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Technology and Innovation Report 2023

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Awareness of Science and Technology


Source: UN News


Context: The Technology and Innovation Report 2023 was recently released by UNCTAD.

  • It highlights the opportunities that green innovation – goods and services with smaller carbon footprints offer developing countries to spur economic growth and enhance technological capacities.


Key Highlights from the report:

  • The report analyses the market size of 17 green and frontier technologies, such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and electric vehicles, and their potential to create jobs.
  • Widening North-South Divide: While countries in the EU reach a Research & Development expenditure of 3% of GDP, only a few developing countries reach 1% of GDP expenditure.
  • Most countries have increased their climate-change-related, green official development assistance (ODA).
  • Within the UN system, Global Environmental Facility (GEF) is the largest public sector funding source for transferring Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs).


India’s ranking:

  • India remains the greatest overperformer ranking at 67 positions better than expected, followed by the Philippines (54 positions better) and Viet Nam (44 better).


Key recommendations:

  • UNCTAD calls on their governments and business communities to invest in more complex and greener sectors, boost technical skills and scale up investmentsin the technology infrastructure needed to grow green industries.


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Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy