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[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 28 April 2023

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Fall of Indus Valley Civilisation

 

GS Paper 2:

  1. Veto Power at the UNSC

 

GS Paper 3:

  1. The Future of Nuclear Power in India
  2. Third-gen web (Web 3.0)

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Victorian Morality

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Hemis and Thiksey monasteries
  2. Bail
  3. “Triple tests” for Altruistic surrogacy
  4. Nuclear Liability
  5. Use of Hydrogen in the steelmaking
  6. Eco-Sensitive Zones
  7. Bluewashing

 

Fall of Indus Valley Civilisation

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Indian Culture – Salient Aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from Ancient to modern times

 

Source: DTE

 Context: A recent study found that severe droughts during the Bronze Age may have wiped off the population of the Indus Valley people, endorsing the theory that climate change led to the collapse of ancient civilisation.

  

Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC):

  • It was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE.
  • It is also known as the Harappan Civilisation, after Harappa (now in Pakistan) – the first of its sites to be excavated early in the 20th century.
  • It stretches over an area spanning northeast Afghanistan, much of Pakistan and western and northwestern India.
  • It thrived in the Indus River basins and along a network of rivers that originally flowed near the ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.
  • The civilisation is noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage and water supply systems, handicraft techniques (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead and tin).

 

Important sites:

Decline: Climate change → weaker monsoons → reduced water supply →  gradual drying of the soil →  scattering of population eastward and southward.

 

Findings of the new study (by the University of Cambridge):

  • Droughts that began 4,200 years ago gripped the civilisation and went on for over two centuries.
  • The protracted droughts severely affected food systems and habitation patterns → forcing the people of the IVC to make systemic changes to adapt → a more self-reliant lifestyle.
  • They reorganised their large cities and moved towards the east of the region in smaller rural settlements.
  • They also had to make changes to their agricultural practices → relying more on drought-resilient crops such as millet.

 

How did the study arrive at its conclusions?

  • The scientists studied the layers of a stalagmite – the vertical mass of mineral deposits rising from the floor of caves and caused by water dripping – to assess relative seasonal rainfall.
  • They also used high-precision Uranium-series dating to assess the duration of the droughts.

 

Other theories of the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization:

TheoryTheoristJustification
Aryan Invasion TheoryMax Mueller, Mortimer WheelerDue to an invasion by the Aryan people, who came from the north and brought with them new technologies and ideas that led to the collapse of the existing civilization.
Environmental FactorsRobert Raikes, R.D. OldhamThis theory suggests that environmental factors, such as climate change, drought, and floods, played a major role in the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Internal DeclineS.R. RaoAccording to this theory, the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization was caused by internal factors such as political instability, corruption, and economic decline.
Natural Disaster TheoryD.P. AgrawalThis theory suggests that a major natural disaster, such as an earthquake, was responsible for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Integration with Vedic CultureDavid FrawleyThis theory suggests that the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization was not a collapse but rather a transformation into the Vedic culture of ancient India.

 

Insta Links:

IVC

 

Mains Links:

To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilisation provided inputs to present-day urbanisation? Discuss. (UPSC 2014)

 

Prelims Links: UPSC 2013

Which of the following characterises/characterises the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. They possessed great palaces and temples
  2. They worshipped both male and female deities.
  3. They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare.

Select the correct statement/statements using the codes given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1, 2, and 3
  4. None of the above

 

Ans: 2

Veto Power at the UNSC

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Multilateral Organization

 

Source: TH

 Context: India has stated that the veto power in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is driven by political considerations and not by moral obligations

 

What is Veto Power?

Veto power is a special power given to the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), namely China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Essentially, it gives these countries the ability to reject or veto any action by the UNSC that does not align with their national interests or foreign policy objectives.

 

  • In the United Nations Security Council, decisions are made with a majority of 9 votes of the 15 Council members’ votes. All decision is rejected if one of the five permanent members of the Security Council makes use of its veto

 

The Need for Veto Power:

  • It prevents the UNSC from making hasty or poorly thought-out decisions that could have negative consequences.
  • The UN veto has in some ways saved the UN as it gives teeth to P5 nations. The League of Nations failed because it didn’t have the power to implement its initiatives
  • Veto power gives the P5 members a sense of security in knowing that their interests will not be overridden by the other members.

 

Issues with the use of “Veto Power”:

IssueExample
Veto immobilizes the ability of the UNSC to actRecently, Russia has vetoed several resolutions that would have put sanctions on it for violating Ukraine’s sovereignty, independence, unity, and territorial integrity.
“Sovereign equality” is violated The fact that only five countries have veto powers goes against the idea of sovereign equality of states, perpetuating a Second World War mindset of “to the victor belong the spoils”.
Political considerations over moral obligationsThe US has used its veto power over 80 times, often for political considerations, rather than moral obligations. For example, in 1972, the US vetoed a resolution that called for an end to its bombing of North Vietnam, despite widespread condemnation and protests.
Veto has rendered the UNSC passive to certain pressing issuesThe UNSC stayed silent during major international conflicts, including the 2003 Iraq War, the 2008 conflict in Georgia, and the 2009 deaths of Sri Lankan Tamils.
Lack of accountabilityIn 2017, Russia vetoed a resolution that would have condemned the use of chemical weapons in Syria, despite substantial evidence of their use by the Syrian government.
Critics opine the veto power is anachronistic, unjust, or counterproductiveThe veto power is seen as a disproportionate power and an impediment to credible international action in crises.

 

 

Suggestion for reforming the Veto system:

Reforms for Veto PowerDescription
Abolish the veto powerThis would require an amendment to the UN Charter, which would need approval from two-thirds of the General Assembly and ratification by member states.
Limit the use of the veto power. For example, a veto could be prohibited in cases of genocide or crimes against humanity.
Expand the permanent membershipThis could help make the Council more representative of the current global balance of power and would also reduce the concentration of veto power among a small group of states.
Create longer-term non-permanent seatsThis will allow for greater continuity and consistency in the Council’s decision-making.
Increase transparency and accountabilityThis could be done by requiring permanent members to publicly justify their use of the veto.

 

Other aspects of the UN where India wants reforms are:

  • Categories of Membership
  • The relationship between the Security Council and the General Assembly
  • Regional representation
  • The size of an enlarged Council
  • Working Methods of the Council

 

Conclusion: 

It’s important for P5 and other UN members to balance the Veto Issue and make the Council more representative and democratically accountable, based on earlier experiences with the League of Nations.

  

About UN Charter:

The UN Charter is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, signed in 1945 and in force since the same year. Its main objective is to maintain international peace and security, promote social progress and better standards of life, strengthen international law, and promote human rights. All members of the UN are bound by its articles

 

Insta links:

For static information about UNSC: Click here

 

Mains Links

Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in the UN Security Council. ( UPSC 2015)

 

Prelims Links:

The Security Council of the UN consists of 5 permanent members, and the remaining 10 members are elected by the General Assembly for a term of (UPSC 2009)

(a) 1 year
(b) 2 years
(c) 3 years
(d) 5 years

 

Ans: B

The Future of Nuclear Power in India

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology/Energy

 

Source: TH

Context: There are doubts about whether nuclear power, with its associated concerns about cost and safety, remains a viable choice for India as solar and wind power gain popularity globally.

 

Global outlook for nuclear power:

  • In Europe and the U.S., nuclear power is seeing an upsurge, particularly after the Ukraine war.
  • The U.K. is scaling up nuclear power to decarbonise the electricity
  • Germany has shut down the last of its nuclear power plants, while France (the nuclear powerhouse of the world) is struggling to replace its ageing reactors.
  • China and South Korea have committed to increasing the share of nuclear power in the country’s energy mix (to 30% by 2030 in S. Korea).
  • Japan is restarting the shutdown of reactors after the Fukushima (accident) because it was otherwise dependent either on expensive imported coal/natural gas (LNG).

  

Advantages of nuclear power:

  • It is a low-carbon power.
    • A nuclear plant operating 1,000 MW at 90% PLF (plant load factor) requires only 25 tonnes of low-enriched (below 5% proportion of fissile uranium) uranium fuel per year.
    • A coal plant (of similar capacity) requires ~5 million tonnes of coal and coal produces ash containing many heavy metals detrimental to the water source.
  • Firm and dispatchable power. Firm power is the power that can be sent to the electric grid to be supplied whenever needed.
  • Low operating cost, job-intensive.

 

Disadvantages: High capital cost, low safety/prone to accidents, concerns over nuclear proliferation, not renewable energy, radioactive waste generation, etc.

 

India’s nuclear plan:

 

  • Nuclear power is only 2.5%-3.2% of India’s installed and generated power and is premised on working around its limited supply of enriched uranium.
  • This is expected to increase to 22.5 GW by 2031 from 6.9 GW now.

 

Why does India need more nuclear power?

  • Very limited growth potential for hydropower because of conserving biodiversity, the costs of rehabilitating and compensating landowners and the seismological factors in the Himalayas.
  • India has nearly 210 gigawatts of coal capacity, producing 73% of the electricity of India, which is not environmentally friendly.
  • Wind and solar powers are intermittent or variable.

 

Way ahead for India:

  • The nuclear industry should move towards ‘passive safety’ designs (for nuclear reactors). For example, active cooling pumps.
  • New designs like small modular reactors will address the cost issue.
  • Enforcing nuclear liability, for example, the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act 2010.
  • Ending the monopoly of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) in reactor operations. Allow other government companies like the NTPC.

 

Conclusion:

  • If India hopes to achievenet zero’ by 2070, it needs ~100 GW of nuclear power by 2050.
  • Therefore, India should never consider phasing out nuclear power, which is a low carbon, firm and reliable.
  • India needs a portfolio of technologies to make nuclear power safe and cost-effective (capital cost) over time.

 

Insta Links:

Nuclear Technology

 

Mains Links:

Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of a fast breeder reactor programme in India? (UPSC 2019)

 

 Prelims Links: UPSC 2016

India is an important member of the  ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India?

  1. It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation
  2. It can attain a global role in satellite navigation
  3. It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation
  4. It can build fusion reactors for power generation

 

Ans: 4

Third-gen web (Web 3.0)

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Science and Technology

 

Source: TH

Context: India’s push towards digital public infrastructure and the deployment of the Internet of Things in development projects offers significant possibilities for deploying Web 3.

 

What is World Wide Web? 

It is a collection of websites or web pages stored in web servers and connected to local computers through the internet.

 

What is Digital public infrastructure (DPI)?

It refers to the technology and digital systems that are publicly owned or publicly provided to enable the delivery of public services, facilitate access to information, and promote digital inclusion. E.g., the Aadhaar system, BharatNet project, and Unified Payments Interface (UPI) system.

 

How India can benefit from the third-generation web:

Area of BenefitExample
Intellectual Property Rights ProtectionDigital tokens minted by Web 3 platforms can enable India’s handicraft industry to secure their innovations
Rapid Dissemination of Grassroots InnovationsWeb 3-based instruction tools can enable master artisans to share their innovations with fellow members, improving the economic fortunes of craftsmen and artisan communities in north-east, western and peninsular India
Deployment in Rural AreasWeb 3.0 can be used to provide data analytics and insights in rural development projects MGNREGA, mapping the water use habits of communities, and improving early warning systems for floods
Community Data AnalyticsWeb 3.0 analytics systems can be used to analyze community data generated by IoT-enabled development programs like the Jal Jeevan Mission, providing valuable insights
Tokenization for Development ProgramsIndia’s National Blockchain Strategy 2021 proposes to explore tokenization and apply blockchain solutions for development programs, making Web 3.0 a useful tool for achieving this goal
Creation of distributed economic systemNative digital tokens, Central Bank Digital Currency and cryptocurrencies would be used for monetary circulation, making the transaction fast, traceable and effortless.
Creation of an ownership economyWeb3’s non-custodial wallets function as digital passports for users to access blockchain-enabled transaction platforms. Using these, creators themselves control their content. Fundamentally, they work as digital proof of identity.

 

Challenges in the deployment of Web 3.0:

  • Limited awareness and understanding of the technology
  • Inadequate infrastructure
  • A lack of technical expertise
  • Absence of clear regulations and policies for Web 3.0 implementation
  • Issues related to privacy and data security
  • High cost of hardware and software needed for Web 3.0 deployment

 

Government Initiatives:

 

Note: “Web3” and “Web 3.0” are two terms used interchangeably to refer to the third generation of the internet.

 

Insta Links:

Blockchain project to explore the potential of Web3

 

Prelims Links

With reference to Web 3.0, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2022)

  1. Web 3-0 technology enables people to control their own data.
    2. In the Web 3.0 world, there can be blockchain-based social networks.
    3. Web 3-0 is operated by users collectively rather than by a corporation.

 

Which of the statements given above are correct?

[A] 1 and 2 only [B] 2 and 3 only [C] 1 and 3 only [D] 1, 2 and 3

 

Answer: D

Victorian Morality

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: TH

In the ongoing case of the same-sex relationship as a marriage, Supreme Court has said that British Victorian morality stifled the ancient all-inclusive culture of India, which accepted same-sex love. The court corrected the government’s perspective and said that the impact of British Victorian morality made India forsake much of its cultural ethos.

 

British Victorian morality refers to a set of social and moral values that were prevalent in Britain during the Victorian era (1837 to 1901). These values were characterized by a strict code of conduct that emphasized sexual repression, traditional gender roles, and conservative social norms.

 

Usage: The terms can be used to show the negative impact of the continuation of the colonial legacy in India’s social and governance system.

/ 28 Apr 2023, Today's Article

Hemis and Thiksey monasteries

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: ET

 Context: More than 100 delegates from 30 countries (part of the pre-G20 meeting) visited the Hemis and Thiksey monasteries.

Hemis MonasteryThiksey Monastery
Tibetan Buddhist monastery (gompa) of the Drukpa Lineage (Dragon Order of Mahayana Buddhism)Gompa (monastery) affiliated with the Gelug sect of Tibetan Buddhism
Situated 45 km south of Leh (on the western bank of the River Indus), it is the largest monastic institution in LadakhLocated on top of a hill in Thiksey village, approximately 19 km east of Leh in Ladakh
Famous for the annual festival of Guru Padmasambhava and Hemis festival Notable for its resemblance to the Potala palace in Lhasa, Tibet and its annual Gustor Festival

Bail

 

Source: HT

 Context: The Supreme Court has ruled that an accused person’s fundamental right (under Article 21) to receive default bail cannot be violated by probe agencies by filing supplementary charge sheets in cases where the investigation is yet to be completed.

  • The violation of such a right directly attracts consideration under Article 32 of the Constitution

 

About Bail:

TopicInformation
DefinitionBail is the release of an accused person from custody, on the undertaking that they will appear in court for their trial.
Legal BasisBail in India is governed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), which provides for the granting of bail by police and courts.
Statutory BailStatutory bail is a right to bail that accrues when police fail to complete the investigation within a specified period in respect of a person in judicial custody. It is enshrined in the CrPC and is available for most offences.
The time limit for statutory bail60 days to complete the investigation and file a final report (in most cases). 90- or 180-day limit for some cases.
Regular BailRegular bail is granted to an accused person who is in custody and is usually granted on the basis of surety or personal bond.
Anticipatory BailAnticipatory bail is granted before arrest and is meant to protect an accused person from arrest.
Conditions for BailBail may be granted with conditions, such as surrendering of passport, attending court hearings regularly, not contacting witnesses, etc.
EligibilityBail eligibility depends on several factors, including the nature of the crime, severity of the offence, likelihood of fleeing from justice, past criminal record, and the strength of evidence against the accused.
Status of under-trialsAs per NCRB (National Crime Report Bureau), over the last 10 years, the number of undertrials in jails has risen constantly and in 2020, about 76% of all prison inmates in the country were undertrials (without bail)
/ 28 Apr 2023, Bail, Today's Article

“Triple tests” for Altruistic surrogacy

Source: TH

 Context: The High Court of Karnataka has developed “triple tests” to help a couple facing legal hurdles have a child through altruistic surrogacy.

 

What is Surrogacy?

Surrogacy is a process in which a woman carries and gives birth to a child for another person or couple who are unable to have children on their own.

 

“Triple tests” to help a couple facing legal hurdles to have a surrogate child under provisions of the Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021:

  • Genetic test for the husband to ensure the child is not born with any disorder
  • Physical test for a couple to ascertain their capacity to manage the child
  • Economy tests for couples to ensure that they can protect the future of the child.

 

Legal provisions: As per the Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021

Legal ProvisionsDetails
Type of Surrogacy AllowedAltruistic surrogacy (i.e., surrogacy without receiving any payment) is allowed, commercial surrogacy is banned
Eligibility Criteria for Intending CoupleMarried for at least 5 years and have a certificate of infertility issued by a registered medical practitioner
Surrogate Mother Eligibility CriteriaClose relative (‘genetically related’) of the intending couple and between the ages of 25 and 35 years
Prohibition on Availing Surrogacy ServicesSingle individuals, same-sex couples, and foreigners are prohibited from availing of surrogacy services in India
Age Restriction for Intending FathersMen over 55 years of age are not allowed to become fathers through surrogacy

Nuclear Liability

 

Source: TH

 Context: Talks between Indian and French officials over several issues, including liability, for the construction of six nuclear power reactors in Maharashtra’s Jaitapur, have not resulted in any breakthrough.

 

Issues concerned:

  • India’s Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act (CLNDA)
  • The high cost of power per unit
  • Opposition from activists and locals for the fear of environmental damage and health hazards
  • Safety concerns: Concerns over the safety of nuclear power have prompted Germany to switch off its last nuclear power reactor.

 

What is nuclear liability?

Nuclear liability refers to the legal responsibility for damages and compensation in case of a nuclear accident or incident. It involves determining who is responsible for the damages caused and who will pay for the compensation of those affected.

 

What is CLNDA?

It is an Indian law enacted in 2010 to provide a civil liability regime for nuclear damage in India. Key provisions of the Act:

  • It provides for strict and no-fault liability on the operator, where it will be held liable for damage regardless of any fault on its part.
  • Concept of supplier of equipment’s liability over and above that of the operator’s
  • It specifies the liability of nuclear operators
  • The compensation payable in the event of a nuclear incident
  • The process for claiming compensation
  • Establishes the Nuclear Damage Claims Commission to adjudicate claims for compensation
  • Establishes the Nuclear Liability Fund to provide financial support in the event of a nuclear incident.

About Jaitapur nuclear power project (signed in 2010):

 It is a proposed 9,900 MW nuclear power plant in Maharashtra, India. It is planned to be constructed by the French energy company Electricite de France (EDF), using six European pressurised reactors (EPRs). It is the world’s biggest nuclear power generation site under consideration at present

 

About Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) (adopted 1997):

It seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for compensation to victims in the unlikely event of a nuclear accident. India is a party to it. It is based on the exclusive liability of the operator of a nuclear installation and no other person (but Indian law provides for the Supplier’s liability as well)

Use of Hydrogen in the steelmaking

 

Source: TH

 Context: A recent study by German researchers suggests that hydrogen could be used for steelmaking instead of Carbon.

  

What is steel?

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with improved strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron. Strong steel consists of a tiny amount – less than 1% – of carbon.

  

Issues with the current method of steelmaking:

The current method of steelmaking— the blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace route, and the electric arc furnace route—contributes to 5-7% of global emissions. Making one tonne of steel releases 1.8 tonnes of carbon dioxide

Traditional Steelmaking ProcessNew Steelmaking Process Using Hydrogen
Iron oxide is heated with coke (coal with high carbon content) at 1,700°C inside a blast furnace.Iron oxide is reacted with hydrogen in a direct reduction reactor.
Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, leaving iron with around 4% carbon behind.Hydrogen reacts with oxygen in iron oxide, producing water vapour as a byproduct.
Iron is remelted and oxygen is blown through it, producing more carbon dioxide and reducing the amount of carbon in the iron to a desirable level.Creating a “microfracture structure” on the iron oxide feedstock to encourage the creation of channels that drain trapped water and allow hydrogen to replace it in the reaction.

Thus, the new process releases significantly less Green House gas.

 

India’s status:

India is the world’s second-largest steelmaker, having produced 118.2 million tonnes in 2021.

Eco-Sensitive Zones

Source: TH

 Context: The Supreme Court of India has modified its earlier judgment that mandated a minimum one-kilometre eco-sensitive zone around protected forests, national parks, and wildlife sanctuaries across the country.

 

Changed Order:

AspectPrevious 2022 OrderChanged Order
Minimum ESZ distance1 kmESZ cannot be uniform across the country and has to be “protected area-specific”.
Applicability of orderApplied universally to all protected areasNot applicable to ESZs for which draft and final notifications have been issued by MoEF&CC and in respect of proposals.
Mining allowedNot specified, but implied to be allowed within ESZNo mining is allowed, either within national parks and sanctuaries or in a 1 km radius.
Development activitiesNot specified, but subject to restrictionsAny developmental activities undertaken within ESZs should follow the MoEF&CC 2011 guidelines and provisions of the 2022 Office Memorandum by MoEF&CC
ExceptionNot specifiedWhere national parks and sanctuaries are located on inter-state borders or share common boundaries.

 

Why SC changed its 2022 order?

  • The earlier order had affected hundreds of villages in the peripheries of forests,
  • The stringent observance of the judgment would hamper the development of basic infrastructure like schools, dispensaries, and roads, and affect eco-development activities around national parks and sanctuaries.
  • The order would also impact certain projects of national and strategic importance such as the construction of national highways, railways, defence-related infrastructure, etc.

 

About Eco-sensitive zone:

Definition
Eco-sensitive zone (ESZ)An area around a protected area like a national park or wildlife sanctuary
PurposeTo conserve the biodiversity and ecosystems of protected areas by regulating human activities
RegulationsThe government can regulate and restrict certain activities in ESZs through guidelines and laws
ActivitiesActivities that can be regulated include mining, construction, and tourism
SizeAs per National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016), land within 10 km of the boundaries of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries is to be notified as ESZ. However, its size can vary depending on the location and specific needs of the protected area
NotificationESZs are designated by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) (under the Environment Protection Act, 1986)
ImportanceESZs are crucial for maintaining the ecological balance, and integrity and protecting the wildlife of India

Bluewashing

 

Source: DTE

 

Context: A report released by the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES) “Who’s tipping the scales”, states that corporations are increasingly controlling global food governance through various means such as lobbying, political and institutional donations, market power, shaping trade and investment rules, and influencing research and innovation.

 

Comparison of Greenwashing and Bluewashing:

GreenwashingBluewashing
DefinitionA marketing tactic used by companies to deceive consumers into believing that their products or services are environmentally friendly or sustainable.A marketing tactic used by companies to deceive consumers into believing that they are working towards achieving sustainable use and conservation of food systems and water bodies.
ExampleA clothing company claiming their clothes are eco-friendly, but still using unsustainable materials and manufacturing practices.An oil and gas company claiming to be a leader in protecting the ocean, while continuing to engage in deep-sea oil drilling and other activities that harm marine ecosystems.

Examples of Ethics

GS Paper 4

 Syllabus: Ethics and human interface

 

Source: Various

 Context: Recent events with ethical consequences

Ethical values from the given examples:

ExamplesEthical Values
IIT Delhi constitutes its first SC/ST cell for studentsDiversity and inclusion, addressing grievances, non-discrimination
Wrestlers protesting at Jantar Mantar against former WFI chiefJustice (The lack of political will to implement the law and the obstacles faced in initiating the process of seeking justice); Lack of Accountability; Dignity of sportswomen;
Anand Mohan Singh, a former Lok Sabha MP and convicted in the murder of an IAS officer released from jail in Bihar after the jail manual was tweaked by the Bihar government.It raises questions about justice and fairness; Lack of Responsibility ( The government and its officials have a responsibility to uphold the law and ensure justice is served);
Tamil Nadu government bans online gambling, cites harm to public healthPublic health and safety, regulation of potentially harmful activities
Misleading Advertisement: The controversy surrounding the sugar content in BournvitaIssue of Corporate ethics; lack of transparency on the part of the company; the impact of ultra-processed foods on consumers’ health; The lack of front-of-pack labelling may deprive consumers of the ability to make informed choices

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

 

Source: TH

 Context: According to a recent RTI application, only 329 claims out of 647 claims filed for the accident insurance cover provided to bank account holders under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) have been settled in the past two financial years.

 

About PMJDY

Information
AboutIt aims to ensure access to financial services, namely, basic savings & deposit accounts, remittance, credit, insurance, and pension in an affordable manner.
Benefits under PMJDYNo requirement to maintain any minimum balance in PMJDY accounts and interest is earned on the deposit in PMJDY accounts; Rupay Debit card is provided to the PMJDY account holder; An overdraft (OD) facility up to Rs. 10,000 to eligible account holders is available.
Insurance Facility under PMJDY·        Account holders are eligible for two types of insurance covers

o   A life insurance cover of Rs. 2 lakhs under the Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY)

o   An accidental insurance cover of Rs. 2 lakh under the Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY).

·        A premium of Rs. 330 per annum and Rs. 12 per annum, respectively.

·        More than 50% of PMJDY account holders are women

·        No premium is charged from account holders for the accident insurance cover for death or permanent disability.

·        To avail of the insurance, the beneficiary must have performed at least one successful transaction with their debit card 90 days prior to the date of the accident.

Challenges to PMJDYLack of Awareness, Limited Infrastructure, Limited Resources, Dependence on Cash Transactions
Other Initiatives to Increase Financial Inclusion in IndiaDigital Identity (Aadhaar), National Centre for Financial Education (NCFE), Centre for Financial Literacy (CFL) Project, Expansion of financial services in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas, Promotion of Digital Payments

 

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