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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. The State of the World’s Children 2023
  2. China- Central Asia and India


GS Paper 3:

  1. How AI can help the environment
  2. All India Report of First Census of Water Bodies
  3. State of the Global Climate 2022


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Kerala Adopts Water Budget 
  2. New Delhi Declaration


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Abhilekh patal
  2. Aadhaar authentication
  4. Transfer pricing-“arm’s length price”
  5. UDAN 5.0
  6. 100 Food streets in 100 districts
  7. PRAYAG Platform
  8. Major Economies Forum (MEF) on Energy and Climate
  9. Indian skimmers


The State of the World’s Children 2023

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Social Justice


Source: TH, UNICEF

 Context: UNICEF released its global flagship report ‘The State of the World’s Children 2023: For Every Child, Vaccination,’ highlighting the significance of childhood immunization.

What is Immunization?

Immunization, also known as vaccination, is the process of protecting an individual or a population from disease by introducing a substance that stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize and fight the disease-causing agent, such as a virus or bacteria.


The major findings of the report are:

The decline in vaccine confidence globallyOver a third of the 55 countries studied for vaccine confidence showed a decline.
The largest decline in childhood immunization in 30 yearsA total of 67 million children missed out on vaccinations between 2019 and 2021. In 2022, the number of measles cases was more than double the total in the previous year.
Existing inequities in vaccination accessUnvaccinated children often live in hard-to-reach communities such as rural areas or urban slums.
The growing threat of Vaccine HesitancyThere is a growing threat of vaccine hesitancy due to factors such as access to misleading information and declining trust in vaccine efficacy.


India-specific findings:

Decrease in the number of zero-dose children during the pandemicBetween 2020 and 2021, the number of zero-dose children in India decreased from 3 million to 2.7 million. However, India was among the top 20 countries with the largest numbers of zero-dose children
Improvement in the ‘Importance Given to Vaccines’98% of the population in India currently perceive vaccines as important for children




Emphasizes sustained evidence-based catch-up campaignsIndia was able to bring down the number of zero-dose children due to sustained evidence-based catch-up campaigns (e.g., Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI), ASHA workers, routine immunization)
Accelerating the implementationIncrease the implementation of Immunization Agenda 2030 and Gavi Strategy 5.0 to promote equity and sustainably scale up immunization coverage.
Strengthen demand for vaccinationDemand for vaccination can be strengthened by talking to communities, tackling gender barriers, and rethinking accountability in health systems.
Importance of investing in primary healthcareSpending more on immunization and health by investing in primary health care at the national level can help promote sustainable and equitable vaccine coverage.
Need to build resilient systemsE.g., India’s digital health platform TeCHO+ (Technology Enabled Community Health Operations) and electronic vaccine intelligence network (eVIN) increased vaccination coverage while enhancing data entry efficiency




Reaching the last child with immunization is a key marker of equity that benefits not only the child but also the whole community. Routine immunizations and strong health systems can best prepare us in preventing future pandemics and reducing morbidity and mortality.



Terms used: 

  • “Zero dose children” refers to children who have not received any vaccines at all or have not received any vaccines according to the recommended schedule for their age.
  • Vaccine Hesitancy: Vaccine hesitancy refers to the reluctance of an individual or a group of people to get vaccinated despite the availability of vaccines.
  • Vaccine confidence refers to the level of trust and belief individuals and communities have in the safety and effectiveness of vaccines.



United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (est. 1946; became a part of UN in 1953; HQ: New York) is an agency of the United Nations (UN) devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children. It is guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.

Insta Links



Mains Links

 It is found that vaccines taken during childhood do not protect against diseases throughout a person’s lifetime. Examine why. Also, discuss the importance of Child vaccination. (250 Words)


Prelims Links

‘Mission Indradhanush’ launched by the Government of India pertains to ( UPSC 2016)

(a) immunization of children and pregnant women

(b) construction of smart cities across the country

(c) India’s own search for Earth-like planets in outer space

(d) New Educational Policy


Ans: A

China- Central Asia and India

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: International Relations


Source: IE

 Context: China convened a meeting (online) of trade ministers of the grouping known as C+C5.



It constitutes China and the five Central Asian republics, namely Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan.


China and Central Asia:

  • China shares a long history of trade, culture, and people-to-people links with the Central Asian region, which lies on the ancient Silk Route.
  • Modern China’s involvement with the region began with the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • Diplomatic relations were established in 1992, and China’s relationship with the region was institutionalised as the Shanghai Five, the forerunner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).


Mutual benefits
For ChinaFor C5
Central Asia is a readymade market for cheap exports and gave China overland access to markets in Europe and West Asia.

The region is resource-rich, with massive gas and oil reserves, and strategic minerals such as uranium, copper, and gold.

China also had another priority in its relationship with these countries – to ensure peace in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, which forms its frontier with Central Asia.

The BRI plays a critical role as a transit hub for China’s trade with Europe.

Chinese investments helped to upgrade Soviet-era infrastructure and carry out development works in these countries.

President Xi launched his Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a modern version of the Silk Road, during his 2013 visit to the Kazakh capital Almaty.

Beijing has also pumped billions of dollars in investments that cover projects from oil and gas exploration, rail, road and seaport connectivity to digital technologies and green energy.

Access to the Pacific Ocean and East Asia to the landlocked region.

China, unlike the West, asks no questions about their governance or human rights record.


Friction points between China and Central Asia:

  • Beijing’s targeting of the Muslim population of Xinjiang has triggered resentment in these countries, where Islam is the principal religion.
  • The increasing presence of Chinese workers and rapid land acquisitions by China in these countries has led to public protests.


China’s ‘Grand Plan’ for Relations:

  • The region is economically dependent on Russia, which is also Central Asia’s net security provider.
  • Russia’s trade with these countries has increased over the last year, as it attempts to find substitutes for imports from Europe.
  • Russia also has a huge migrant population of Central Asians who bind the region to it in economic dependency.
  • Russia and China are now competing for the title of the top trading partner in the area. The trade between China and the five countries reached $70.2 billion last year.
  • Beijing is making use of Russia’s preoccupation in Ukraine to push Moscow out of its own strategic backyard.
  • The Ukrainian invasion has given rise to fears (among Central Asian countries) that a security relationship with Moscow could prove to be a double-edged weapon.


India and Central Asia:


  • While India has trading ties with these countries, it is hindered by the absence of a land route to Central Asia, with Pakistan denying its passage and Afghanistan being uncertain territory after the Taliban takeover.
  • The Chabahar port in Iran offers an alternative route, but it is not fully developed yet.
  • Also, India’s relationships in the region (including in the SCO) remain security-driven.
  • There have been suggestions that India should provide connectivity for people and trade in Central Asia through “air corridors”, as it had done for Afghanistan.
  • As a first, New Delhi made its biggest outreach to Central Asia, when the PM of India hosted a virtual summit of the C5 last year.
  • New Delhi’s leadership of the SCO this year may provide it with an opportunity to diversify relations with this strategic region.


Insta Links:

India-Central Asia

How AI can help the environment

GS Paper 3


Syllabus: Environment/ Science and Technology


Source: IE


Context: Previously, we talked about the use of AI for Medicine. Here we will see AI applications for the environment.


Some examples of how AI can help the environment:

Deforestation monitoringDeforestation and land use changes cause more than 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Using AI to monitor forest sounds and detect illegal loggingNon-profit organization the Rainforest Connection’s “Guardian” devices, which attach acoustic monitoring sensors to trees to detect sounds associated with illegal logging
Carbon footprint reduction in the industryUsing AI to optimize industrial processes and reduce carbon emissionsFero Labs’ AI-driven optimization software, which reduces the amount of mined ingredients used in steel production
Energy efficiency in buildingsUsing AI to optimize heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildingsArup’s Neuron app, which uses IoT sensors to gather data on building energy usage and optimize HVAC systems
Wildlife conservationUsing AI to monitor and protect endangered speciesRouxcel Technology’s AI-enabled bracelets for rhinos, monitor their movements and alert authorities to potential threats
Smart agricultureUsing AI to optimize farming processes and reduce wasteJohn Deere’s AI-powered system, which optimizes planting, irrigation, and fertilization for crops
Climate modellingUsing AI to make predictions about climate patterns and inform climate policyThe UK’s Met Office, which uses AI to model climate patterns and inform government policy on climate change
Renewable energy managementUsing AI to manage and optimize renewable energy sourcesIBM’s Watson Energy, which uses AI to optimize the performance of wind and solar energy systems


Challenges in the use of AI for the Environment:

Data quality and quantityAI models require high-quality data to perform accurately, and the availability of large and diverse datasets can be limited
Bias in data and algorithmsFor example, an AI system that recommends conservation areas to protect might not account for cultural significance or indigenous knowledge.
Interpretability E.g., it may be challenging to understand how a deep learning model classifies satellite images to detect deforestation.
Scalability and deploymentE.g., deploying sensors to collect environmental data in remote locations or deploying drones to monitor wildlife may require significant investment.
Ethical considerationsE.g., the use of facial recognition technology to monitor endangered species could violate the privacy of individuals visiting conservation areas.


AI is a powerful tool that, when used appropriately, can help address some of the most pressing environmental challenges facing our planet. By leveraging the strengths of AI and addressing the challenges it presents, we can develop sustainable and innovative solutions for a better future.


Insta Links

AI and Robotics


Mains links:

Discuss the applications of AI for use in Environment conservation. (250 Words)

All India Report of First Census of Water Bodies  

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment, Conservation


Source: IE

 Context: Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched the 1st Census of Water Bodies in convergence with the 6th Minor Irrigation (MI) Census under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Irrigation Census”.



  • Since water is a state subject under the 7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution, the relevant State Governments are primarily responsible for taking action.
  • Through a number of schemes and programs, the Central Government offers technical and financial assistance to support their efforts.


The First Census of Water Bodies

  • Objective: To develop a national database for all water bodies by collecting information on their size, condition, status of encroachments, use, storage capacity, the status of filling up of storage, etc.
  • What is unique about the census?
    • Until the 5th minor irrigation census, water body data was only available at the village level.
    • The first water body census included data on all types of water bodies in both rural and urban areas.
    • For the first time, data on the encroachment of water bodies was also gathered during the census.
  • The census defines a water body as: All natural or man-made units bounded on all sides with some or no masonry work used for storing water for irrigation or other purposes (industrial, domestic or drinking, groundwater recharge, etc).


Highlights of the first census:

  • 24,24,540 water bodies have been enumerated in the country, out of which 1% are in rural areas and only 2.9% in urban areas.
  • West Bengal’s South 24 Parganas has been ranked as the top district having the highest (55 lakh) number of water bodies across the country.


Classification of water bodies:

  • West Bengal has the highest number of ponds and reservoirs, whereas Andhra Pradesh has the highest number of tanks.
  • Tamil Nadu has the highest number of lakes and Maharashtra is the leading state with water conservation schemes.


Data on encroachment: 1.6% of water bodies are reported to be encroached, out of which 95.4% are in rural areas and the remaining 4.6% in urban areas.


Way ahead for Augmentation, Conservation and Efficient Management of Water Resources:

  • Inclusion of water bodies in land records
  • Making them an integral part of the town planning process
  • Strict action against the encroachers

State of the Global Climate 2022

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment, Conservation


Source: IE

 Context: According to the World Meteorological Organisation’s (WMO) annual ‘State of the Global Climate 2022’ report, from mountain peaks to ocean depths, climate change continued its advance in 2022.


Highlights of the report- State of the Global Climate 2022:

In 2022, two climate modes – the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) – contributed to major weather and climate events across large areas of the world.
Global mean temperatureThe global mean temperature in 2022 was 1.15°C above the 1850-1900 average.


The years 2015 to 2022 were the eight warmest in the instrumental record back to 1850.


This was despite three consecutive years of a cooling La Niña.

Concentrations of the three main greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxideReached record observed highs in 2021.


The annual increase in methane concentration from 2020 to 2021 was the highest on record.


The 3 continued to increase in 2022.

Reference glaciers


Experienced an average thickness change of over 1.3 metres between October 2021 and October 2022.
Sea ice in AntarcticaDropped to 1.92 million km2 on February 25, 2022, the lowest level on record and almost 1 million km2 below the long-term (1991-2020) mean.
Ocean heat contentAround 90% of the energy trapped in the climate system by GHGs goes into the ocean.


Ocean warming rates have been particularly high in the past two decades.


Despite continuing La Niña conditions, 58% of the ocean surface experienced at least one marine heatwave during 2022.

Global mean sea level (GMSL) The rate of global mean sea level rise has doubled between (1993-2002, 2.27 mm∙yr-) and (2013-2022, 4.62 mm∙yr).
Ocean acidificationCO2 reacts with seawater resulting in a decrease of pH referred to as ‘ocean acidification’.


Ocean acidification threatens organisms and ecosystem services.


The ocean surface pH is now the lowest and current rates of pH change are unprecedented.


Socio-economic and environmental impacts
Extreme Weather Events: Drought gripped East Africa, Record-breaking rain in July and August led to extensive flooding in Pakistan, and Record-breaking heat waves affected Europe during the summer. The unusual heat in Europe last year led to the deaths (15,000) than any other single extreme climate event.

 Food insecurity: As of 2021, 2.3 billion people faced food insecurity, of which 924 million people faced severe food insecurity.

 Displacement: In Somalia, almost 1.2 million people became internally displaced by the catastrophic impacts of drought.

 Environment: Global warming is causing the temperate zone to expand, and climate change is also affecting recurring events (trees blossom, birds migrate) in nature, etc.


India-specific findings and predictions:

Heatwaves in the 2022 pre-monsoon season in India caused a decline in crop yields. A number of forest fires, particularly in Uttarakhand.

This, combined with the banning of wheat exports and restrictions on rice exports in India, posed high risks to countries already affected by shortages of staple foods.

The Indian Monsoon onset was earlier and the withdrawal was later than normal in 2022. The majority of the Indian subcontinent was wetter than average.

Heatwave conditions existed even in February which is not even a summer month.

After a relatively cool March, heat waves were back in April.

With the La Nina phase getting over, and forecasts of El Nino taking over in a few months, this year is predicted to be warmer than 2022.

The IMD has predicted a normal monsoon this year, but the impact of El Nino led to fears that rainfall might be suppressed.

Insta Links:

Synthesis Report of IPCC AR6

Kerala Adopts Water Budget

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: DTE

 Context: Kerala became the first state to adopt a water budget, as a solution to water scarcity during summer months to ensure equitable water distribution.


What is Water Budget?

A water budget is a tool used to manage water resources by estimating the total amount of water available in a region and the amount of water used by different sectors.


  • It helps in making informed decisions about water use
  • Identifying areas of water scarcity
  • Developing strategies for equitable water distribution.
  • Create awareness about proper water use and avoiding wastage.

Other initiatives of the Kerala government: It has revived over 15,000 kilometres of waterways in the last few years, and local bodies are rejuvenating more ponds and streams.

Usage: This can be used as an example in Governance, and Agriculture questions on water management.

New Delhi Declaration


Source: PIB

Context: The two day Global Buddhist Summit 2023 concluded successfully in New Delhi today with the New Delhi Declaration

 To know about Global Buddhist Summit: Click here


Major outcomes of the New Delhi Declaration:

  • It highlights the importance of peace, well-being, harmony, and compassion for universal peace
  • The texts, doctrines and philosophy of Buddha Dhamma are the best guides for inter-faith dialogue, harmony and universal peace.
  • It calls upon all nations, organizations, and individuals to work towards creating a world free from conflict, violence, and war, protecting the environment, promoting mindfulness and wisdom, and preserving the sacred sites of Buddhism.
  • It recommends a paradigm shift in human attitudes towards nature, with an emphasis on value education and character building, particularly among youths.
  • It recognized the Buddhist pilgrimage as a living heritage that promotes spiritual growth, cultural understanding and social harmony


Usage: The values presented in the declaration can be used in Essay/Ethics to support your answers.

Abhilekh patal

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB

 Context: PM praised “Abhilekh Patal” a portal with over 1 Crore Pages of Historical Records of the National Archives.


About the Portal:

It is a web portal to access records of the National Archives of India (NAI) and make its content available to all.


About NAI

The National Archives of India (est. 1891; HQ: New Delhi) is a repository of the non-current records of the Government of India and holds them in trust for the use of administrators and scholars. NAI is an Attached Office of the Ministry of Culture.

Aadhaar authentication

Source: PIB

 Context: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has proposed rules to allow entities other than Government Ministries and Departments to use Aadhaar authentication to promote ease of living and enable better access to services for citizens.


About the proposed rule:

What does the Rule say?Any entity other than a ministry or department that desires to use Aadhaar authentication needs to submit its proposal to the concerned ministry/department at the Centre or state level with justificationàThe proposal is forwarded to UIDAI, which will review and decide on the application.
What is Aadhaar Authentication (AA)?Aadhaar authentication is a process that verifies the identity of an individual using their Aadhaar number. It is mainly used for availing government services and schemes.
Entities currently allowed to perform AAGovernment ministries and departments; Some private entities like banks and telecom companies (for KYC authentication and only if UIDAI was satisfied with regard to standards of privacy and security)
Purpose of AAFor the interest of good governance, preventing leakage of public funds, enablement of innovation, the spread of knowledge, and promoting ease of living and enabling better access to services for residents.
Legal provisionAadhaar Authentication for Good Governance (Social Welfare, Innovation, Knowledge) Rules, 2020
Concerns SC (2018) struck down Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act which allowed the use of Aadhaar data by private companies – to establish the identity of an individual for being “unconstitutional”
What is the Aadhaar number?A 12-digit unique identity number issued by UIDAI, a statutory authority under MeitY, on behalf of the Government of India. It is based on an individual’s biometric and demographic data.



Source: TH

 Context: External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar co-chaired the 4th India-CARICOM ministerial meeting

About Caribbean Community (CARICOM)

 CARICOM (est. in 1973; HQ: Georgetown, Guyana) is an intergovernmental organisation that is a political and economic union of 15 member states throughout the Americas and Atlantic.

/ 22 Apr 2023, CARICOM, Today's Article

Transfer pricing-“arm’s length price”


Source: FE 

Context: The recent Supreme Court ruling that the “arm’s length price” determined by the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) cannot be treated as final in disputes related to alleged income suppression by multinational companies could potentially increase fresh litigation and delay final decisions.

What is Transfer pricing?

Transfer pricing refers to the pricing of goods, services, or intellectual property that is sold between two or more companies that are part of the same multinational enterprise (e.g., subsidiaries).

What is the “arm’s length price”?

Arm’s length price is a transaction in which buyers and sellers of a product act independently and have no relationship with each other.

Impact of the Judgement:

  • It may delay and increase the litigation
  • The ruling may increase the use of conciliatory mechanisms like advance pricing agreements (APAs)
  • It could also increase the utility of MAP (mutual agreement procedure), as an alternate dispute resolution mechanism.
  • It will increase the usefulness of Safe Harbour rules—which restrain the tax authority from questioning the pricing of certain transactions between multinational companies and their subsidiaries.


UDAN 5.0


Source: PIB

 Context: The Ministry of Civil Aviation in India has launched the 5th round of the Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) – Ude Desh Ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN) to improve connectivity in remote and regional areas of the country.


About UDAN Scheme

It was launched as a Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) under the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 2016, to provide affordable, economically viable and profitable air travel on regional routes to the common man even in small towns.

  • It envisages providing connectivity to un-served and underserved airports of the country through the revival of existing airstrips and airports.



UDAN 1.0UDAN 2.0UDAN 3.0UDAN 4.0UDAN 5.0
Focus CategoryCategory 1 (19-78 Seats)1 (19-78 Seats)1 (19-78 Seats)1 (19-78 Seats)2 (20-80 Seats) and 3 (>80 Seats)
Distance Length Cap500 km500 km800 km1,200 kmNow no restriction on the distance between the origin and destination of the flight
Viability Gap Funding Cap70% for Cat-1, 90% for Hilly States, J&K, Ladakh, NE and Island regionsSame as UDAN 1.0Same as UDAN 1.0Same as UDAN 1.060% for Priority Areas, 20% for Non-Priority Areas
Number of Airports70 airports325 airports688 airports766 airports766 airports
Exclusivity3 years3 years3 years1 year1 year
Implementation Period10 years10 years10 years10 years10 years


Other features of UDAN 5.0:

  • No predetermined routes would be offered. Only Network and Individual Route Proposal proposed by airlines will be considered.
  • The same route will not be awarded to a single airline more than once, whether in different networks or in the same network.
  • Airlines would be required to commence operations within 4 months of the award of the route. Earlier this deadline was 6 months

100 Food streets in 100 districts


Source: PIB

 Context: The Ministry of Health has proposed the operationalization of ‘100 food streets across 100 districts’ in the country to promote safe and hygienic food practices.


About the  Eat Right Food Street Project:

Key DetailsDescription
AimTo promote safe and healthy food practices, reduce food-borne illnesses, and improve overall health outcomes
Implementing AuthorityMinistry of Health and Family Welfare in collaboration with the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
FundingFinancial assistance of ₹1 crore per food street/district provided to States and Union Territories
ImplementationThrough the National Health Mission (NHM) in convergence with the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and technical support from the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
Number of Food Streets100 food streets in 100 districts across the country
About National Health MissionIt was launched in 2013 subsuming the National Rural Health Mission and the National Urban Health Mission, with the aim to achieve universal access to equitable, affordable & quality healthcare services that are accountable and responsive to people’s needs.

PRAYAG Platform


Source: PIB

 Context: Jal Shakti Ministry launched PRAYAG, a real-time monitoring centre for planning and monitoring of projects, river water quality, etc., during the 11th meeting of the Empowered Task Force of the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)



PRAYAG (Platform for Real-time Analysis of Yamuna, Ganga and their Tributaries) monitors various projects through various online dashboards such as Ganga Tarang Portal, Ganga Districts Performance Monitoring System, etc.

About National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)

NMCG (est. 2011; as a registered society) aims to rehabilitate and boost existing sewage treatment plants; curb pollution at exit points; maintain water flow without changing natural variations; restore surface and groundwater, etc. in Ganga and its tributary basins. It is being implemented by the National Ganga Council.

Major Economies Forum (MEF) on Energy and Climate


Source: PIB


Context: The Leaders Meeting of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate Change has acknowledged climate change as a major challenge.

  • The meeting was attended by the Heads of State and Ministers of 20 major economies of the world.


About MEF:

PurposeFacilitating dialogue among major emitting countries (both developed and developing) to advance efforts against climate change
Year Launched2009 by US President Barack Obama
Members20 major economies including India, Australia, Brazil, China, UK, UAE, etc.
GDP and GHG EmissionsMEF economies account for roughly 80% of global GDP and global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
FocusAchieving International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) “Credible Pathways to 1.5°C”, through Decarbonizing Energy; Reducing deforestation to net zero;  Launching a Methane Finance Sprint to cut methane emissions; Accelerating hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phasedown under Kigali Amendment; Accelerate CCUS technologies through a COP 28 Carbon Management Challenge


Indian skimmers


Source: NIE 

Context: The Satkosia wildlife sanctuary in India has recorded the breeding of Indian Skimmers for the first time


About Indian Skimmers:

Common NameIndian Skimmer, Indian Scissors-bill (Rynchops albicollis)

Native The Indian Skimmer is native to India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam.
HabitatCoastal estuaries, sandy lowland rivers, lakes, marshes, estuaries
DistributionWestern and eastern India, with breeding locations mostly along the Chambal River in Central India
IUCN Endangered
CITES StatusNot listed
ThreatsHabitat degradation, disturbances near rivers
About Satkosia wildlife sanctuaryLocated in Odisha on the banks of the Mahanadi River, the sanctuary is one of the critical tiger habitats by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).


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