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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 April 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. What is the significance of relative humidity and wet-bulb temperature in predicting and mitigating the impact of heatwaves? How can this knowledge be used to design more resilient buildings and cities in the face of increasing heatwave events? Elucidate with suitable examples. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Relative humidity is a simple concept as weather phenomena go – but it has significant, far-reaching consequences for how we must take care of ourselves on a hot or wet day.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about relative humidity, wet-bulb temperature, and its role in making buildings and cities heatwave resilient.

Directive word:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining relative humidity.

Body:

In the first part of the body, write about the significance – Relative humidity and wet-bulb temperature and their role in designing heat wave resilient buildings – crucial factors in predicting and mitigating the impact of heatwaves on human health and well-being, as well as on energy efficiency and sustainability.

In the next part, write about the significance of the above with suitable examples from across the world.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about measures that must be taken to tackle heatwaves in India.

Introduction

Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air around us. Relative humidity is a ratio, expressed in percent, of the amount of atmospheric moisture present relative to the amount that would be present if the air were saturated.  Since the latter amount is dependent on temperature, relative humidity is a function of both moisture content and temperature.  Relative Humidity is derived from the associated Temperature and Dew Point for the indicated hour.

Body

Significance of relative humidity and wet-bulb temperature in predicting and mitigating the impact of heatwaves

  • On a hot day, our body uses sweat to cool itself. Sweat is released via our skin to the surface. There, the liquid evaporates.
  • When water changes phase from liquid to vapour, it absorbs heat from the surface on which it lies. So when sweat evaporates, it absorbs heat from the skin, cooling it.
  • The higher the relative humidity of air, the more it is filled with moisture.
  • When air already contains a lot of moisture, it won’t easily accept more. This means that the sweat on your skin can’t evaporate.
  • At the same time, the body keeps sweating because it is still expecting to cool itself.
  • As a result, if the relative humidity is high, you can sweat on a hot day even when you are sitting still – while your body also keeps accumulating heat. This can quickly become dangerous.
  • That’s because of our body’s wet bulb temperature, exceeding which can become even fatal for us.
  • Wet-bulb temperature is the greatest temperature at which water will not evaporate in a given quantity of humidity.
  • It acts as a proxy for how efficiently the human body can regulate its temperature.
  • The highest acceptable wet bulb temperature for humans is 35°C (95 °F) for six hours.
  • A wet-bulb temperature in an environment of 32-35º C or higher can be quickly lethal, even if you are not doing any physical activity or are in the shade.
  • Above that point, even healthy people begin to develop serious, often deadly health problems.
  • On various times, regions in Iran, Pakistan, and India, all densely populated countries, have neared or surpassed this level.
  • Climate change is increasing the number and severity of extreme heat events as global average temperatures rise.
  • The climate crisis is rendering heatwaves more common, more frequent, more spread out, and more potent over the Indian subcontinent.

Precautions against high summer humidity

  • It would be best to check the relative humidity before stepping out, either through a hygrometer or an app that reports on relative humidity.
  • If possible, one such also avoid strenous activity or workout in such conditions, otherwise it could cause a heat rash, heat stroke, etc.
  • Another important thing is to always stay hydrated, and pick breathable clothes in comfortable fits. Even a few hours in cool air can help your body heal after sweating in the heat.
  • If your home doesn’t have air conditioning, you can find solace at your neighbourhood coffee shop, theatre, public library, museum, or shopping centre.
  • Keep blinds drawn or your curtains drawn because 76% of the sunshine that enters your home through the windows converts to heat.
  • Close the doors to the rooms you don’t use as frequently, such as bedrooms or bathrooms, if you spend most of your time in one.
  • By wasting 90% of the energy they consume, incandescent light bulbs produce the greatest heat, therefore switching to CFL (compact fluorescent lamps) or LED bulbs can help keep your home cool

Measures to tackle heat waves

  • A relative humidity of 30-60% is generally considered to be comfortable.
  • Environments that have lower levels than this typically use humidifiers to increase the humidity.
  • When the level is higher, a fan will help move the air around you and help sweat evaporate better.
  • In 2016, the National Disaster Management Agency prepared guidelines for state governments to formulate action plans for the prevention and management of heat waves, outlining four key strategies:
    • Forecasting heat waves and enabling an early warning system
    • Building capacity of healthcare professionals to deal with heat wave-related emergencies
    • Community outreach through various media
    • Inter-agency cooperation as well as engagement with other civil society organizations in the region.
  • Scientific Approach:
    • Climate data from the last 15-20 years can be correlated with the mortality and morbidity data to prepare a heat stress index and city-specific threshold.
    • Vulnerable areas and population could be identified by using GIS and satellite imagery for targeted actions.
  • Advance implementation of local Heat Action Plans, plus effective inter-agency coordination is a vital response which the government can deploy in order to protect vulnerable groups.
  • This will require identification of “heat hot spots”, analysis of meteorological data and allocation of resources to crisis-prone areas.
  • The India Cooling Action Plan must emphasize the urgency and need for better planning, zoning and building regulations to prevent Urban Heat Islands.
  • Provision of public messaging (radio, TV), mobile phone-based text messages, automated phone calls and alerts.
  • Promotion of traditional adaptation practices, such as staying indoors and wearing comfortable clothes.
  • Popularisation of simple design features such as shaded windows, underground water storage tanks and insulating housing materials.

Way forward

  • India needs a “heat code” for cities and states that will account for both heat and humidity while discussing heat waves.
  • India also needs to implement district-level heat action plans and build infrastructure that will support people and workers.
  • If the government declares heat waves as a national disaster, governments will earmark resources and support for the people affected.
  • The National or State Disaster Response Funds could be used to build resilience.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government;

2. What is the issue of gubernatorial inaction in the legislative process and how does it affect federalism and democracy in India? Discuss the measures that can be taken to ensure greater accountability and transparency in the functioning of governors. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The article discusses the issue of pending bills and the role of governors in the legislative process. The author argues that governors in some Indian states have been delaying or refusing to give their assent to bills passed by the state legislature, thereby impeding the legislative process.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about role of governor in giving/withholding assent to bills passed by state legislature and measures needed to resolve them.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about gubernatorial inaction and article 200.

Body:

First, write in detail about the various options with the Governor with respect to a bill passed by the state legislature.

Next, write about the drawbacks on indefinitely sitting on the bill (pocket veto) and issues arising from such action.

Next, write about the possible solutions to the above issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The makers of the Constitution of India did not anticipate that the office of the Governor, meant to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law”, would metamorphose into the most controversial constitutional office rendering the constitutional praxis rugged.

On his/ her discretion, the Governor can reserve a bill passed by the state legislature for president’s assent. However, situations are mentioned in Article 200, when he will reserve the bill, yet he can use, discretion regarding this matter. Governor has discretion to refuse to sign to an ordinary bill passed by the state legislature.

Body

Governor’s power to reserve bills for consideration of the President

Article 200 of the Indian Constitution deals with the powers of the Governor with regard to assent given to bills passed by the State legislature and other powers of the Governor such as reserving the bill for the President’s consideration.

According to Article 200, when a Bill, passed by the Legislature of a State, is presented to the Governor, he has the following options:

Ordinary Bills

When a bill is sent to the governor after it is passed by state legislature, he can:

  • Give his assent to the bill, or
  • Withhold his assent to the bill, or
  • Return the bill (if it is not a money bill) for reconsideration of the state legislature.

However, if the bill is passed again by the state legislature with or without amendments, the governor has to give his assent to the bill or

  • Reserve the bill for the consideration of the president. In one case such reservation is obligatory, that is, where the bill passed by the state legislature endangers the position of the state high court. When the governor reserves a bill for the consideration of the President, he will not have any further role in the enactment of the bill.
    • If the bill is returned by the President for the reconsideration of the House or Houses and is passed again, the bill must be presented again for the presidential assent only.
    • If the President gives his assent to the bill, it becomes an act.
    • This means that the assent of the Governor is no longer required.

 

Options before the President:

When a Bill is reserved by a Governor for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom Provided that:

  1. Where the Bill is not a Money Bill, the President may direct the Governor to return the Bill to the House or, as the case may be, the Houses of the Legislature of the State together with such a message as is mentioned in the first proviso to article 200.
  2. When a Bill is so returned, the House or Houses shall reconsider it accordingly within a period of six months from the date of receipt of such message and, if it is again passed by the House or Houses with or without amendment, it shall be presented again to the President for his consideration.
  3. It is not mentioned in the constitution whether it is obligatory on the part of the President to give his assent to such a bill or not.

Critical analysis of such powers of Governor

  • Delays in granting assent: Thegovernors sometimes sat over the Bills without giving assent or returning the Bills for an indefinite period, even though the Constitution required it to be done as soon as possible.
    • The governors were also taking months together to reserve the Billsfor the assent of the President even though it was to be done immediately.
    • This erodes the authority of the legislaturesand the governors, though heads of the state executive, are appointed by the Union government.
  • Exceptional situations: In addition to above illustrated powers, the governor can also reserve the bill if it is of the following nature:
    • Ultra-vires, that is, against the provisions of the Constitution.
    • Opposed to the Directive Principles of State Policy.
    • Against the larger interest of the country.
    • Of grave national importance.
    • Dealing with compulsory acquisition of property under Article 31A of the Constitution.
  • Case studies
    • Tamil Nadu Assembly in September, 2021passed a bill seeking exemption for students from the state from the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) required for undergraduate medical college admissions.
      • This Bill has been with Governor since then without rejection or acceptance.
      • Indecision can prove costly.
    • Manipur Speaker had not decided on defection, until Supreme Court forced him and bound him by giving a time frame. Justice can be denied in such cases to those who are affected.
  • Against the spirit of Constitution: Withholding of assent, though an option, is not normally exercised by Governors because it will be an extremely unpopular step.
    • Besides, withholding assent to a Bill by the Governor, an appointee of the President, neutralises the entire legislative exercise by an elected legislature enjoying the support of the people.

Conclusion

Giving assent to a Bill passed by the legislature is a normal constitutional act performed by the Governor. But of late, even such normal acts have become a source of confrontation between State governments and the Governors. The conduct of Governors in certain States follows a definite pattern which causes a great deal of disquiet to elected governments as well as to those who have faith in the constitutional order. Thus, it falls to the Supreme Court to fix a reasonable time frame for Governors to take a decision on a Bill passed by the Assembly in the larger interest of federalism in the country.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Analysing the significance of the integration of the Vibrant Villages Programme (VVP) with the Prime Minister Gati Shakti mega project, explain how it can improve the development of border areas and enhance monitoring efforts. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Centre’s ambitious Vibrant Villages Programme (VVP) which aims to develop infrastructure and open up villages to tourists along the China border will be integrated with the Prime Minister Gati Shakti mega project.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the significance of integration of VVP with Gati Shakti Yojana.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving aims and objectives of Vibrant Villages Programme (VVP).

Body:

In the first part, write about the Major features of VVP and Gati Shakti Project. Write about the significance of their convergence – improve logistics and transportation infrastructure g more effectively, enhance monitoring efforts, and enable better coordination among various government departments and agencies involved in the development of border areas.

Next, write about its impact on border areas – provide better infrastructure and essential services to remote and underdeveloped regions etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced opinion.

Introduction

Vibrant Villages Programme (VVP) is a Centrally sponsored scheme, announced in the Union Budget 2022-23 (to 2025-26) for development of villages on the northern border, thus improving the quality of life of people living in identified border villages. The scheme aims to cover 2,963 villages along the border areas of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Ladakh.

VVP aims to develop infrastructure and open up villages to tourists along the China border will be integrated with the Prime Minister Gati Shakti mega project.

Body

Major features of VVP

  • The scheme aids to identify and develop the economic drivers based on local, natural, human and other resources of the border villages on the northern border;
  • Development of growth centres on‘hub and spoke model’ through promotion of social entrepreneurship, empowerment of youth and women through skill development and entrepreneurship;
  • Leveraging thetourism potential through promotion of local, cultural, traditional knowledge and heritage;
  • Development of sustainable eco-agri businesseson the concept of ‘one village-one product’ through community-based organisations, cooperatives, NGOs.

Significance of the integration of the Vibrant Villages Programme (VVP) with the Prime Minister Gati Shakti mega project

  • The border villages of India are characterised by difficult terrain, weak transport networks and suboptimal socioeconomic indicators.
  • Such villages have sparse population, limited connectivity and infrastructure and are often get left out from the development gains. These regions lack development benefits that other states enjoy.
  • The digital platform of Gati Shakti brings 16 Ministries including Railways and Roadways together for integrated planning and coordinated implementation of infrastructure connectivity projects and allows government departments to break operational silos.
  • The integration of schemes will help to ensure the inclusion of these border areas in the mainstream gains.
  • This is imperative to secure the country’s sovereignty and further safeguard them from any possible friction with the neighbours.
  • It will help identify and develop economic drivers based on local natural, human, and other resources of the border villages.
  • It will create sustained opportunities for locals, which will stave off out-migration due to economic reasons and may even act as a motivation for reverse migration.
  • It will lead to investment in infrastructure and the creation of permanent settlements in far-flung areas in the form of housing and business to cater to the rise of tourists to remote locations like Ladakh.

Conclusion

The Vibrant Villages Programme aims to improve the quality of life for residents living in identified border villages while providing comprehensive development in villages located along the China border. The programme’s objectives include reducing migration by creating essential infrastructure and livelihood opportunities, ultimately contributing to the growth and development of these regions. This will also lead to increased security in these areas.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. What are the salient features of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010? Examine the grounds on which the Act has been criticized and its implications on India’s nuclear policy. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Two years after the French energy company Electricite de France (EDF) submitted its techno-commercial offer for the construction of six nuclear power reactors in Maharashtra’s Jaitapur, talks between Indian and French officials over several issues, including liability, have not resulted in any breakthrough yet.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the features of CLND act, 2010 and its criticisms.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about aims and objectives of CLND act, 2010.

Body:

First, write about the major provisions of CLND act – suppliers liable for damages caused by a nuclear incident. It features a strict liability clause, channelling of liability claims through the operator, and a maximum liability cap of Rs. 1,500 crores etc.

Next, write about the major criticisms it has faced – low cap on liability, the burden placed on operators, and the liability of foreign suppliers etc.

Next, write about the various measures that are needed to address the criticism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act 2010 was passed to specify nuclear power stations’ responsibilities in the case of a nuclear catastrophe. Provisions are made to offer the required compensation to the impacted community or users in the event of a nuclear disaster.

Two years after the French energy company Electricite de France (EDF) submitted its techno-commercial offer for the construction of six nuclear power reactors in Maharashtra’s Jaitapur, talks between Indian and French officials over several issues, including liability, have not resulted in any breakthrough yet.

Body

Salient features of the act

  • The Bill fixes no-fault liability on operators and gives them a right of recourse against certain persons. It caps the liability of the operator at Rs 500 crore.  For damage exceeding this amount, and up to 300 million SDR, the central government will be liable.
  • All operators (except the central government) need to take insurance or provide financial security to cover their liability.
  • For facilities owned by the government, the entire liability up to 300 million SDR will be borne by the government.
  • The Bill specifies who can claim compensation and the authorities who will assess and award compensation for nuclear damage.
  • Those not complying with the provisions of the Bill can be penalised.

Key issues in the act

  • The liability cap on the operator (a) may be inadequate to compensate victims in the event of a major nuclear disaster; (b) may block India’s access to an international pool of funds; (c) is low compared to some other countries.
  • The cap on the operator’s liability is not required if all plants are owned by the government. It is not clear if the government intends to allow private operators to operate nuclear power plants.
  • The extent of environmental damage and consequent economic loss will be notified by the government. This might create a conflict of interest in cases where the government is also the party liable to pay compensation.
  • The right of recourse against the supplier provided in the Bill is not compliant with international agreements India may wish to sign.
  • The time-limit of ten years for claiming compensation may be inadequate for those suffering from nuclear damage.
  • Though the Bill allows operators and suppliers to be liable under other laws, it is not clear which other laws will be applicable. Different interpretations by courts may constrict or unduly expand the scope of such a provision.
  • Tragedies in the past, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have demonstrated that there are several more expenses that the party causing the harm must pay for in addition to providing compensation.
  • These expenses cover the price of disposing of radioactive waste in an appropriate and safe manner.
  • These activities necessitate a substantial financial outlay in addition to extreme caution.
  • These additional expenses are not considered by the Act, which could be problematic.
  • The Civil Nuclear Liability Act2010 misses out on the issue of environmental damage caused by a nuclear disaster. The act only focuses on victim compensation and does not put the liability on operators for the environmental damage.

Conclusion

Nuclear energy is a sustainable source of energy, and it must be harnessed well to prevent the depletion of natural resources. However, the challenge lies in the devastating impact of nuclear disasters on people and the environment. Therefore, to safeguard the life and property of people, the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010 is essential. The act ensures the government and the operator take the liability for the incident, and victims get fairly compensated.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. What is a Geographical Indication (GI) tag and how does it benefit traditional products and their producers? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The Manamadurai pottery recently earned a Geographical Indication (GI) tag.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about GI tag and its benefits.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining a GI tag.

Body:

In the first part, in brief, write about the various aspects that are considered before according a GI tag.

Next. write about the benefits offered by the GI tag – legal protection to traditional products and their producers, preserves traditional knowledge and skills, creates market differentiation, and leads to increased demand and better prices for traditional products etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin. It acts as a certification that the product possesses certain qualities, is made according to traditional methods, or enjoys a certain reputation. The registration of a geographical indication is valid for a period of 10 years. It can be renewed from time to time for further period of 10 years each.

In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 which came into force with effect from September 2003. The first product in India to be accorded with GI tag was Darjeeling tea in the year 2004-05. The Manamadurai pottery recently earned a Geographical Indication (GI) tag.

Body

Laws governing the GI tag:

  • Under Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, GIs are covered as an element of IPRs.
  • GI is governed by WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
  • In India, GI tag is governed by Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection Act), 1999.
  • This Act is administered by Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, who is also Registrar of Geographical Indications.

Role that Geographical indication (GI) tags play in Rural Development of the country:

  • GI tag helps the producers to differentiate their products from competing products in the market.
  • It enables the producers to build a reputation and goodwill around their products, which often fetch a premium price.
  • The products help in export earning, promotion of tourism, cultural heritage and national identity.
  • For example, Kanjeevaram silk sarees and Pochampally Ikat contribute to exports and popularity.
  • GIs have great potential to play a major role in trade between countries.
  • Legal protection to GIs protect livelihoods and encourage employment generation.
  • Owing to the premium prices that many GIs command today, there is a possibility of preserving many traditional skills.
  • Benefit to the rural economy by improving the incomes of farmers or non-farmers
  • GI allows genuine producers to capture the market and creates entry barriers for fakes

Concerns / Challenges:

  • The special treatment to wines and spirits in TRIPS Agreement appears to be developed country-centric. Developing countries, including India, seek the same higher level of protection for all GIs as was given under TRIPS for wines and spirits.
  • The battle for GI tag between states. For instance, the previous row between West Bengal and Odisha over the ownership of Rasogolla
  • False use of geographical indications by unauthorized parties is detrimental to consumers and legitimate producers.
  • Cheap Power loom saris are sold as reputed Banarasi handloom saris, harming both the producers and consumers
  • Such unfair business practices result in loss of revenue for the genuine right-holders of the GI and also misleads consumers.
  • Protection of GI has, over the years, emerged as one of the most contentious IPR issues.

Way forward:

  • The benefits of GI tag are realised only when these products are effectively marketed and protected against illegal copying.
  • Effective marketing and protection requires quality assurance, brand creation, post-sale consumer feedback and support, prosecuting unauthorised copiers, etc.
  • For internationally recognised products like Darjeeling tea, international protection is of crucial importance.
  • Legal protection to GIs also extends to protection of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression contained in the products.
  • Hence Intellectual Property is a power tool for economic development and wealth creation particularly in the developing world.
  • GIs have the potential to be our growth engine. Policy-makers must pay a heed to this and give Indian GI products their true reward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Philosophical basis of governance and probity

6. Ethical governance is essential for ensuring that organizations operate in an ethical and responsible manner, and that they are accountable to their stakeholders. Explain. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the attributes of ethical governance.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining ethical governance.

Body:

Write about the various attributes of ethical governance – ethical behaviours, processes, procedures, culture, ways of doing and being that ensure high standards of performance, economy, effectiveness, efficiency, quality and satisfaction etc. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The World Bank defines governance as the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development

According to the United Nations Development Programme, Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the “proper functioning of institutions and their acceptance by the public” (legitimacy). And it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation)

Ethical governance meant that the manner in which power is exercised for an organisation by using its resources, including social and economic, is acceptable by all. It could range from personal rights to effective service delivery for all.

Body

Ethical governance is the right and justified conduct of activities of an organization (or government) to serve the larger public interest. Impartiality, accountability, transparency, honesty, integrity, probity, perseverance, truthfulness, citizen centricity, patriotism among other are some of the values which are must for attainment of ethical governance.

Major Features of Ethical Governance:

Participation

  • Good Governance truly promotes inclusive democracy allowing Right to Freedom.
  • Promote Citizen centric governance

Transparency

  • Easy accessible available affordable information
  • Promote accountable government

Rule of Law

  • Rule of law warrants that fair legal frameworks are implemented impartially.
  • It also means protection of human rights.

Responsiveness

  • This implies that processes and institutions should serve all stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.

Consensus oriented

  • Consensus oriented decision-making ensures that even if everyone does not achieve what they want to the fullest, a common minimum can be achieved by everyone which will not be detrimental to anyone.

Accountability

  • Accountability should be there not just for the government, but also for citizens, the private sector, industry, NGOs, and all stakeholders.

Importance of Ethical governance

  • Promotes and encourages for Transparency and accountability in functions of any government authority
  • Helps inculcate compassion, love, empathy towards vulnerable and weaker sections of society especially poor and women
  • Contributes in encouraging integrity and probity in governance for e.g zero tolerance to corruption
  • Promotes public welfare not personal gain
  • it makes you better policy maker in case ofmajority vs minority, rich vs poor, men vs women and disaster prone area vs others
  • Provides you courage, dedication, determination and commitmentto do work effectively and efficiently
  • Effective and efficient utilization of resources of country
  • Citizen charters, Code of conduct and code of ethicswhich are based on ethics are the tool of any govt. institution to work transparently along be an accountable.

Conclusion

Hence, governance shall be good as well as ethical to promote citizen centric participatory inclusive equitable development among all.

 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7. As individuals become more compassionate, they become more empathetic, caring, and resilient, which can lead to personal growth and a more fulfilling life. Discuss. (150 words)

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about importance of compassion in self-growth and ways to cultivate the attitude of giving.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining compassion.

Body:

First, write about the advantages of the practising compassion in our daily lives. Substantive with examples.

Next, write about the way in which one can develop the attitude of giving and be a compassionate towards others.

Conclusion:

Conclude the answer by summarising.

Introduction

Compassion is a deeper level of empathy, demonstrating an actual desire to help the suffering person. It is a unique feeling of sympathy for the suffering of others that involves emotions and empathy towards others, a sense of understanding, and the drive to protect.

Body

Compassion is a virtue that involves Acknowledgment, understanding, and emotional resonance linked with action aimed at understanding the person and the amelioration of suffering

Take for instance the example of Mother Teresa. Mother Teresa was the epitome of compassion. If ever one would dare to give a core competency to her, it is this single characteristic of being a compassionate person. She radiated this quality, when on earth, in a way, few humans could ever do; her love for the marginalized and the vulnerable and particularly for the poorest of the poor and the dying destitute was boundless.

Our compassion for others can lead to alleviation of great distress of people. For example, during the recent migrant crisis, the Bollywood Actor Sonu Sood became quite well known for his help to them on compassionate grounds. Thousands of poor and vulnerable people were given help through him.

Even at personal level, we have to be compassionate to our friends and family. Only then can we share both happiness and their sufferings together. This is the key to be happy.

On an individual level, one must be compassionate about themselves, to be happy in life. For instance, it is important to acknowledge our abilities and not be hard on ourselves when we encounter a failure. As candidates of UPSC, being demotivated and failure is part of the process. This does not mean; we have to believe ill about our capacity and self-loathe. Rather we must overcome that with compassion, trying to empathise with ourselves.

Conclusion

The world desperately stands in need of compassion today. A compassion, which reaches out to the unloved, the ostracized, the marginalized and the vulnerable. A compassion, that takes a stand for the poor, the victims of injustice, the refugees and the displaced. A compassion, that is able to negate and overcome the hate and divisiveness. The humankind must be compassionate to each other to see the world thrive.


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