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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 3 April 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organizations; Social empowerment.

1. How does the patriarchal social structure in India contribute to occupational segregation within the labour market, and what steps can be taken to address this issue? (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

Data on women’s market and domestic work in India reveal patterns that line up with these male preferences. In urban India, married women spend almost 7.5 times more time on domestic work as compared to married men

Key Demand of the question: The question requires you to explain how the patriarchal social structure in India contributes to occupational segregation within the labour market. Additionally, you need to suggest steps that can be taken to address this issue.

Directive words:

What steps can be taken – When the question asks you to “suggest steps,” it means you need to provide actionable suggestions that can be taken to address the issue of occupational segregation in the labour market.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Provide a brief introduction to the concept of patriarchal social structure in India and its impact on occupational segregation within the labour market.

Body:

In the first part, explain how the patriarchal social structure in India contributes to occupational segregation within the labour market. This may include discussing gender norms and stereotypes, discrimination, and unequal access to education and training opportunities.

In the second part, suggest steps that can be taken to address the issue of occupational segregation in the labour market. This may include promoting gender diversity and inclusion, improving access to education and training opportunities, implementing affirmative action policies, and strengthening legal protections against gender-based discrimination.

Conclusion:

Provide a brief conclusion on the need for systemic change to address the issue of occupational segregation within the labour market and promote gender equality in India.

Introduction

Patriarchy is a complex and a mystifying institution of power and control in the society. Patriarchy signifies a male dominated structure which has a long history and has existed in every society in the world. It is essentially a system of male domination in diverse aspects of life such as moral authority, social privilege, decision making, control of property, political leadership et al. It has hampered the position of the middle-class working women in India in contemporary times owing to prolonged practices of the past and submissiveness of the females.

Body

Impact of patriarchy on labour market

  • Dual burden of work
  • With the rise of economic wellbeing in the post 1990s India, women have found themselves increasingly getting employed outside home.
  • However there liberty has come in a form where they have to do household work combined with office work, due to nuclearization of family and high labour cost.

 

  • Corporate Glass ceiling
  • Owing to patriarchal expectation of looking after children and doing household chores lead to affecting the mobility of women in corporate ladder.

 

  • Limited job venues
    • The freedom to choose one’s occupation is severely eclipsed for women, where in recent times they are largely confined to service sector, more commonly known as pink sector which includes Sales jobs, Information and technology, customer care, and others.
  • Wage gap
    • Despite equivalent qualification for a job like man, women often bear the brunt of patriarchy in the form of low pay.
  • Safety issue
    • Work often requires constant spatial mobility, which in the wake of increased cases of violence against women, discourages them to take employment in the first place, and further dampening India’s low women’s labour-force participation rates

Need of the hour

  • Behavioral Nudge: For instance, by using taxes to incentivize fairly sharing child-care responsibilities, or by encouraging women and girls to enter traditionally male-dominated sectors such as the armed forces and information technology. Eg Supreme Court in India declared that women could now hold commanding positions in Army.
    • Paternity leaves for men, to share the responsibility of child rearing.
    • Incentivizing companies to employ women, and reach 50% target.
  • Gender Justice at Work
    • Bridging the wage gap for equal work.
    • Making work places safer through strong laws. India has enacted Sexual Harassment at workplaces act.
    • Promote diversity and anti-bias courses for all employees.
    • Comprehensive leadership training for women to excel in their fields.
  • Gender sensitization:Breaking the social barriers by gender sensitization and education at families, schools and workplaces. Eg : In the NCERT Books, gender roles, bias and prejudice inducing writings were removed.
  • Social security and financial literacy: Formalization of jobs should be pushed to avail benefits to many women. Until then, social security benefits should be provided to women in unorganized sector. Eg : Self Help Group-Bank Linkage Programme in India
    • Embedding financial literacy in programmes where women have significant representation could be a good starting point.
  • Strong laws and policies wrt equal pay for equal work, maternity benefits are needed to promote women’s representation in economy.
  • Political Representation: India has provided 33% reservation for women in the Panchayats and Local Bodies. Capacity Building and training can increase their capabilities further.

Conclusion

Gender equality is a human right which entitles all persons irrespective of their gender to live with dignity and with freedom. Gender equality is also a precondition for development and reducing of poverty. Gender shouldn’t be an unreasonable determining factor curbing the potential of women.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

2. In view of the recently announced, Japan’s plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific, discuss the geopolitical challenges facing the region, and how will the new initiative help resolve them. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, Japanese Prime Minister, Fumio Kishida visited India and unveiled “Japan’s New Plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP) and exchanged views about deepening the “Japan-India Special Strategic and Global Partnership”.

 Key Demand of the question:

To write about FOIP, challenges in Indo-pacific and FOIP potential in reducing them

 Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Start the answer by briefly introducing Japan’s plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific, its significance, and its objectives.

Body: In the first part, mention the geopolitical challenges facing the region such as territorial disputes, economic competition, security threats, and geopolitical rivalry among major powers.

Next, discuss how Japan’s new initiative can help resolve these challenges by discussing the four pillars of cooperation under the plan, namely, promoting rules-based order, connectivity, sustainable development, and maritime security.

In each of the four pillars, highlight the specific measures and initiatives that Japan plans to undertake and how they will help address the challenges mentioned earlier. Use examples to support your argument.

Also, mention the potential challenges and obstacles that Japan may face while implementing the new initiative, such as resistance from other major powers, economic constraints, and political instability in the region.

Briefly add India’s role in FOIP

 Conclusion: Conclude by summarizing the key points discussed in the answer and emphasizing the importance of Japan’s new initiative in promoting regional stability, economic prosperity, and security. Also, mention the need for continued cooperation among regional and global powers to address the complex challenges facing the Indo-Pacific region.

Introduction

The Indo-Pacific is a geopolitical construct that has emerged as a substitute to the long-prevalent “Asia-Pacific. Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) is aimed at curbing China’s growing assertiveness in the Indo-Pacific region.

During his visit to India, the Japanese PM unveiled Japan’s New Plan for a FOIP and exchanged views about deepening the Japan-India Special Strategic and Global Partnership.

Japan’s New Plan for the FOIP lays stress on the need to uphold the rules-based order and respect each other’s territorial sovereignty, at a time when the international community is at a historical turning point.

Body

Four pillars of cooperation under the new FOIP:

  • Principles for peace and rules for prosperity: Japan wants to engage in economic development programmes such as the G-20 Principles for “Quality Infrastructure Investment”.
  • Addressing challenges in an Indo-Pacific way: Incorporating realistic and practical projects in a wide range of areas, such as climate change, food security, global health and cybersecurity.
  • Multi-layered connectivity: The 3 areas identified for introducing more such projects are Southeast Asia, South Asia and the South Pacific/Pacific Island countries. Japan has made a new commitment of –
    • $100 million towards the Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund;
    • It will promote the Bay of Bengal-Northeast India industrial value chain concept in cooperation with India and Bangladesh, etc.
  • Extending efforts for security and safe use of the “sea” to the “air”: Japan will help in strengthening the capabilities of maritime law enforcement agencies in other countries. Towards these objectives,
    • Japan will implement the “strategic use of Official Development Assistance (ODAs)”.
    • Japan also announced to mobilise a total of more than $75 billion in public and private fundsby 2030 for infrastructure development.

Geopolitical challenges facing the region

  • Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • The differing position of countries on the Russia-Ukraine war
  • food security
  • cyber space
  • freedom of the seas, and connectivity among others.
  • Lack of a united stand on “what the international order should be

How will new FOIP help?

  • FOIP will be able to work with and embrace diverse voices and create an atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration rather than division and confrontation.
  • Rule-making through dialogue’ should be encouraged.
  • Japan under the FOIP should work alongside other like-minded countries in the region, with India being billed as an ‘indispensable’ partner.

Way forward & conclusion

  • Japan needs to do much more in the region.
  • Japan is preparing itself for any unforeseen threat to its own as well as regional security.
  • To reinforce the idea that Japan has been the
    • The main champion of the FOIP concept
    • Central in the emerging geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific
  • With recent global developments (Russia-Ukraine war, Chinese assertiveness in the SCS, ECS, the Indian LAC, and the Taiwan Straits), there is a need to give a fresh push and momentum to the FOIP concept.
  • It focuses on the numerous challenges facing the Indo-Pacific such as the lack of a united standon “what the international order should be?”.
  • Both India and Japan should cooperate to build consensus on the new FOIP during the G-7 and the G-20 (Japan and India hold their presidencies, respectively) summits.
  • The countries in the region should have equal access as a right under international law to the use of common spaces on sea and in the air that would require freedom of navigation, unimpeded commerce and peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with international law.
  • It is important to establish connectivity in the region based on respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, consultation, good governance, transparency, viability and sustainability.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic -Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

3. Highlight the issues and concerns surrounding the UN’s decision to allow deep sea mining operations. Also, list down provisions of national and international conventions regulating deep sea mining.  (250 words) 

Difficulty level: Medium

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Recently, Japanese Prime Minister, Fumio Kishida visited India and unveiled “Japan’s New Plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP) and exchanged views about deepening the “Japan-India Special Strategic and Global Partnership”.

Key Demand of the question:

The question requires you to discuss the issues and concerns surrounding the United Nations’ decision to allow deep-sea mining operations. Additionally, you need to list the provisions of national and international conventions regulating deep-sea mining.

Directive word: Highlight – When the question asks you to “highlight,” it means you throw light on the issue. You need to provide a clear and concise overview of the issues.

List down – When the question asks you to “list down,” it means you need to provide a clear and concise list of provisions of national and international conventions regulating deep-sea mining.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Provide a brief introduction to the concept of deep-sea mining and the context of the UN’s decision to allow it.

Body:

In the first part, discuss the issues and concerns surrounding the UN’s decision to allow deep-sea mining operations. This may include concerns over the potential environmental impact, biodiversity loss, disturbance of the deep-sea ecosystem, and the potential for negative impacts on fisheries and coastal communities.

In the second part, list down the provisions of national and international conventions regulating deep-sea mining. This may include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the International Seabed Authority (ISA) regulations, and national regulations for deep-sea mining operations.

Conclusion:

Provide a brief conclusion on the challenges and opportunities of deep-sea mining operations and the need for appropriate regulations to address the potential environmental and social impacts of these activities.

Introduction

Deep-sea mining is the process of retrieving mineral deposits from the deep seabed the ocean below 200 metres and covers two-thirds of the total seafloor. According to International Seabed Authority (ISA), an agency under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for monitoring all activities related to mineral resources in the deep sea, the international seabed is the area that lies beyond the limits of national jurisdiction and represents around 50% of the total area of the world’s oceans.

The International Seabed Authority (ISA) has decided that it will start taking permit applications from companies that want to mine the ocean floor. More than 1.5 million square kilometres of the international seabed have been set aside for mineral exploration.

Body

Issues posed by Deep sea mining

  • Environmental impact:
    • According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), these deep remote locations can be home to unique species that have adapted themselves to conditions such as poor oxygen and sunlight, high pressure and extremely low temperatures.
    • Such mining expeditions can make them go extinct even before they are known to science.
    • The deep sea’s biodiversity and ecology remain poorly understood, making it difficult to assess the environmental impact and frame adequate guidelines.
    • Environmentalists are also worried about the sediment plumes that will be generated as the suspended particles can rise to the surface harming the filter feeders in the upper ocean layers.
    • Additional concerns have been raised about the noise and light pollution from the mining vehicles and oil spills from the operating vessels.
  • Technology:
    • The specialized drills and extraction-technology that would be required pulling out the metals from the deep sea would develop a major technical challenge.
  • Commercial Viability:
    • The latest estimate from the ISA says it will be commercially viable only if about three million tonnes are mined per year. More studies are being carried out to understand how the technology can be scaled up and used efficiently.

International conventions regulating deep sea mining

  • The Jamaica-based International Seabed Authority was established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). It holds authority over the ocean floors outside of its 167 member states’ Exclusive Economic Zones.
  • At the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Marseille (September 2021), IUCN Members adopted Resolution 122 to protect deep-ocean ecosystems and biodiversity through a moratorium on deep-sea mining unless and until several conditions are met.
  • The UN High Seas Treaty,to protect the world’s oceans outside national boundaries.

National Conventions

  • Draft Deep Seabed Mining Regulations, 2021:It has been formulated by the Indian government to provide a legal framework for the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources in the country’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

Conclusion

There is an urgent need for an international charter as in the absence of a clear charter, deep sea mining operations could cause irreversible damage to a little understood ecology. A new set of exploration guidelines must be worked out with discussions involving multi-stakeholders like ISA, IUCN, UNCLOS, littoral nations etc.

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

 4. In light of Mission Prarambh, elucidate the need and challenges to the participation of private industries in the space sector. (15M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the mission Prarambh, challenges and limitations being faced by private sector in space exploration in India and methods to overcome them.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of mission Prarambh.

Body:

In the first part, write about the nature and significance of mission Prarambh.

Next, explain the need for emphasis on enhancing commercial activities in the Indian space sector, and as a result, the participation of the private sector in the Indian space industry has been minimal in space activities.

Then, the significance of private industries in the space sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Skyroot Aerospace launched India’s first privately developed rocket as part of the firm’s maiden mission, called Prarambh.

To enhance the diffusion of space technology and boost the space economy within the country, the Department of Space (DOS) is encouraging the participation of private companies in space activities.

Body

About mission Prarambh

  • The Prarambh mission is aimed at carrying three payloads into space, including a 2.5-kilogram payload that has been developed by students from several countries.
  • The Prarambh mission and the Vikram-S rocket were developed by the Hyderabad-based startup with extensive support from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and IN-SPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre).
  • The rocket, named Vikram-S, will carry three customer payloads and launch from the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) launchpad at Sriharikota.
  • If Prarambh is successful, Skyroot Aerospacewill become the first private space company in India to launch a rocket into space.

Need for private participation

  • Indian space has had the participation of private sectors on small scale for a long time. A large part of the manufacturing and fabrication of rockets and satellites happens in the private sector. There is increasing participation of research institutions as well.
  • But the Indian industry had a bare 3% share in a rapidly growing global space economy which is already worth at least $360 billion.
    • Only 2% of this market is for rocket and satellite launch services, which require fairly large infrastructure and heavy investment.
    • The remaining 95% related to satellite-based services, and ground-based systems.
  • Indian industry is unable to compete because till now its role has been mainly that of suppliers of components and sub-systems.
  • Indian industries do not have the resources or the technology to undertake independent space projects of the kind that US companies such as SpaceX have been doing or provide space-based services.
  • The demand for space-based applications and services is growingeven within India, and ISRO is unable to cater to this.
  • The need for satellite data, imageries, and space technology now cut across sectors,from weather to agriculture to transport to urban development and more.
  • There is aneed for greater dispersion of space technologies, better utilization of space resources, and increased requirement of space-based services.

 

Challenges for private space entities in India:

  • Monopoly: In India ‘Space’ means Indian Space Research Organisation. Globally the technology is highly protected because of its dual use capability. Even if it was not, it would be prohibitively expensive.
  • Funding: A major challenge in setting up a space business in India is funding. Space industry is capital intensive and upstream activities come with a long gestation period.
  • Investor’s Dilemma: The lack of clarity among the investors and lack of the ecosystem required for significant contribution is a challenge for the investors.
  • Lack of Regulation: India is a party to the Outer Space Treaty, where one of the fundamental requirements laid upon states is the supervision of space activities within its borders, the country did not have any formally legislated laws. This is a potential roadblock for commercialization.
  • Growth Challenges: Scaling up, international marketing and funding are challenges.
  • Lack of Support: The Indian ecosystem has neither incubation support nor pointers to seek support of leaders such as ISRO for space start-ups.
  • Political and bureaucratic hurdles limit private space operations in India.
  • Low in-house capacity of ISRO restricts them to very few launches in a year. Privatization can offload 30-40% of the work and help them work more efficiently.

Way forward:

  • India should have national space activities legislationwhich takes on board all stakeholders.
  • public-private partnership (PPP) modelcan be looked into to realise ISRO’s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), with a joint venture between ISRO and the private sector.
  • In the UK, space ventures are treated as a complement to big organizations and not a competitor. This should be encouraged in India too.
  • supportive international partner and likeminded local partnershelps to set up a space business.
  • The idea should be to let the private industry build their own facilities after gaining enough expertise.
  • ISRO has built a space technology park spread over 25 acres in Bengaluru where the entire range of facilities have been set up for use by the industry.

Conclusion

There are several ambitious space missions lined up in the coming years, including a mission to observe the Sun, a mission to the Moon, a human spaceflight, and then, possibly, a human landing on the Moon. And to achieve all this ISRO needs the help and back up by opening up to the private sector.

Value addition

Recent developments in boosting privatisation in space sector in India

  • IN-SPACE: IN-SPACe was launched to provide a level playing field for private companies to use Indian space infrastructure.
    • It acts as a single-point interface between Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and everyone who wants to participate in space-related activities or use India’s space resources.
  • NewSpace India Limited (NSIL):Announced in Budget 2019, its aim is to use research and development carried out by ISRO over the years for commercial purposes through Indian industry partners.
  • Indian Space Association (ISpA):ISpA aspires to be the collective voice of the Indian Space industry. ISpA will be represented by leading domestic and global corporations that have advanced capabilities in space and satellite technologies.

 

Topic: Science and Technology in everyday life, Contribution of Indians to Science & Technology

 5. What were Acharya J C Bose’s multidisciplinary contributions and how did his work impact the Indian scientific community? (10M)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights On India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question: To write about Acharya J C Bose’s multidisciplinary contributions and how his work impacted the Indian scientific community.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving a brief on Acharya J C Bose and his contributions.

Body:

First, explain Acharya J C Bose’s multidisciplinary contributions, such as his work in physics, biology, and plant physiology.

Next, explain his major scientific contributions, such as the invention of the Crescograph and his work on the nature of plant responses and the effects of electromagnetic waves.

Then, highlight how his work impacted the Indian scientific community. For example, his research provided a foundation for the development of radio and wireless communication technologies, and his emphasis on indigenous research and development helped to inspire a generation of Indian scientists.

Explain in detail about each contribution of Acharya J C Bose and how it impacted the Indian scientific community.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing.

Introduction

Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose is one of the most prominent first Indian scientists. He was a biologist, physicist, botanist, and writer of science fiction. He is known as the father of Radio science as well. He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.

Body

Acharya J C Bose’s multidisciplinary contributions

  • Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose was a biologist, physicist, botanist and an early writer of science fiction.
  • Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the Cresco graph, a device for measuring the growth of plants.
  • Bose subsequently made a number of pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention, the Crescograph, to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues.
  • Bose was popular among the students for his teaching style and demonstration of experiments.

Major scientific contributions

  • Bose was responsible for the expansion of experimental science in India.
  • Bose discovered wireless communication and was named the Father of Radio Scienceby the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
  • He was the first to demonstrate the wireless transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves at Presidency College (now Presidency University), Kolkata. 
  • Bose invented the Mercury Coherer which is a radio wave receiver. This device was used by Guglielmo Marconi to build a radio. Bose was thus a key figure in the invention of the modern radio and also in sonic technology.
  • Bose’s experiments on the quasi-optical properties of very short radio waves (1895) led him to make improvements on the coherer, an early form of radio detector, which have contributed to the development of solid-state physics. Bose was thus a key figure in the invention of the sonic technology.
  • He founded Bose Institute, a premier research institute of India and also one of its oldest. Established in 1917, the Institute was thefirst interdisciplinary research centre in Asia. On this occasion, he delivered his famous address “The voice of life” and dedicated the institute to the service of the nation.
  • He served as the Director of Bose Institute from its inception until his death.
  • To facilitate his research, he constructedautomatic recorders capable of registering extremely slight movements, these instruments produced some striking results, such as quivering of injured plants, which Bose interpreted as a power of feeling in plants.

Conclusion

Bose was a pioneer of multimedia communication in every way. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour. Bose authored two illustrious books; ‘Response in the Living and Non-living’ (1902) and ‘The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926). He was knighted in 1917 and elected the Fellow of the Royal Society in 1920 for his amazing contributions and achievements.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6. Based on the concepts presented in Thiruvalluvar’s Thirukkural, discuss the ethical responsibilities of a leader in modern political systems. In what ways can these principles be used to promote ethical governance and ensure the well-being of the people in a modern state? (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Key Demand of the question:  

To write about the ethical responsibilities of a leader as mentioned by Thiruvalluvar.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving context of Thiruvalluvar’s Thirukkural – various ethical values mentioned in it.

Body:

Explain in detail about Tiruvalluvar; his works and contributions in terms of philosophy, poems etc. He is best known for his famous work Thirukkuṛaḷ. This work consists of couplets on ethics, political and economical

Then give certain examples from his work
E.g Nation/State: “A Nation should have 5 key elements – Good health, Good economy, Harvest, Happiness and Strong defence – considering these a leader should act.

Next, explain in what ways these values will be helpful.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing.

Introduction

The Tirukkural, literally Sacred Verses), or shortly the Kural, is classic Tamil literature consisting of 1,330 couplets or Kurals, written by the renowned poet Thiruvalluvar. The Kural explains in detail the essential qualities of leadership, including Empathy, Clarity, Courage, Listening, etc.

According to it, Leadership is a mindset. It is not about age, experience, or skill set. It is an attitude, the way you see the world around you, about taking extreme ownership and accountability. It is about your willingness to sacrifice yourself for others.

Body

4 important qualities of a leader according to Thiruvaluvar

  • Clarity
  • Courage
  • Listening
  • Delegation

The ethical responsibilities of a leader in modern political systems

  • A leader should be During the tough times, he has to make solid decisions, he cannot be soft peddling, he has to handle the situation bravely. He needs moral and physical courage to face the unexpected failures.
  • In those days kings met enemies face to face in war fields, to-day it is the mental battle in making crucial decisions. Bravery is a must, whether it is

for physical or mental deed.

  • A leader should be generousor considerate towards his subordinates, it should be kept in mind, if right persons are not rewarded at appropriate time, they will become demoralized.
  • A leader should handle the work related worries of workers with care and concern.
  • A leader should be generous while sanctioning compensations and merciful while granting remissions.
  • A leader should be knowledgeable, he should be intelligent enough to weigh the pros and cons of issues by using the reasoning, reflection and foresight.  He should come out with corrective measures to resolve the issues.
  • A leader should have power tomotivate others, in case of most critical time, he has to motivate himself by using auto suggestions. He should not expect his subordinates to motivate him in critical times.
  • A leader should be always alert, it is an inevitable ingredient in an effective leadership.
  • Mental alertness and physical vitality will help to plug certain organisational loop holes.
  • For a successful leader as qualifications , the modern management uses words like determination, decisiveness, optimism, confident, commitment, vision, aggression, etc, etc . But Thiruvalluvar had accommodated all these micro qualities in a broad sense.

Conclusion

In fact the leadership is not a position, it is the responsibility of directing successfully an organisation towards the fixed goals. A potential leader has the critical responsibility of doing right things and making others to do those things right.
“A leader should do right things. Make others to do the right things.”

 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.

7. According to the Yoga school of philosophy, the goal of life is to attain self-realization and liberation from suffering. How can the principles of yoga be applied to contemporary ethical dilemmas, such as those related to environmental conservation, social justice, and human rights?  (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

 Reference: Insights On India

 Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:  To write about the yoga school of philosophy and how it can be applied to contemporary ethical issues.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving a brief on the Yoga School of Philosophy and its goal in life.

Body:

First, explain the principles of Yoga and the significance of self-realization and liberation from suffering.

Next, highlight how these principles can be applied to contemporary ethical dilemmas such as environmental conservation, social justice, and human rights.

For example, Yoga’s principle of Ahimsa (non-violence) can be applied to environmental conservation and animal welfare issues.

Similarly, the principle of Satya (truthfulness) can be applied to address social justice issues such as discrimination and inequality.

Explain in detail each principle of yoga and how it can be applied to contemporary ethical dilemmas.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing the key points.

Introduction

Yoga is an ancient physical, mental and spiritual practice that originated in India. The word ‘yoga’ derives from Sanskrit and means to join or to unite, symbolizing the union of body and consciousness. Today it is practiced in various forms around the world and continues to grow in popularity. Recognizing its universal appeal, on 11 December 2014, the United Nations proclaimed 21 June as International Yoga Day. June 21, which is the Summer Solstice, is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and has special significance in many parts of the world. International Yoga Day aims to raise awareness worldwide of the many benefits of practicing yoga. The theme for 2022 is “Yoga for Humanity”.

Body

Yoga school of philosophy

  • The Yoga philosophy speaks about the theory and practice for the realization of the ultimate truth concerning human being and the world.
  • It is closely associated with Samkhya philosophy.
  • The Yoga presents a practical path for the realization of the self whereas the Samkhya emphasizes the attainment of knowledge of self by means of concentration and meditation.
  • As described by Bhagvad Gita, Yoga and Samkhya are the practical and theoretical sides of the same system.

Principles of Yoga

  • The objective of Yoga is- to better oneself physically, mentally and spiritually
  • The Yoga Sutras of Patanjaliis a key text of the Yoga school of Hinduism
  • It is believed that practicing  Ashtanga Yogawill lead to liberation.
  • But the more important addition to Sankhya was the practice of yoga: the cessation of all mental function. The correct practice of yoga included eight things:
    • Yama: Restraint from violence, lying, theft, or avarice.
    • Niyama: Building good habits like contentment, purity, Vedic study, and meditation on God.
    • Prathyahara: Choosing an object
    • Asana: Good posture.
    • Pranayama: Breath control.
    • Dharana: Focused attention on an object.
    • Dhyana: Meditation.
    • Samadhi: Concentration so deep that self-awareness is lost.
  • According to Yoga, success in the practice of yoga led to a full realization of the gulf between purusha and prakriti, and therefore liberation from suffering.

Yoga principles to solve contemporary ethical dilemmas

  • Promotes universality, brotherhood & peace
    • Yoga does not adhere to any particular religion, belief system or community; it has always been approached as a technology for inner wellbeing.
    • Yoga is about harmonizing oneself with the universe. It is the technology of aligning individual geometry with the cosmic, to achieve the highest level of perception and harmony.
    • Anyone who practices yoga with involvement can reap its benefits, irrespective of one’s faith, ethnicity or culture.
  • Emotional wellbeing
    • Yoga can not only help us improve our mental health but also help us perform our duty while maintaining equanimity under all circumstances.
    • Yoga can yield emotional health benefits because it’s an exercise that works both the body and the mind.
    • Yoga helps relieve stress and declutters the mind, helping you to become more focused.
  • Helps develop & practice humanity
    • Yoga asana’s and spirituality transcends religious, regional and virtually all forms of barriers.
    • It helps to seek humanity in diversity – responsible consumerism (SDG 12) with social well-being.
  • Sustainable lifestyle
    • The concept of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” is inherently linked with sustainable life style which is a major component of Yoga.
  • Develops focus and creativity
    • Yoga can also spark creativity, which can, in turn, enhance one’s self-esteem and improve focus.

Conclusion

Yoga, an ancient practice and meditation, has become increasingly popular in today’s busy society. For many people, yoga provides a retreat from their chaotic and busy lives. Yoga is more than a physical activity. In the words of one of its most famous practitioners, the late B. K. S. Iyengar, “Yoga cultivates the ways of maintaining a balanced attitude in day-to-day life and endows skill in the performance of one’s actions.”

Extra information: History of Yoga:

  • Though Yoga was being practiced in the pre-Vedic period, the great Sage Maharshi Patanjali systematized and codified the then existing practices of Yoga, its meaning and its related knowledge through his Yoga Sutras.
  • Sage Patanjali’s treatise on raja yoga, the Yoga Sutras, says Yoga comprises of yama, niyama, asana, pranayam, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
  • The phallic symbols and seals of idols of mother Goddess of Indus Valley Civilization are suggestive of Tantra Yoga.
  • Presence of Yoga is available in folk traditions, Indus valley civilization, Vedic and Upanishadic heritage, Buddhist and Jain traditions, Darshanas, epics of Mahabharat and Ramayana, theistic traditions of Shaivas, Vaishnavas, and Tantric traditions.
  • Sun was given highest importance during the Vedic period. The practice of ‘Surya namaskara’ may have been invented later due to this influence.

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