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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Without action plans, India’s poorest will continue to bear brunt of heatwaves: study


GS Paper 2:

  1. Three months to set up online RTI portals: SC
  2. Parliamentary Panel: Reduce the civil services examination’s selection cycle


GS Paper 3:

  1. Technology at your service – Transforming lives and society
  2. ‘Disturbed areas’ tag under AFSPA


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Universal Basic Income scheme in Tamil Nadu
  2. Uttarakhand: QR code-based project to prevent littering


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Scholarship and Fellowship Scheme to protect folk song artists
  2. India’s first Bauxite Certified Reference Material (CRM)
  3. An Affinity tests
  4. Annual Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Report 2021-22
  5. Berry borer infestation
  6. ‘Pellet-beam’ propulsion
  7. Plastiglomerate
  8. Marine protected areas (MPA)
  9. Conservation Plan for Great Indian Bustards



Without action plans, India’s poorest will continue to bear brunt of heatwaves: study

GS Paper 1

 Syllabus: Important Geophysical Phenomena


Source: TH

 Context: A new report by the think-tank Centre for Policy Research on “How is India Adapting to Heatwaves?” indicates that the country is ill-prepared to face the heat.



  • Landmark heatwaves (1998, 2002, 2010, 2015, 2022) have led to large death tolls and extensive economic damage by reducing labour productivity and affecting water availability, agriculture and energy systems.
  • Governments across India have responded by creating heat action plans (HAPs), which prescribe a variety of measures (to decrease the impact of heatwaves) –
    • Preparatory activities
    • Post-heatwave response
  • The report analysed 37 HAPs at the city (9), district (13) and State (15) levels across 18 States, to evaluate how policy action is keeping up with the warming weather in India.


Findings of the report:

  • Heat waves (prolonged periods of extreme heat) have increased in frequency in recent decades due to climate change.
  • HAPs are not built for local contexts.
  • Nearly all HAPs –
    • Fail to identify and target vulnerable groups
    • Are underfunded with weak legal foundations → reduces bureaucratic incentives to prioritise and comply with HAPs instructions
    • Are insufficiently transparent
  • Only 2 HAPs carry out and present vulnerability assessments (systematic studies to locate where the people most likely to be affected are in a city, district, or State).
  • There is no national repository of HAPs and very few HAPs are listed online.


Indian govt initiatives to deal with the impact of heat waves:

Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment)To promote sustainable lifestyles and practices that conserve the environment and have climate co-benefits.
Environment Education Programme (EEP)To sensitise children/youth, on issues related to the environment and to motivate them to adopt sustainable lifestyles.


National Programme on Climate Change and Human Health:To increase public awareness on the subject of the health impacts of climate change including heat waves.


India Meteorological Department (IMD)Issues colour-coded impact-based heat wave warnings for public benefit through mass media.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and IMD


They are working with 23 States prone to high temperatures leading to heat-wave conditions for supporting HAPs.
Water Technology Initiative (WTI):


Aims to develop research-based solutions for existing and emerging water challenges facing the country in the area of water quality, quantity, water reuse and recycling.


Per Drop More Crop (PDMC) schemeIt focuses on enhancing water use efficiency at the farm level through micro irrigation viz. drip and sprinkler irrigation systems
The Startup India Seed Fund scheme (SISFS)Under the Startup India initiative, the scheme provides –

○       ‘Simplification and handholding’,

○       ‘Funding support and incentives’ and

○       ‘Industry- academia partnership and incubation’ for, prototype development, etc.




  • HAPs must identify sources of financing – either from new funds or by combining actions with existing national and State policies.
  • Set up rigorous independent evaluations as a basis for constant improvement.
  • Raise public awareness on issues related to environmental sustainability and climate change.



Without implementation-oriented HAPs, India’s poorest will continue to suffer from extreme heat, paying with both their health and incomes.


Insta Links:

Heatwaves in India

 Prelims Links: (UPSC 2015)

“Each day is more or less the same, the morning is clear and bright with a sea breeze; as the Sun climbs high in the sky, heat mounts up, dark clouds form, then the rain comes with thunder and lightning. But the rain is soon over.”


Which of the following regions is described in the above passage?

  1. Savannah
  2. Equatorial
  3. Monsoon
  4. Mediterranean


Ans: 2

Three months to set up online RTI portals: SC

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Governance: RTI


Source: TH

 Context: The Supreme Court has directed States and Union Territories to set up and operationalize online Right to Information (RTI) portals within three months to ensure transparency in governance.


What is RTI?

The Right to Information Act 2005 (RTI) gives Indian citizens the right to access information held by public authorities (all levels of government, judiciary, as well as any non-governmental organizations that receive public funding).


Genesis of RTI act:

In 1986, the Indian Supreme Court ruled in the case of Mr Kulwal v/s Jaipur Municipal Corporation that the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution includes the right to information.





Why Online Portal?

 Section 6(1) of RTI, 2005 stipulated that an information seeker had a statutory right to move an application through electronic means.


Issues with the online portal:

  • Even after 17 years of the act being passed, several High Courts and most district courts entertain only physical RTI applications.
  • Issues of the digital divide’, lack of digital infrastructure, and lack of digital literacy hamper RTI progress.


Recently, Supreme Court and some HCs in Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Delhi have set up an online portal facilitating requests for the supply of information.


More about Section 6 of the RTI Act

  • A person who desires to obtain any information under this Act can do so in writing or through electronic means.
  • Language:English/Hindi/official language of the area
  • Fee: Prescribed fee.
    • No need to disclose the reasons: For making the request or their personal details except for such information that might be required for contacting them.


To know more about RTI Act, its provisions, issues, and way forward: Click here


Insta Links

Is the RTI Act fulfilling its purpose?


Mains Links

Is the Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005 fulfilling its purpose of ensuring transparency and accountability in governance? State your opinion.

Parliamentary Committee: Reduce the civil services examination’s selection cycle

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Governance


Source: TH


Context: Asserting that the nearly 15 months long recruitment process wastes candidates’ prime years besides taking a heavy toll on their physical and mental health, a Parliamentary Committee has asked the UPSC to reduce the civil services examination’s selection cycle


Major Recommendations of the Parliamentary Panel:

Reduce the civil services examination’s selection cycleReduced recruitment duration, the less physical and mental strain on candidates.
Examine reasons for the low turnout of candidatesImproved understanding of barriers to participation and ways to increase participation rates.
Furnish details of examination fees collectedImproved transparency in fee collection and expenditure.
Form an expert committee to assess the equal opportunityImproved equity in the recruitment process.
Appoint an expert group to assess the impact of changesMore informed decision-making on changes to recruitment scheme and syllabus.
Publish the answer key after the preliminary stage of the examImproved transparency and fairness in the examination process.
Collect feedback and effect improvementsImproved candidate experience and fairness in the examination process.


Suggestions by other Committee for recruitment

Suggested Reforms
Hota CommitteeReduction in the age limit for general category candidates

from 32 to 26 years; Introduction of a common preliminary examination for all

central services

2nd ARC ReportIntroduction of lateral entry of specialists into civil

Services; Recruitment of specialists through domain-specific

Examinations; Strengthening the training and capacity-building of civil



Other issues with Civil Services in India

Conversion of ICS into IASNo attempts were made to link IAS with India’s philosophy of public administration, thereby prolonging the colonial attitude of civil servants.
Excessive Element of SecurityArticle 311 of the Constitution of India acts as a safeguard for civil servants so that they are not dismissed arbitrarily from service. However, security cover provides them with a sense of permanency in power, and their behaviour often shows a total disregard for transparency and accountability.
Lack of SpecialisationIt makes it impractical for them to handle assignments that require specific expertise.
Absence of Systematic MechanismThere is no inbuilt mechanism for the re-inculcation of sense of purpose and motivation in the civil services. The absence of such a mechanism can lead to insensitivity and lack of concern.


Reform initiatives taken in recent years:

Mission KarmayogiNational Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB)
Lateral Entry ReformPersonnel from the private sector are selected for administrative posts in the government
e-SamikshaReal-time online system for monitoring and follow-up action on government decisions
Citizen ChartersMandated for all Ministries/Departments and regularly updated and reviewed
National Conference on e-GovernanceThe platform for engagement with experts and intellectuals to exchange experiences relating to e-Governance initiatives
CPGRAMSOnline system for lodging and tracking grievances
National e-Governance Service Delivery AssessmentAssessment of the efficiency of e-Governance service delivery by States, UTs, and Central Ministries.



Civil services reform esp. in recruitment and training, is necessary to enhance administrative capability in response to new challenges faced by the state institution managing public affairs.


Insta Links

Civil Services Reforms: 2nd ARC


Mains Links

“Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in the Civil Service for strengthening democracy. (UPSC 2020)

‘Disturbed areas’ tag under AFSPA

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Internal Security


Source: TOI, TOI


Context: The Centre has decided to decrease the jurisdiction of “disturbed areas” declared under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) in Nagaland, Assam and Manipur from April 1st.

About AFSPADescription
DefinitionAreas declared as “disturbed’’ under Section 3 of AFSPA due to a “dangerous” or “disturbed” situation.
What are “Disturbed areas”?When a part or whole state/UT is in such a condition that the use of armed forces in aid of civil power is necessary.
Who can declare a “disturbed area”?It can be declared by the Governor of state or administrator of Union Territory or by the Central government.
PurposeIt grants special powers to armed forces to maintain public order in “disturbed areas.
PowersArmed forces can use force, arrest without a warrant, search without a warrant, and shoot to kill
AFSPA completely withdrawn inMeghalaya (2018), Tripura (2015) and Mizoram (1980s)
AFSPA in effectNagaland (8 out of 9 districts), Assam (8 districts), Manipur (except a few areas), the whole of Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Arunachal Pradesh


Need for AFSPA in North-eastProtection of members of armed forces; To handle involvement of proxy groups; dissuade advancement of terrorist activities; To handle insurgency and militancy-affected areas


Issues with the use of AFSPA

Violation of human rights·        It has been dubbed as a ‘license to kill’;

·        Justice Verma committee (on offences against women in conflict areas) said “AFSPA legitimizes impunity for sexual violence”;

·        Justice Santosh Hegde Committee described it as a “symbol of oppression”.

Cases of fake encountersFor instance, the Extrajudicial Execution Victim Families Association of Manipur filed a case in the Supreme Court alleging 1,528 fake encounters between 1979 and 2012.
Opposition by the state governmentStates like Nagaland, Tripura, and Manipur have constantly opposed its imposition.
Poor checks and balanceThe Act gives powers to security forces to open fire but only after a prior warning is given to the suspect. There is a lack of accountability.
Poor investigationIn Manipur, with the Supreme Court taking up the extra-judicial killings, the CBI has investigated only 39 cases (94 killings).
Fuels the cycle of violencePeople’s disillusionment with the democratic setup is exploited by secessionists and terror sympathizers, leading to more violence and counter-violence


Reforms Needed in AFSPA

Proposed Measures
Ensure compliance with human rights while maintaining operational effectiveness
Ensure provisions for robust safeguards within the parameters of the law
Thorough inquiry for every death caused by armed forces
No absolute immunity for Army personnel who commits a crime
Clearly define terms like “disturbed”, “dangerous”, and “land forces” to ensure greater clarity
Set up committees at the district level with representatives of the army, administrators, and the public to report, assess and track complaints in that area
Justice Jeevan Reddy Committee Recommendations:  Repeal AFSPA and insert appropriate provisions in the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967
2nd ARC: It recommended the repeal of AFSPA



With the improvement in the situation in the Northeast, AFSPA should be gradually removed. To reduce the possibility of its misuse, AFSPA should be made more comprehensive, with elaborate rules concerning the method of investigations of alleged human rights violations


Insta Links



Mains Links

The Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) is an anachronistic law and its repeal can strengthen the foundation of our democracy. Critically examine. (15M)

Technology at your service – Transforming lives and society

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology


Source: IE

Context: The digital revolution has transformed the lives of ordinary citizens, given the power to the poorest and marginalised, and offered the youth the ability to create.


Digital initiatives that have changed the lives of ordinary people:

Previously regarded as a privilege, technology access is being used to combat poverty and make life easier for more people.

Initiatives & MetricsExplanation
Digital IndiaMinimised the impact of disruption during the pandemic.


Internet penetrationIncreased from only 25 crore Indians (2014) to 84 crores in 2022.


Increased Affordability

→ leading to greater accessibility of services



The cost of 1GB of data has been reduced from about Rs 300 to Rs 13.5 per GB. This has increased accessibility to various services such as: –


Education, Teleconsultations (eSanjeevani app), Access to food supplies (One Nation One Ration Card framework), Aadhaar Enabled Payment System (AePS), Digital payments (UPI, QR codes), Reduced congestion and waiting time at the toll plazas (FASTag technology).


Best practice – CoWIN app – Example of democratising digital technology:

  • The entire process of onboarding vaccine manufacturers, clinics, hospitals, registration of citizens and scheduling, till the final certificate of vaccination, is digital.
  • This enabled India to administer 150 crore doses within the first 12 months of the vaccination drive.


What makes 2023 an inflexion point?

  • AI, 5G, and quantum technology have matured to a level where they are becoming mainstream.
  • India has assumed the leadership of the G20.
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat.


A new initiative – OCEN (open credit enablement network):

  • The government is developing the OCEN, which will lead to competition among various banks for giving loans to a person → lower the cost of credit → propel the credit-to-GDP ratio from the current 57 to 100% by 2031.


Way ahead: This game-changing digital and tech-led revolution, which gives power to the poorest and marginalised sections is to be replicated across different sectors.



India has entered its Amrit Kaal in times of global uncertainty. In this scenario, India’s G20 Presidency will be pathbreaking, serving and sharing India’s scalable public digital infrastructure with the world.


Insta Links:

The Digital India Transformation


Mains Links:

How is science interwoven deeply with our lives? What are the striking changes in agriculture triggered off by science-based technologies? (UPSC 2020)


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Universal Basic Income scheme in Tamil Nadu

 Source: TH

Tamil Nadu government announced that 1 crore women, including street vendors, fisherwomen, construction workers, and domestic helpers, will receive ₹1,000 per month as part of a Universal Basic Income scheme.

Aim of the scheme: To recognize women’s lifelong work and eradicate poverty by complementing their livelihoods; To improve their self-respect and standard of living.

  • UBI could reduce poverty by half and help women prioritize children’s education, nutrition, medical expenses, and small businesses.

 Other countries: For a short period of time, Iran and Mongolia had universal basic income. Currently, no countries in the world have a universal basic income.

 Values: UBI for women can promote a more just and equitable society by recognizing the value of unpaid care work, promoting gender equality, upholding human dignity, promoting social justice, and empowering women.


Uttarakhand: QR code-based project to prevent littering

 Source: TH

 The government of Uttarakhand in India is implementing a unique waste-disposal system to prevent littering the Char Dham yatra route with plastic bottles and packets.

Mechanism: Visitors will scan a QR code on each plastic bottle and multi-layer plastic bag and pay a deposit over the maximum retail price, which they can claim back as a refund when they deposit the waste at a point at the end of the yatra.

Impact: Last year, the pilot project saved over 1.63 lakh single-use plastic bottles from entering the fragile mountain ecosystem.

Values shown: Environmental Responsibility; Sustainability; Social Responsibility; Respect for Culture and Heritage; Responsible Tourism and use of technology


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Scholarship and Fellowship Scheme to protect folk song artists

 Source: PIB

 Context: The Ministry of Culture is implementing a Scheme by the name of ‘Scheme of Scholarship and Fellowship for Promotion of Art and Culture’ to protect all genres of artists including folk song artists.

 The scheme has three components:

  • Award of Scholarships to Young Artists (SYA) (a Scholarship of Rs.5000/- per month)
  • Award of Senior/Junior Fellowships for cultural research
  • Award of Tagore National Fellowship for cultural research.

 What is folk art?

Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. It is produced from an indigenous culture and is characterized by a native style, in which customary rules of proportion and perspective are not employed.


India’s first Bauxite Certified Reference Material (CRM)

 Source: PIB

 Context: National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have jointly developed India’s first Bauxite Certified Reference Material (CRM) named BARC B1201.

  • This is the fifth CRM of its kind in the world.

What is CRM?

 A Bauxite Certified Reference Material (CRM) is a standardized sample of bauxite that has been certified to have a known and consistent composition.

What are its uses?

  • CRMs are used as calibration standards for analytical methods, instrument performance evaluation, and data quality control in routine analysis of bauxite.
  • The use of CRMs ensures the accuracy and reliability of analytical results and facilitates inter-laboratory


National Aluminium Company Limited (est. 1981; HQ: Bhubaneshwar) is a government company having integrated and diversified operations in mining, metal and power under the ownership of the Ministry of Mines.

About Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)

It is India’s premier nuclear research facility (est. 1954; HQ: Trombay, Mumbai; founder: Homi Jehangir Bhabha) for a multidisciplinary research program essential for India’s nuclear program.

About Bauxite

Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content. It is the world’s main source of aluminium and gallium


An Affinity tests

 Source: Th

 Context: The Supreme Court of India has ruled that an “affinity test,” which measures an applicant’s knowledge of a particular tribe or caste’s customs, rituals, and other traits, cannot be the sole determinant of a caste or tribe claim.

 What is an affinity test?

 An affinity test is a study on caste/tribe claims based on the peculiar anthropological and ethnological traits, deities, rituals, customs, mode of marriage, death ceremonies, methods of burial of dead bodies, etc., of a particular caste or tribe, as well as the applicant’s knowledge of them.

  • It is used as a means to corroborate the documentary evidence submitted by the applicant in support of their caste or tribe claim.


Why affinity test can’t be the sole criterion?

An applicant’s knowledge of SC/ST traits may not be an accurate measure of his or her belonging to a particular caste or tribe, as he or she may have learned these traits from other sources.

  • Also,  if the applicant has stayed in urban areas outside his community for decades, the applicant may not know the facts
  • The court recognized that the test can be helpful, but it cannot be conclusive proof of caste or tribe status.

Significance of the ruling: The court’s ruling resolves conflicting views on the use of affinity tests to determine caste or tribe status.


Annual Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Report 2021-22

 Source: PIB

 Context: The Annual PLFS Report 2021-22 gives the estimated percentage distribution of workers at the All-India level in usual status by broad industry division as per National Industrial Classification (NIC) 2008.

Broad industry division as per NIC-2008Male






Trade, hotel & restaurant14.75.912.2


Agriculture has the highest estimated percentage distribution of female workers followed by manufacturing



  • PLFS was launched by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in 2017, to estimate the key employment and unemployment indicators (for example, LFPR, etc) in
    • A short time interval of 3 months for the urban areas only in the Current Weekly Status (CWS = 7 days preceding the date of the survey).
    • Both usual status and CWS in both rural and urban areas annually.
  • Key indicators of PLFS:
    • Activity Status: Activities pursued by the person during the specified reference period.
    • Usual Status: Determined on the basis of the reference period of the last 365 days preceding the date of the survey.
    • CWS


Govt steps to improve women’s labour force participation:

  • Enhancement in paid maternity leave from 12 weeks to 26 weeks.
  • Provision for mandatory crèche facility in establishments with 50 or more employees.
  • Permitting women workers in the night shifts with adequate safety measures.
  • The Equal Remuneration Act 1976 now subsumed in the Code on Wages, 2019 provides for no discrimination on the ground of gender.
  • Training through a network of Women Industrial Training institutes, National Vocational Training Institutes and Regional Vocational Training Institutes.


Berry borer infestation

 Source: Th

 Context: The Coffee Board has issued an advisory to coffee farmers to tackle the attack of berry borer in Robusta coffee plants.

What is Berry borer infestation?

Berry borer infestation is a common problem in coffee production. It is caused by a small beetle called the coffee berry borer, which lays its eggs inside coffee berries.

Measures to control it:

  • The berry borer-infested gleanings, leftover fruits, and off-season berries should be collected and disposed of by burning or burying them in the soil or disinfested by dipping them in boiling water to mitigate the attack in the next season
  • Brocca traps, an effective measure to control the berry borer population in coffee plantations, should be installed and backing irrigation should be provided for Robusta coffee plants.


About Coffee Board of India: 

Coffee Board of India (formed 1942; HQ: Bengaluru) is a statutory organisation managed by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the government of India to promote coffee production in India.


‘Pellet-beam’ propulsion

 Source: Sciencealtert

 Context: A new propulsion system concept called ‘pellet-beam’ propulsion has been proposed that could potentially beam a heavy spacecraft outside of our Solar System in less than 5 years.

What is a propulsion system?

A propulsion system is a machine that produces thrust to push an object forward. E.g., the burning of chemical fuel gives thrust for rocket engines to go into orbit

Working of ‘Pellet-beam’ propulsion?

It involves beaming tiny microscopic pellets at a spacecraft to propel it through space, instead of using traditional chemical-fuelled rockets. The propulsion system requires two spacecraft:

Spacecraft 1Spacecraft 2
Goes into orbit around EarthSets off for interstellar space
It will shoot a beam of tiny microscopic particles at the interstellar spacecraft, which would be heated up by lasers, causing part of them to melt into plasma that accelerates the pellets further, a process known as laser ablationThe heated pellets could reach 120 km/second and either hit the sail of the interstellar spacecraft or repel a magnet within it, helping to propel the spacecraft to huge speeds

The pellet-beam concept was partly inspired by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative, which is working on a ‘light-sail’ propulsion system.

NASA is developing bimodal nuclear propulsion – a two-part system consisting of Nuclear Thermal and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NTP and NEP element; therefore ‘bimodal’) – that could enable transits to Mars in just 45 days


Source: TH

Context: A team of marine biologists (working in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands) have stumbled upon a piece of rock (Plastiglomerate) made from plastic from a beach on Aves Island.

  • This is the first such find from India.

What is plastiglomerate?

It is a rock composed of sand, rock fragments, shells and other materials held together by plastic. It is a new form of plastic pollution, which scientists described in 2014.

  • Laboratory analysis showed that it was made of two very commonly used plastic polymers, polyethene and polyvinyl chloride

About Aves Island:

Aves Island is an island of the Andaman Islands. It belongs to the North and Middle Andaman administrative district, part of the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The island lies 140 km north of Port Blair

 According to the 2011 Census, there are just two people on Aves Island. Both are male.


Marine protected areas (MPA)

 Source: DTE

 Context: India will continue to support setting up two Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Antarctica to protect marine life and its ecosystem services.


  • The Southern Ocean that encircles Antarctica covers around 10% of the global ocean and is home to nearly 10,000 unique polar species.
  • Climate change and commercial fishing are altering habitats such as sea ice and the sheltered seafloor under ice shelves that are home to a variety of species.

International efforts to protect marine ecosystem:

  • Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) is an intergovernmental body set up in 1982 to conserve Antarctic marine life.
  • The UN 30×30 Framework (reached at the COP15 to the CBD in 2022) aims to protect 30% of the world’s land and sea.
  • The Southern Ocean has 2 MPAs – one in the southern shelf of the South Orkney Islands and the other in the Ross Sea – protecting only 5% of the ocean.


MPAs in India:

  • MPA is a defined region managed for the long-term conservation of marine resources, ecosystem services or cultural heritage.
  • There are a total of 31 major MPAs in India (as of Feb 2022) covering coastal areas that have been notified under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.


Scholarship and Fellowship Scheme to protect folk song artists

 Source: PIB

 Context: The Ministry of Culture is implementing a Scheme by the name of ‘Scheme of Scholarship and Fellowship for Promotion of Art and Culture’ to protect all genres of artists including folk song artists.

 The scheme has three components:

  • Award of Scholarships to Young Artists (SYA) (a Scholarship of Rs.5000/- per month)
  • Award of Senior/Junior Fellowships for cultural research
  • Award of Tagore National Fellowship for cultural research.

 What is folk art?

Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. It is produced from an indigenous culture and is characterized by a native style, in which customary rules of proportion and perspective are not employed.


Conservation Plan for Great Indian Bustards

 Source: PIB

 Context: Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change has taken various measures for the Conservation and protection of Great Indian Bustards

  • Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Species Recovery under the Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
  • Conservation Breeding: E.g., Desert National Park at Jaisalmer
  • Establishment of a Satellite conservation breeding Facility at Sam, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan.
  • In-situ Conservation Proposal by Rajasthan government
  • Consideration of funding support from State plan and/or State CAMPA funds.
  • Project Great Indian Bustard
  • National Bustard Recovery Plans




TH: Affinity test cannot be the litmus test to decide a caste claim: SC (also see today’s CA)



TH: The cost of insurance-based funding

TH: Universal basic income of ₹1,000 to be directly credited into women beneficiaries’ bank accounts (also see today’s CA)


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