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EDITORIAL ANALYSIS : An objective look at a China-led framework


Source: The Hindu


  • Prelims: Current events of international importance(BRI, GSI, Regional forums, G20, G7, SCO, EEZ etc
  • Mains GS Paper II: Bilateral, regional and global grouping involving India or affecting India’s interests, BRI and issues associated with it etc



  • The Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs highlighted the recently unveiled Global Security Initiative (GSI) Concept Paper.




Global Security Initiative (GSI):

  • It is a China-led framework that seeks to restore stability and security, particularly in Asia.
  • Five major pillars to effectively implement the GSI, i.e.
    • mutual respect
    • openness and inclusion
    • multilateralism
    • mutual benefit
    • holistic approach.
  • It would oppose unilateralism, and say no to group politics and bloc confrontation.
  • This initiative would oppose the wanton use of unilateral sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction.


Key Principles:

  • This initiative would build an Asian security model of mutual respect, openness and integration.
  • It would oppose the destruction of the international order under the banner of so-called rules.
  • It will also oppose the dragging of the world under the cloud of the new cold war.
  • This initiative will oppose the use of the Indo-Pacific strategy to divide the region and create a new Cold War, and the use of military alliances to put together an Asian version of NATO.


GSI Principles and Issues with the GSI:

  1. Need for countries to adhere to the United Nations Charter and international law while facilitating relations based on mutual trust and respect for each other’s sensitivities.
  • China has consistently demonstrated the exact opposite in terms of its relations with its neighbors.
  • Along its southwestern border, China continues to ensure that its relations with India are provocative by unilaterally disregarding confidence building measures and bilateral agreements
  • It has constantly undermined India’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • China is also increasing its assertive maneuvers in the South China Sea by greatly militarizing the disputed maritime territory at the expense of the sovereignty and the sovereign rights of its Southeast Asian neighbors.
  • Complete rejection of international law, particularly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), China continues to assertively intrude and block the access of its neighbors within their respective Exclusive Economic Zones.


  1. GSI lies in its openness to spearhead inclusive international engagements:
  • This position has been catalyzed by the presence of U.S. treaty alliances in the Western Pacific.
    • China continues to engage in exclusionary policies in the East and South China Seas.
    • Outright rejection of freedom of navigation enshrined in international law
    • It is also a display of narrowly defined interests to consolidate its sphere of influence in the region.


  1. Bilateral and multilateral security cooperation and consultations to address issues of concern with the parties involved.
  • Chinese Constraining members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations from pursuing collective actions against Beijing’s assertion.
  • China continues to delay the establishment of a crucial Code of Conduct for the South China Sea
  • It continues to bolster its military power projection in the disputed territory and indulge in various grey zone strategies.


  1. GSI’s prioritization of positive-sum cooperation, where parties involved can equally benefit.
  • It is its disregard for international macroeconomic stability by funding unsustainable projects for countries with low or non-existing credit ratings that creates more debt burdens for these countries.
    • China’s disregard for its neighbor’s sovereignty and sovereign rights
      • Example: China insisted on receiving a larger share in its bid for a joint exploration of resources with Manila in Philippine waters.
  1. Holistic approach towards traditional and non-traditional security threats, with an equal emphasis on eliminating any “breeding ground for insecurity”
  • The rise of China in a transitioning multipolar international system has resulted in power competitions with established and rising great powers (such as the U.S. and India, respectively)
  • Rather than being holistic, China’s engagements with these powers indicate a more narrowly defined goal for its power interests.
  • China continues to be a catalyst for insecurity in the non-traditional security realm
    • starting from its alleged lack of accountability regarding the COVID-19 pandemic to arming terror groups, such as in Myanmar.


Way Forward

  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative is a much-needed cooperative framework given the significant infrastructure deficit in the developing world.
  • China’s GSI is far from being a sustainable, equitable, and transparent solution to the growing insecurity that the world is facing, given an objective understanding of its track record in fulfilling its own principle requirements.
  • The GSI indicates Beijing’s attempt to counter U.S. leadership through narratives, regardless of whether it can effectively operationalise such initiatives on the ground.



Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. what importance does it hold for India.(UPSC 2021) (200 WORDS, 10 MARKS)