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[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 4 April 2023

 

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Defamation law

 

GS Paper 3:

  1. Monetary policy’s impact on inequality
  2. UN to allow deep sea mining: Issues and concerns
  3. India celebrates 50 successful years of “Project Tiger”

 

GS Paper 4:

  1. Recent examples involving Ethical issues

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Cool Roof Policy- Telangana
  2. Artemis II mission- first woman and first African-American

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Knight of the Legion of Honour
  2. Race to preserve ‘ice memory’
  3. Article 191(1)(e)
  4. Advance Pricing Agreements (APA)
  5. Sagar Setu Mobile App
  6. Nagri Dubraj rice
  7. One of the biggest known black holes discovered
  8. Cope India

 


 

Defamation law

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Indian Constitution—Historical Underpinnings, Evolution, Features, Amendments, Significant Provisions and Basic Structure

 

Source: TH

 

Context: The defamation law in India has come under scrutiny once again following the conviction of a Congress leader (Rahul Gandhi) in a 2019 defamation case.

 

Background: In 1860, the British imported their idea of criminal defamation into the newly-minted Section 499 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC).

Defamation – Meaning (Section 499)A person is said to be defamed when someone makes or publishes any accusations about them with the intent of damaging their image through words, signs, or other visible representations.

 

Types – Civil and Criminal:

 

In civil defamation, a person who is defamed can move either HC or subordinate courts and seek damages in the form of monetary compensation.In criminal defamation (Section 500), the person against whom a defamation case is filed might be sentenced to two years imprisonment or fined or both.

 

The law of defamation and right to free speech [Article 19 (1)(a)]:

  • Exceptions to defamation: Absolute truth and what is for the public good.
  • The criminality of defamation was challenged in the SC on the grounds that it was an unreasonable restriction on the constitutionally-guaranteed right to freedom of speech and expression.
  • However, the apex court upheld the British-era Section (Subramanian Swamy V. The Union of India 2016).

 

Analysing the 2016 SC verdict:

Article 21 vs 19 (1)(a):

  • The court held that the right to “reputation” was protected under Article 21 of the Constitution which guarantees “life and personal liberty”.
  • The right under Article 19(1)(a) had to be “balanced” against the right to “reputation” under Article 21.
  • Thus, the court elevated “reputation” to the level of a fundamental right and made it prevail over free speech.
  • Over the years, the court has expanded the scope of Article 21 to force the state to undertake various “social justice” measures.
  • But in this case, the SC used Article 21 as a sword to cut down the fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression (“death by Article 21”).

 

Invoking ‘constitutional fraternity’:

  • The court held that criminal defamation law protected the feeling of fraternity (mentioned in the preamble as an aspirational goal alongside “liberty” and “equality”)/solidarity between members of society.
  • However, “constitutional fraternity” is not a part of Article 19(2), which specifically limits the circumstances under which the state can restrict speech.
  • “Liberty cannot be divorced from equality; equality cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced from fraternity.” (B.R. Ambedkar)

 

Issues with the court’s verdict:

  • No mention of the fact that Section 499 does not allow for “honest mistake” as a defence.
    • The SC (previously) had found the civil law of defamation unconstitutional/disproportionate restriction upon free speech since it did not allow for “honest mistake”.
  • Dismissal of the claim that criminal defamation creates a chilling effect upon speech.
  • The SC has always had an ambivalent relationship with the freedom of speech and expression.

 

Conclusion: The court had to construct novel arguments which will have serious and unfortunate implications for the freedom of speech and expression in the coming years.

 

Insta Links:

Making sense of the disqualification of a Lok Sabha MP

 

Prelims Links: (UPSC 2020)

Consider the following statements:

  1. According to the Constitution of India, a person who is eligible to vote can be made a minister in a State for six months even if he/she is not a member of the Legislature of that State.
  2. According to the Representation of People Act, 1951, a person convicted of a criminal offence and sentenced to imprisonment for five years is permanently disqualified from contesting an election even after his release from prison.

 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

 

Ans: 4

Monetary policy’s impact on inequality

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment

 

Source: IE

 Context: Over the course of the next four days, the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of RBI will deliberate whether interest rates should be hiked further or not.

Background: Since May last year, RBI has been raising the repo rate (the rate at which the RBI lends to the banking system) → banks/other financial institutions charge higher interest rates → existing EMIs for home/car/business loans have been going up.

 

The pros and cons of raising interest rates:

ProsCons
Contain inflation: Higher EMI would dissuade enough people from borrowing money to fund future economic activity → slowdown in demand for money → bring down inflation → “too much money chasing too few goods”.

 

●       Hike per se cannot improve the supply of those goods and services

●       Prevent the “second-order effects” of high inflation → refer to a spike in people’s expectation of future inflation

●       Limit India’s economic expansion and make unemployment worse

●       A contractionary/tighter monetary policy (higher interest rates) increases inequality in an economy

Does bringing interest rates down reduce inequalities?

  • From the 2008 Global Financial Crisis until the war between Russia and Ukraine, most central banks practised an expansionary/loose monetary policy → low-interest rates → flooding the economy with additional money → spurring economic activity.
  • But, there was growing criticism that low-interest rates were leading to higher wealth inequalities.
  • Here’s how: When interest rates are low → savers barely get any rewards (save-you-lose) → most of the wealth creation happens in the stock markets → stocks are mostly owned by the rich (invest-you-win).

 

What should be done given the harmful effects of both (contractionary/expansionary) monetary policies on inequality?

  • Widening inequalities is a very long-term trend, which depends on deep structural changes in any economy such as globalisation, technological progress, demographic trends etc.
  • A properly managed monetary policy promotes greater economic stability and prosperity for the economy as a whole, by
    • Mitigating the effects of recessions on the labour market and
    • Keeping inflation low and stable.
  • There is the need to rely on fiscal policy (taxes and government spending programs) and policies aimed at improving workers’ skills to address distributional concerns.

 

Insta Links:

RBI Monetary Policy

 

Mains Links:

Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments. (UPSC 2019)

UN to allow deep sea mining: Issues and concerns

GS Paper 2/3

Syllabus: International Relations/Environment, Conservation

 

Source: IE

Context: The International Seabed Authority (ISA) has decided that it will start taking permit applications from companies that want to mine the ocean floor.

Image Credits: ISA 2021

Background:.

Deep-Sea MiningIt involves retrieving mineral deposits from nodules that dot the ocean floor, typically more than 600 feet below sea level.
Location:The most economically viable nodules lie partially under sediment in the north-central Pacific Ocean, the southeastern Pacific Ocean, and the northern Indian Ocean.

 

Common Heritage of Humankind●       Under the UNCLOS, ocean areas beyond national jurisdiction and their mineral resources are the common heritage of humankind

●       It contains most of the same minerals (but in enriched forms) that are found on land, as well as minerals that are unique to the deep ocean, such as ferromanganese crusts and polymetallic nodules.

 

 

Need for undersea mining:
1To extract key battery materials – cobalt, copper, nickel, and manganese – from potato-sized rocks called “polymetallic nodules” found at depths of 4 – 6 km.
 2Within the next 2 decades, the IEA predicts that renewable energy technology will make up over 40% of the demand for copper, 60 -70% for cobalt and nickel, and 90% for lithium.

 

Concerns:

At the 28th Session of the ISA (Kingston, Jamaica), several countries insisted that industrial undersea mining requires strict rules.

 

ConcernsExplanation
The mining code is missingThe 36-member council is uncertain about the process it should adopt for reviewing applications for mining contracts.
Rising Geopolitical Competition

 

 

China has demonstrated its desire to shape international norms in the maritime domain, as exemplified by Beijing’s aggressive actions in the South China Sea.

 

Holding 5 out of the 30 deep-sea mining exploration contracts issued by the ISA(more than any other country), it is now leading the race to the bottom of the sea by building superior capabilities and influencing the regulatory environment.

Damaging repercussions for the environmentIt would go beyond harming the seabed and have a wider impact on the deep-sea marine ecosystems in regulating the climate
·        Chile, France, Palau, and Fiji, among other nations, have called for a global moratorium on the practice, citing environmental concerns and a lack of sufficient scientific data.

·        In Resolution 122, IUCN notes that if deep-sea mining is permitted to occur, biodiversity loss in these unique ecosystems will be inevitable, and the consequences for ocean ecosystem function, and for humanity, could be vast.

 

 

Pros of Deep sea mining:

ProsExplanation
Transition to Clean Energy

 

 

·        Deep sea mining could help meet the rising demand for energy transition metals.

 

·        The demand for commodities like copper, lithium, and rare earth is expected to rise due to their essential role in the technologies and infrastructure needed to decarbonize the global economy.

 

·        Within the next two decades, the IEA predicts that renewable energy technology will make up over 40% of the demand for copper, 60-70% for cobalt and nickel, and 90% for lithium.

 

 

Energy SecurityHelps nations reduce their dependence on China for imports of rare earths & avoid a supply squeeze

 

 

Deep Ocean Mission by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)

Aim: To explore the deep ocean for resources and develop deep-sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources.

Read more here

 

ISA: It is a  Jamaica-based intergovernmental body established under the UNCLOS. It holds authority over the ocean floors outside of its 167 member states’ Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)

Insta Links:

Deep Ocean Mission

India celebrates 50 successful years of “Project Tiger”

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment Conservation

 

 Source: The Print

 Context: The Indian government will officially mark the 50th year of ‘Project Tiger’ on 9 April with a three-day event in Mysuru, Karnataka.

  

Background:

Project Tiger-an initiative to save tigers, was first initiated in the year April 1, 1973 in Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.

 

 

About Project Tiger:

FeatureDescription
Objective·        To ensure the maintenance of a viable population of tigers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values.

·        To preserve, for all times, areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people.

TypeCentrally Sponsered Scheme under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC)
Implementing AuthorityNational Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) (est. 2005; HQ: New Delhi)
About NTCANTCA was established following a recommendation of the Tiger Task Force). It is a statutory body under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, of 1972.
Members of NTCAUnion Minister of the MoEFCC (as Chairperson)+ the Minister of State in the MoEFCC (as Vice-Chairperson)+ 3 MPs, Secretary, MoEFCC
Functions of NTCASupervisory and coordination role and approval of the Tiger Conservation Plan prepared by the State Governments.
States Covered18 States in India with 54 Tiger Reserves  (Guru Ghasidas National Park and the Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary in Chhattisgarh being the latest)

  

About Tigers:

 

 

Achievements of Project Tiger

AchievementDescription
Increased populationThe number of tigers in India has increased from 1827 (the 1970s) to around 2967, with a 30% rise in the population in the last eight years.
Increased coverage9 tiger reserves covering 18,278 sq km in 9 states (the 1970s) to currently, 54 tiger reserves spread over more than 75,000 sq km in 18 tiger range states.
TX2 (goal of doubling wild tiger population by 2022)India met its goal in 2018 (four years ahead of its target) (St. Petersburg Declaration on tiger conservation)
Protection of other animalsAs hunting was banned to save tigers, the population of many other animals started increasing.
Global tiger populationWith a current population of about 3,000 tigers, India is home to more than 70% of the global tiger population.

 

Challenges faced by project tiger:

  • Poaching: Project Tiger’s efforts were mainly hampered by poaching, also by the debacles and irregularities in Sariska and Namdapha.
    • As per NTCA, 1059 tiger deaths were in the last 10 years, most in Madhya Pradesh
  • Conflict with FRA, 2006: The Forest Rights Act passed by the Indian government in 2006 recognizes the rights of some forest-dwelling communities in forest areas.
  • Lack of adequate protection in the outside tiger reserve.
    • According to a report, nearly 29 per cent of tigers lives outside of the core zone
  • Man-Animal Conflicts Wildlife habitats are shrinking leading to more instances of human-animal conflict.
    • From 2001 to 2016, 1,065 cases of human-tiger conflict were recorded including injuries and even fatalities on both sides.

 

 

Conclusion

The tiger is a unique animal which plays a pivotal role in the health and diversity of an ecosystem.  However, there is a need for further community involvement through a tiger reserve that is not built with fences and armed patrol guards, but around a cultural model of conservation i.e. including local tribes like Idu Mishmi in Arunachal Pradesh, who consider Tigers as their elder brother and sacred.

 

To know about recent measures taken by India, Technological measures, and International efforts for tiger conservation: Click here

 

Insta links

Tiger density in India

 

Mains Link

Evaluate the various measures initiated towards tiger conservation and protection in India which have resulted in a steady increase in the population of tigers. What are the key learnings from these measures toward the conservation efforts of other species? (15M)

 

Prelims Link

Among the following Tiger Reserves, which one has the largest area under “Critical Tiger Habitat”?

(a) Corbett

(b) Ranthambore

(c) Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam

(d) Sunderbans

 

Answer: C

Recent examples involving Ethical issues

GS Paper 4

 Syllabus: Ethics and Values

 

Source: Multiple

  

Context: Various examples with ethical concerns are highlighted here

ExamplesDescriptionEthical Issues
Kalakshetra FoundationHari Padman, a senior instructor at Kalakshetra Foundation (dance school), was arrested following a complaint and student protests against sexual harassment.·        Sexual harassment at the workplace

·        Physical and psychological harm to the victim

·        Issue of institutional inaction and indifference to complaints of sexual harassment

·        Issue of lack of accountability and transparency in addressing complaints of sexual harassment

·        Need for institutions to recognize and respect the voices of their students

“French model on the end of life”France called for a law on a “French model on the end of life”, which could legalise euthanasia for the terminally ill. In a recent survey, up to 70% of French people are in favour of active help in dying.

Other European countries, including the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Spain, have already legalised assisted death.

Concerns over patient autonomy, the potential for abuse or coercion, the impact on the doctor-patient relationship, and the role of government in end-of-life decisions.
Custodial TortureAn Assistant Superintendent of Police in Tamil Nadu’s Tirunelveli district, Balveer Singh, has been accused of custodial torture. Singh is accused of torturing suspects in custody by removing their teeth with cutting pliers and causing injuries to their private parts.Custodial torture is a clear violation of the human rights of detenues, Abuse of power, Impunity and lack of accountability, police brutality and the lack of action taken by senior officers to prevent such incidents.
Italy bans ChatGPTItaly has become the first Western country to ban the AI-powered language model, ChatGPT, due to privacy concerns.Citizen’s private data could be misused, Bias and discrimination, Lack of transparency and accountability— concerns about who should be held responsible for its actions— creators of the AI systems, the companies that deploy them, or the governments that regulate them?

 

Mains Links: (UPSC 2021)

(a) Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix.
(b) Identify ten essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant. Describe the ways and means to prevent non-ethical behaviour in public servants.

Cool Roof Policy- Telangana

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: HT

The Telangana government in India has announced a “Cool Roof Policy” for buildings, requiring all government, non-residential, and commercial buildings to implement cool roofs, which are designed to be heat resilient and energy-efficient.

 

Aim: The policy aims to make buildings thermally comfortable and heat resilient, reduce energy consumption, lower costs, and control carbon dioxide emissions. The cool roof technology is expected to reduce indoor temperatures by 2-4°C compared to traditional roofs and save 20% in energy costs.

 

Values: Environmental sustainability, public health, energy efficiency, and social responsibility

Artemis II mission- first woman and first African-American

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Source: TH

NASA’s team for its upcoming Artemis II mission, includes the first woman and first African-American to be assigned to a lunar mission. The mission will be the first crewed voyage around the moon in over 50 years and is aimed at establishing a sustainable outpost on the lunar surface.

 

Values: diversity and inclusion, representation, equal opportunity, innovation, and progress towards sustainability

Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur” (Knight of the Legion of Honour)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: The Hindu

 Context: Philanthropist and art collector Kiran Nadar was recently conferred “Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur” (Knight of the Legion of Honour) by French Ambassador to India Emmanuel Lenain.

  • Awarded for Contribution to the field of art, her commitment to providing greater access to culture both nationally and internationally, and her leading role in fostering Indo-French cultural ties.

 About Kiran Nadar:

  • Ms Nadar, chairperson of the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art (KNMA) — a philanthropic initiative in art — and a trustee of the Shiv Nadar Foundation has played a vital role in advancing Indo-French cultural ties, and artistic cooperation.
  • This exhibition was brought to India as part of “Bonjour India 2022“, a six-month cultural festival organised by France across India as a present for India’s 75th Independence anniversary.

 

About Chevalier de la Legion of d’Honneur:

  • Legion of Honour is a French order of merit.
  • This honour is presented to people with 20 years of civil achievement in peacetime or to those who showcased extraordinary military bravery in war times.

Article 191(1)(e)

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: TH

 Context: The Election Commission of India has chosen not to take a stance on whether a disqualified lawmaker should be banned from contesting elections for five years.

 

The issue:

A petition has been filed in SC that an MP or an MLA who has either been disqualified from the House under the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) or under Article 191(1)(e) of the Constitution should be barred from contesting elections for five years. This is to discourage MP/MLAs from switching the political party to gain political favour.

 

About the article:

Article 191(1)(e) gives the various grounds of disqualification “for being chosen as, and for being a member of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State” on:

  • Holding an office of profit
  • Being of unsound mind or undischarged solvent
  • Being a non-citizen or voluntarily acquiring the citizenship of a foreign state
  • Being under any acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foreign state.
  • If an MLA or an MLC is “disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament”

 

ECI argument: The issue falls under the interpretation of Article 191(1)(e) of the Constitution, and it would be appropriate for the Union government to deal with it. The commission’s mandate is limited to the conduct of elections in terms of the remit of Article 324 of the Constitution.

Advance Pricing Agreements (APA)

Source: PIB

 

Context: Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has entered into a record 95 Advance Pricing Agreements in FY 2022-23 with Indian taxpayers.

  • With this, the total number of APAs since the inception of the APA programme (2012) has gone up to 516 (420 Unilateral APAs (UAPAs) and 96 Bilateral APAs (BAPAs))
About APADescription
DefinitionIt is an agreement between a taxpayer and a tax authority that sets out how international transactions between related companies will be priced, to avoid any confusion or disagreement about the pricing of those transactions.
ExampleFor example, let’s say Company A in India sells products to its subsidiary Company B in the US. Company A can enter into an APA with the Indian tax authority and the US tax authority to agree on the transfer pricing methodology that will be used to determine the pricing of these products (being sold to its own subsidiary).
Objective·        The main objective of an APA is to keep a check on big multinational companies so that they do not engage in tax evasion by adjusting their profits based on their inter-corporate transactions (transfer pricing).
Guidelines included inIncome Tax Act, 1961
Transfer PricingCharges at which one company provides goods, finance, or services to another related company, based on Arm’s Length principle
Types of APAUnilateral, Bilateral, and Multilateral
BenefitsCertainty in tax liability, minimized audit tasks, reduced cost of administration for tax authorities
TimeAPA helps determine the arm’s length price of international transactions in advance for a maximum of five future years (taxpayer also has the option to roll back the APA for four preceding years = Total of nine years of tax certainty)
Application processFiling an application with DGIT for Unilateral APA, with Competent Authority for Bilateral/Multilateral APA, negotiations carried out by CAs of tax authorities involved.

About CBDT:

The Central Board of Direct Taxes is a statutory authority functioning under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963. The officials of the Board in their ex-officio capacity also function as a Division of the Ministry dealing with matters relating to the levy and collection of direct taxes.

Race to preserve ‘ice memory’

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: The Hindu

Context: Arctic scientists are set to start drilling to save samples of ancient ice for analysis before the frozen layers melt away due to climate change.

  • They will extract ice in a series of tubes from as far as 125 metres (137 yards) below the surface, containing frozen geochemical traces dating back three centuries.

 

Why preserve ancient ice?

  • Analysis of chemicals in deep “ice cores” provides scientists with valuable data about past environmental conditions.
  • Studies indicate that the Arctic is warming between two and four times faster than the global average.

 

How will it be preserved?

One set of ice tubes will be used for immediate analysis while a second set will be sent to Antarctica for storage in an “ice memory sanctuary” under the snow, where the samples will be preserved for future generations of scientists.

Sagar Setu Mobile App

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: PIB

 Context: The App Version of the National Logistics Portal (Marine), named ‘Sagar-Setu’, has been launched by Ministry for Ports, Shipping and Waterways.

 

Aim: The app will provide real-time information on vessel-related information, gate, container freight stations, and transactions, enabling digital transactions for payments.

 

Benefits: The app will boost maritime trade, enhance the economy of the country, and increase the visibility of operations and tracking.

About NLPM:

National Logistics Portal (Marine) is a national maritime single window platform encompassing complete end-to-end logistics solutions to help exporters, importers, and service providers exchange documents seamlessly and transact business.

Maritime India Vision 2030 (expected to supersede the Sagarmala Scheme) aims to build ports and digitize maritime infrastructure within the country.

Nagri Dubraj rice

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: BS

Context: The Geographical Indication Registry has granted Chhattisgarh’s aromatic rice, Nagri Dubraj, a geographical indication (GI) tag facilitating the brand to get a unique identity and a wide market.

About Nagri Dubraj riceIt is produced by a women’s self-help group “Maa Durga Swasahayata Samuh“. The grain finds reference in Valmiki Ramayana.

 

 

FeaturesIt is an indigenous variety and has small grains, is very soft to eat after cooking, and is known as the Basmati of Chhattisgarh because of its fragrance
Previously, Jeeraphool rice (also from Chhatisgarh) was granted a GI tag in 2019, Dubraj is the second brand to get the GI tag.

One of the biggest known black holes discovered

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: Indian Express

Context: Astronomers have discovered one of the biggest black holes ever found, using gravitational lensing.

 

About Gravitational Lensing:

  • Gravitational lensing is the name given to the phenomenon where a foreground object—a galaxy or a black hole—bends the light from a more distant object behind it, magnifying it in the process.

 

How was the discovery made?

  • The researchers used supercomputer simulations that simulated light from a faraway galaxy travelling through the Universe hundreds of thousands of times. Each of the simulations had a black hole of a different mass, changing the light’s journey to Earth.
  • When the researchers included an ultra-massive black hole in one of the simulations, the path taken by the light exactly matched the path seen in actual images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • This helped them discover the ultra-massive black hole, over 30 billion times the mass of our Sun, in the foreground galaxy.

 

This new approach taken by the researchers could make it possible to study inactive black holes in distant galaxies, which is not currently possible with other existing techniques.

Cope India

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: The Hindu

 

Context: The Air Forces of India and the U.S. are set to conduct the Cope India exercise at the Kalaikunda airbase in West Bengal, with Japan as an observer.

  • The Indian Air Force (IAF) is set to field its frontline fighters SU-30MKI, Rafale and the indigenous Light Combat Aircraft along with force multipliers, while the U.S. Air Force is expected to bring in F-15 fighter jets.
ArmyYUDHABHAYAS & VAJRA PRAHAR
NavyMALABAR (Multilateral – Japan joined in 2015 and Australia in 2020)
Air ForceRED FLAG 16-1

 

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