, establish more student exchange programs and scholarships, and encourage more tourism and business visits to each other’s countries.|
BRICS faces several challenges such as internal differences, global economic slowdown, and geopolitical tensions. However, the group can remain relevant by expanding its agenda to promote comprehensive development and enhanced cooperation among all states. BRICS should also focus on the democratization of international issues, respect for cultural diversity, and peaceful resolution of conflicts.
Discuss the importance of BRICS for India. (250 Words)
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Manufacturing sector
Context: The Department of Science and Technology in India has released the “National Manufacturing Innovation Survey (NMIS) 2021-22: Summary for Policymakers” to enhance the competitiveness of Indian manufacturing and increase its share in the GDP.
|National Manufacturing Innovation Survey (NMIS) 2021-22|
|Conducted By||Department of Science and Technology (DST) in collaboration with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)|
|Objective||To evaluate the innovation performance of manufacturing firms in India|
|Components||Firm-level survey and sectoral systems of innovation (SSI) survey (in 5 selected sectors i.e., food & beverage, textiles, automotive, pharmaceutical, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT))|
|India Manufacturing Innovation Index (IMII)||The firm-level survey captured data related to the process of innovation, access to finance, resources, and information for innovation etc. for firms. These data were then used to compile India Manufacturing Innovation Index (IMII), covering 28 states and 6 UTs|
|Follow-up||DST’s first National Innovation Survey held in 2011|
|About UNIDO||UNIDO (est: 1966; HQ: Vienna, Austria) is a specialized agency of the UN to promote and accelerate industrial development. India is one of UNIDO’s Founding Members.|
|Status of India’s Manufacturing Sector||The Indian manufacturing industry generated 16-17% of India’s GDP (the target is 25%) and is projected to be one of the fastest-growing sectors.|
Major Findings of the NMIS Survey 2021-22:
|Innovative firms||Nearly 25% of India is innovative|
|Top-ranked state in innovation (in IMII)||Karnataka> Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu> Telangana> Tamil Nadu|
|Lowest ranked state||North-eastern states> Bihar> Assam> Jharkhand|
|Lack of finance from external sources as a barrier||Nearly 40% of the firms faced this issue|
|Triple-Helix model focus||The survey focuses on this model. It refers to the relationships between universities, knowledge-based institutions (KBIs), firms, governments, and hybrid organizations|
Recommendations of the Survey:
|Awareness campaign for innovation||E.g., Through events, webinars, and media campaigns.|
|Collaboration (Triple-Helix model focus)||Create a joint R&D program between universities, research institutes, and industries to foster collaboration and sharing of best practices.|
|Innovation centres||Establish innovation centres in every state that offer training and funding to MSMEs.|
|Investment||Encourage venture capitalists and angel investors to invest in innovative startups by providing tax incentives and reducing regulatory barriers.|
|Financing||Establish a government-backed loan program that offers low-interest loans to firms for innovation projects.|
|Workforce||Promote STEM education and provide training programs for workers to learn new skills in emerging technologies.|
|Industry 4.0 technologies||Provide financial assistance to firms to upgrade their manufacturing facilities with digital technologies such as IoT, AI, and big data analytics.|
|Intellectual property rights protection||Establish a strong legal framework that protects patents, trademarks, and copyrights, and provides swift enforcement against infringement.|
Q.1 “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far are the recent changes in Industrial Policy capable of increasing the industrial growth rate? ( UPSC 2017)
Q.2 Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis the industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base? (UPSC 2014)
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation
Context: May 1 is widely known as Labour Day/International Worker’s Day – a day to celebrate the contribution of workers worldwide.
- The origin of Labour Day dates back to the 19th century – when a nationwide strike of 1886 for an eight-hour workday culminated in a violent movement in Chicago, US.
- In 1889, the International Socialist Conference declared May 1 would be an international holiday for labour/May Day/Labour Day/Workers Day.
- In India, the first Labour Day (initiated by the Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan) was celebrated on May 1, 1923, in Madras.
The primary objective of Labour Day:
- To acknowledge the hard work and dedication of the working class,
- Create awareness about their rights, and
- Protect them from exploitation.
Current trends in the labour market worldwide: Three years after the COVID-19,
- Small and micro-enterprises/people have been hard hit by inflation
- Lack of opportunities
- Real wages have fallen, and poverty inequality is rising
Indian labour market – Major issues:
- Surplus labour force: Without the commensurate rise in job opportunities in the labour market.
- Unskilled labour force: Leading to a rise in indecent/poor quality jobs like manual scavenging, etc.
- For example, 8 people died in Gujarat (in April 2023) while cleaning sewers, despite the practice being declared illegal across the country.
- Low absorption of skilled labour
- Labour market imperfections: Such as lack of adequate information regarding jobs, numerous labour laws, etc.
- The workers in the unorganised sector: Constitute about 93% of the total workforce in the country → not covered under social security measures → most affected during COVID-19 pandemic.
- Unemployment: Causing problems like disguised unemployment, seasonal unemployment, open unemployment and educated unemployment.
- Son of the soil doctrine: For example, Haryana enacted a new law reserving 75% of private sector jobs with monthly salaries up to ₹30,000 for locals.
|Global||The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a UN agency to advance social and economic justice by setting international labour standards.
In 1919, the ILO adopted the Hours of Work (Industry) Convention (British India ratified in 1921), limiting the number of working hours to eight a day and 48 hours a week.
The Declaration of Philadelphia (1944) restated the traditional objectives of the ILO and highlighted two new directions: the centrality of human rights to social policy, and the need for international economic planning.
|India||Labour falls under the Concurrent List of the Constitution.
The central government replaced the 29 existing labour laws with four Codes.
These Codes regulate (i) Wages, (ii) Industrial Relations, (iii) Social Security, and (iv) Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions.
eShram: This portal will help build a comprehensive National Database of Unorganised Workers (NDUW) in the country.
PM Shram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM): Meant for old age protection and social security of Unorganised workers.
Aam Admi Bima Yojana: Providing social security to unorganised sector workers.
How to prioritise social justice for a sustainable and stable future?
- Policies and actions must be human-centred.
- Focusing on ‘decent work’: The most effective way to reduce inequality, and poverty and ensure social protection is a ‘Decent Work for All’ – SDG 8.
- Addressing the long-term structural transformations: By ensuring that new technology creates and supports employment, and skills training, treating demographic changes/migration as a ‘dividend’.
- Reinvigorate labour institutions and organisations: To make social dialogue effective and vigorous.
- Review laws and regulations: To make them up-to-date – protecting workers and supporting sustainable businesses.
- Creating a global platform: To recommit to international cooperation and solidarity and to create greater policy coherence, a Global Coalition for Social Justice is needed.
Conclusion: Social justice should be the keystone of labour reforms at the level of national, regional and global policies and actions. This will help in achieving equitable and resilient societies.
“Success of the ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of the ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments. (UPSC 2015)
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Indian Economy and related issues
Context: The recent strike by Zomato-owned Blinkit delivery agents has once again brought to the forefront the issues plaguing the gig economy in the country.
Background: The strikes began when Blinkit slashed the minimum payout per delivery to Rs 15 per delivery from Rs 25.
The gig economy in India:
- According to the NITI Aayog estimates, nearly 23.5 million workers will be engaged in the gig economy by 2029.
|Gig workers refer to workers outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship. There are two groups of gig workers – platform workers and non-platform workers.|
|Platform workers||Non-platform workers|
|When gig workers use online algorithmic matching platforms or apps to connect with customers, they are called platform workers.||Those who work outside of these platforms are non-platform workers, including construction workers and non-technology-based temporary workers.|
Issues faced by gig workers:
- Since the gig economy falls outside the scope of traditional, full-time employment, gig workers usually lack basic employment rights such as
- Minimum wages,
- Overtime pay,
- Medical leave, and
- A statutorily bound resolution of employer-employee disputes.
- Whether gig workers should be categorised as ‘employees’ or as ‘independent contractors’?
- It depends on the extent of control and supervision exercised by the employer and the integration of the worker with the organisation.
- In India, employees are entitled to a host of benefits under the Minimum Wages Act 1948, EPF Act 1952 and the Payment of Bonus Act 1965.
- Similarly, contract labourers are governed under the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act 1970 and are entitled to benefits under the EPF.
- However, gig workers display characteristics of both employees and independent contractors → as a result fall outside the ambit of statutory benefits.
What is the proposed law for gig workers? In keeping with the National Commission on Labour’s recommendation to consolidate central labour laws, the Ministry of Labour and Employment introduced the Code on Social Security 2020.
Salient provisions in the Code on Social Security 2020:
- It brings gig workers within the ambit of labour laws for the first time.
- It distinguishes between such workers and employees.
- It stipulates that Central and State Governments must frame suitable social security schemes for gig workers.
- A social security fund for gig workers, to which Gig employers must contribute 1-2% of their annual turnover → to be used for the aforementioned schemes.
- It also mandates the compulsory registration of all gig workers to avail of benefits under these schemes.
- It also envisages the constitution of a National Social Security Board by the Central government to monitor the implementation of such schemes.
- Out of the four new labour codes proposed, gig work finds reference only in the Code on Social Security.
- Hence, they cannot create legally recognised unions and access a national minimum wage that applies to all forms of employment.
- Gig workers are excluded from the category of ‘unorganised workers’ or ‘wage workers’.
- Gig workers also remain excluded from accessing the specialised redressal mechanism against their employers.
- They also do not have the right to collective bargaining – a fundamental principle of modern labour law.
- All the above leads to the violation of their fundamental rights under Articles 14 and 21 and comes within the meaning of forced labour under Article 23.
Can judicial intervention be expected? A petition demanding that gig workers or platform workers be declared as ‘unorganised workers’ so that they come under the purview of the Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008, is pending in the SC of India.
- In 2021, the UK Supreme Court classified Uber drivers as ‘workers’ under the UK Employment Rights Act 1996.
- Germany’s Temporary Employment Act provides for equal pay and equal treatment of gig workers.
- Singapore has also proposed legislative changes to extend work injury insurance and pension coverage to such workers.
Way ahead for India:
- The Labour Codes need to be implemented as soon as possible.
- For this, State governments should frame rules as soon as possible.
How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased in formalization detrimental to the development of the country? (UPSC 2016)
Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
In Odisha, a group of young bonded labourers has formed a network called Shramavahini, which uses smartphones and social media to alert authorities and rescue fellow workers in distress. The network has over 4,000 members who report cases of distressed labourers requiring assistance from the district administration and concerned officials.
Aim: Shramavahini aims to combat the issue of migrant labourers’ voices going unheard by local administration by facilitating the rescue of distressed labourers as quickly as possible.
Usage: The example highlights the ethical values of empathy towards fellow labourers in distress; Social responsibility; collaboration with civic authorities etc. It can be used in ethics/Governance paper
The Bihan Mela, or seed festival, has been initiated by the non-profit Nirman in the Nayagarh district of Odisha to help tribal Kondh farmers return to their traditional ways of farming, including mixed-cropping.
Working: The festival involves the exchange of indigenous seeds and serves as a platform for farmers to collect, store and share their native varieties of crops. The non-profit also set up a seed bank in Raisar village to facilitate access to indigenous seeds.
Aim: The Bihan Mela and seed bank aim to address the issue of crop failures caused by erratic rainfall and pest attacks, and to restore food and nutritional security to the region’s farmers.
Usage: The example can be used in Agriculture questions, questions related to Farmers’ Rights in the PPV&FR Act, 2001
The Rajasthan government’s proposed Rajasthan Platform-based Gig Workers (Registration and Welfare) Bill, 2023, which will introduce a welfare board, is a step towards ensuring the welfare of gig workers.
For Gig Workers, working conditions have become increasingly harsh, with gig workers not recognized as “workers” and lacking any social security or related benefits.
Usage: The example can be used as a legislative measure for new digital workers (Platform workers) as well as Gig workers in the Economy/Governance Paper
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Context: Thrissur Pooram, a festival celebrated in the Malayalam month of Medam, took place with great fanfare.
About Thrissur Pooram:
|Thrissur Pooram is an annual Hindu temple festival held in Thrissur, Kerala. It is held at the Vadakkunnathan Temple in Thrissur every year on the Pooram day (the day when the moon rises with the Pooram star in the Malayalam Calendar month of Medam)|
|Date||Occurs on the day when the star sign “Pooram” occurs in the Malayalam month of “Medam” (April-May)|
|Origin||The festival was initiated by Raja Rama Varma, also known as Sakthan Thampuran, the Maharaja of Cochin (1790–1805)|
|Purpose||A ceremony where ten temples in and around Thrissur come together to pay obeisance to Lord Shiva at the Vadakkunnathan Temple|
|Key Features||Kodiyettam (flag hoisting ceremony), percussion ensemble, elaborate elephant processions, firework displays|
|Last Day||The seventh day of the Pooram, also known as “Pakal Pooram”|
|Significance||It is the largest and most famous of all poorams in India. It promotes ‘inclusivity’ as it has grown to encompass all religious and cultural strains of Kerala. Muslim and Christian communities also participate.|
About Blue Holes:
|The blue hole is the second deepest marine sinkhole or cavern discovered in Chetumal Bay, off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico|
|Colour||Dark blue, caused by the high transparency of water and bright white carbonate sand|
|Water Circulation||Poor, commonly anoxic below a certain depth|
|Sea Life||An unfavourable environment for most sea life can support large numbers of bacteria that live off sulfur compounds|
|What are Blue Holes||They are large, undersea vertical caves or sinkholes found in coastal regions.|
|Karst formation||Blue Holes are found on coastal karst platforms around the world. They are formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, or gypsum|
|Deepest Blue Hole||Dragon Hole (Longdong) in the South China Sea|
|Overall Largest Blue Hole||Great Blue Hole, located 100 kilometres from the coast of Belize, is 300 meters wide and 125 meters deep|
Context: Scientists have discovered 19,325 new seamounts through new high-resolution data, adding to the 24,000 seamounts already mapped in a 2011 census.
Context: The Indian government is planning to introduce a star rating system for water fixtures called Bharat Tap, which will include ratings of 3, 4, and 5 stars based on water efficiency.
About the Bharat Tap initiative:
|Bharat Tap is a collaborative effort for water fixtures (similar to the ratings of electrical appliances) to drive water efficiency|
|Objective||To provide low-flow, sanitary ware at scale and reduce water consumption at the source|
|Estimated water saving||Approximately 40%|
|Benefits||Water and energy saving due to less water and energy required for pumping, transporting, and purification|
|Formulated under||AMRUT 2.0 (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)|
|Collaborators||Indian Plumbing Association (IPA) and manufacturers|
|About AMRUT 2.0||It is a five-year program launched in October 2021 and will continue until 2025-26. It is an extension of the AMRUT mission (launched in 2015) with the goal of providing every household with access to a tap with a guaranteed supply of water and a sewer connection.|
Context: The Supreme Court of India has directed all states to register FIRs (First Information Reports) against hate speech incidents and proceed against the offenders without waiting for someone to lodge a complaint.
About Hate Speech:
|Definition||An incitement to hatred primarily against a group of persons defined in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, etc.|
|Forms||Any form of expression including words, images, cartoons, objects, gestures, and symbols, can be disseminated offline or online.|
|Current Status in India||Hate speech has not been defined in any law in India. However, IPC, 1860 sections like 153A, 153B, 298, etc. deal with speech or words that could create mischief or cause imputations to national integration.|
|Proposed Legislation||The Law Commission of India has proposed two new sections, Section 153C, and Section 505A in IPC to criminalize hate speech specifically.|
|Rise in Cases||According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), there has been a huge increase in cases registered to promote hate speech and foster animosity in society. As there were only 323 cases registered in 2014, it had increased to 1,804 cases in 2020.|
|Punishment||The punishment for hate speech is not defined in Indian law. However, the Supreme Court has stated that hate speech statutes aim to prevent prejudice and ensure equality.|
|Hate Speech Vs Blasphemy||Hate speech laws aim to prevent prejudice and ensure equality, while blasphemy laws prohibit criticism of religion, which is incompatible with the principles of democratic societies. Section 295(A) of the IPC punishes any speech, writings, or signs that insult citizens’ religion or religious beliefs with a fine and imprisonment for up to three years.|
Context: After a six-year absence, a group of lesser flamingos has returned to Pulicat Lake in Chennai
About the lesser flamingo:
|The lesser flamingo is the smallest species of flamingo, though it is a tall and large bird by most standards, with pale pink colour and deep red legs and bills. Their colour comes from the carotenoid pigments they consume as part of their diet.|
|Size||Approximately 80 to 90 cm long; females are smaller|
|Diet||Microscopic blue-green algae and benthic diatoms; Small aquatic invertebrates such as rotifers (less often)|
|Habitat||Large undisturbed alkaline and saline lakes, salt pans, coastal lagoons, and estuaries|
|Range||Primarily eastern and southern Africa; Madagascar, Yemen, Pakistan and Western India|
|Conservation Status||IUCN: Near Threatened; CITES: Appendix II|
|Facts||Its name has been derived from Portuguese, meaning “red goose”. It is most numerous and lives in the largest flocks; Both males and females provide young with crop milk|
|About Pulicat Lake||It is the second-largest brackish water lagoon in India, (after Chilika Lake). Its major part comes in the Andhra Pradesh. It encompasses the Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary. The barrier island of Sriharikota separates the lagoon from the Bay of Bengal and is home to the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.|
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- DTE: What makes humans unique? Scientists compare genomes of 240 species to uncover secrets of mammalian evolution
- DTE: ‘An individual’s genome carries information shaped over millennia of evolutionary history’
- TH: On the Code on Social Security for platform-based gig workers
- TH: Get real with targets – on foreign trade policy
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Physics/ Science and Technology
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Errata: Quality control orders (10th April FFP section)
Under the section “What are QCOs?”, it was mentioned that “QCOs can only be challenged at WTO if they are imposed on grounds of health, safety…..”.
However, the correct sentence would be “QCOs cannot be challenged at WTO if they are imposed on grounds of health, safety…..”.
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